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t T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 














Printed in Great Britain 



De Lingua Latina, Text and Translation 

Book Vm. ...... 370 

Book IX. ....... 440 

BookX 534 

Fragments ...... 598 

Comparative Table of the Fragment Numbers 630 


Index of Authors and Works . . .631 

Index of Latin Words and Phrases . . 634 

Index of Greek Words .... 675 


VOL. n B 369 





I. 1. QuoM oratio natura tripartita esset, ut su- 
perioribus libris ostendi, cuius prima pars, quemad- 
modum vocabula rebus essent imposita, secunda, quo 
pacto de his declinata in discrimina iermt,^ tertia, ut 
ea inter se ratione coniuncta sententiam efFerant, 
prima parte exposita de secunda incipiam hinc. Ut 
propago omnis natura secunda, quod prius illud 
rectum, unde ea, sic declinata : itaque declinatur in 
verbis : rectum homo, obliquum hominis, quod de- 
clinatum a recto. 

§ 1. ^ Sciop.,/or ierunt. 

§ 1. " That is, bent aside and downward, from the vertical. 
The Greeks conceived the paradigm of the noun as the upper 
right quadrant of a circle : the nominative was the vertical 
radius, and the other cases were radii which ' declined ' to 
the right, and were therefore called irraxjeis ' fallings,' which 
the Romans translated literalh' by casus. The casus rectus 
is therefore a contradiction in itself. The Latin verb de- 




One Book of Arguments which are ad- 

Principle of Analogy 

I. 1. Speech is naturally di\ided into three parts, 
as I have shown in the previous books : its first part 
is how names were imposed upon things ; its second, 
in what way the derivatives of these names have 
arrived at their differences ; its third, how the words, 
when united with one another reasoningly, express an 
idea. Having set forth the first part, I shall from 
here begin upon the second. As every offshoot is 
secondary by nature, because that vertical trunk from 
which it comes is primary, and it is therefore 
declined " : so there is declension in words : homo 
' man ' is the vertical, hominis ' man's ' is the obHque, 
because it is declined from the vertical. 

clinare is used in the meanings ' to decline (a noun),' ' to 
conjugate (a verb),' and ' to derive ' in general, as well as 
' to bend aside and down ' in a literal physical sense : it 
therefore offers great difficulties in translating. 



2. De huiusce(modi)i multiplici natura disci'imi- 
num <ca>?/*ae^ sunt hae, cur et quo et quemadmodum 
in loquendo declinata sunt verba. De quibus duo 
prima duabus causis percurram breviter, quod et turn, 
cum de copia verborum scribam, erit retractandum et 
quod de tribus tertium quod est habet suas permultas 
ac magnas partes. 

II. 3. Declinatio inducta in sermones non solum 
Latinos, sed omnium hominum utili et necessaria de 
causa : nisi enim ita esset factum, neque di(s)cere^ 
tantum numerum verborum possemus (infinitae enim 
sunt naturae in quas ea declinantur) neque quae 
didicissemus, ex his, quae inter se rerum cognatio 
esset, appareret. At nunc ideo videmus, quod simile 
est, quod propagatum : legi <c>um (de lego)^ de- 
clinatum est, duo simul apparent, quodam modo 
eadem dici et non eodem tempore factum ; at* si 
verbi gratia alterum horum diceretur Priamus, alterum 
//ecuba, nullam unitatem adsignificaret, quae ap- 
paret in lego et legi et in Priamus Priamo. 

4. Ut in hominibus quaedam sunt agnationes ac^ 
gentilitates, sic in verbis : ut enim ab ^emilio homines 
orti ^emilii ac gentiles, sic ab ^iemilii nomine de- 
clinatae voces in gentilitate nominali : ab eo enim, 

§ 2. ^ Added by L. Sp. * L. Sp., for orae. 

§3. ^ Mite., for d'lcere ; cf. § 5. ' 08., for legium F ; 
cf. declinatum est ab lego Aug. from B, and last sentence of 
this section. ^ Mue., for ut. 

§ 4. ^ L. Sp., for ad. 

§ 2. " Cf. viii. 9 in quas. * That is, the collective 

§ 3. " The term ' inflection ' will be convenient oftentimes 
to express declinatio, including both declension of nouns and 
conjugation of verbs. 


2. From the manifold nature of this sort there 
are these causes of the differences : for what reason, 
and to what product," and in what way, in speaking, 
the words are dechned. The first two of these I shall 
pass over briefly, for two reasons : because there will 
have to be a rehandling of the topics when I write of 
the stock of words,* and because the third of them has 
numerous and extensive subdi\isions of its own. 

IL 3. Inflection <* has been introduced not only 
into Latin speech, but into the speech of all men, 
because it is useful and necessary ; for if this system 
had not developed, we could not learn such a great 
number of words as we should have — for the possible 
forms into which they are inflected are numerically 
unlimited — nor from those which we should have 
learned would it be clear what relationship existed 
between them so far as their meanings were con- 
cerned. But as it is, we do see, for the reason that 
that which is the offshoot bears a similarity to the 
original : when legi ' I have gathered ' is inflected 
from lego ' I gather,' two things are clear at the same 
time, namely that in some fashion the acts are said to 
be the same, and yet that their doing did not take 
place at the same time. But if, for the sake of a 
word, one of these two related ideas was called 
Priamus and the other Hecuba, there would be no 
indication of the unity of idea which is clear in lego 
and legi, and in nominative Priamus, dative Priamo. 

4. As among men there are certain kinships, either 
through the males or through the clan, so there are 
among words. For as from an Aemilius were sprung 
the men named Aemilius, and the clan-members of the 
name, so from the name of Aemilius were inflected 
the words in the noun-clan : for from that name which 



quod est impositum recto casu ^emilius, orta ^emilii, 
Jemilium, ^emilios, ^emiliorum et sic reliquae eius- 
dem quae sunt stirpis. 

5. Duo igitur omnino verborum principia, im- 
positio (et declinatio),^ alterum ut fons, alterum ut 
rivus. Impositicia nomina esse voluerunt quam 
paucissima, quo citius ediscere possent, declinata 
quam plurima, quo facilius omnes quibus ad usum 
opus essef* dicerent.' 

6. Ad illud genus, quod prius, historia opus est : 
nisi djscendo^ enim aliter id non^ pervenit ad nos ; ad 
reliquum genus, quod posterius, ars : ad quam opus 
est paucis praeceptis quae sunt brevia. Qua enim 
ratione in uno vocabulo declinare didiceris, in infinite 
numero nomiinum uti possis : itaque novis nominibus 
allatis^ {inY consuetudinem sine dubitatione eorum 
declinatus statim omnis dicit populus ; etiam novlcii 
servi empti in magna familia cito omnium conser- 
vorum <n>om(i>na* recto casu accepto in reliquos 
obliquos declinant. 

7. Qui s<i)i non numquam ofFendunt, non est 
mirum : et enim ilh'^ qui primi nomina imposuerunt 
rebus fortasse an in quibusdam sint lapsi : voluis(se) 
enim putant(ur)' singularis res notare, ut ex his in 
multitudine(m>* declinaretur, ab homine homines ; 

§ 5. ^ Added hy L. Sp., V, p. * Canal, for essent. 
' Ed. Veneta, for dicerentur. 

§ 6, ^ Stephanus, for descendendo. " For idum. 
' For allatius, * Added by Aug. * Aug., for omnes. 

§ 7. 1 Aldus, for quid. " Aldus, for ilia. » Ellis, 
for putant. , * -dinem H, for -dine F and other codd. 

§ 7. ° That is, in the singular. 


was imposed in the nominative case as Aemilius were 
made Aemilii, Aemilium, Aemilios, Aemiliorum, and in 
this way also all the other words which are of this 
same line. 

5. The origins of words are therefore two in num- 
ber, and no more : imposition and inflection ; the one 
is as it were the spring, the other the brook. Men 
have wished that imposed nouns should be as few as 
possible, that they might be able to learn them more 
quickly ; but derivative nouns they have ^\■ished to be 
as numerous as possible, that all might the more easily 
say those nouns which they needed to use. 

6. In connexion with the first class, a historical 
narrative is necessary, for except by outright learning 
such words do not reach us ; for the other class, the 
second, a grammatical treatment is necessary, and for 
this there is need of a few brief maxims. For the 
scheme by which you have learned to inflect in the 
instance of one noun, you can employ in a countless 
number of nouns : therefore when new nouns have 
been brought into common use, the whole people at 
once utters their declined forms without any hesita- 
tion. Moreover, those who have freshly become slaves 
and on purchase become members of a large house- 
hold, quickly inflect the names of all their fellow- 
slaves in the oblique cases, provided only they have 
heard the nominative. 

7. If they sometimes make mistakes, it is not 
astonishing. Even those who first imposed names 
upon things perhaps made some slips in some in- 
stances : for they are supposed to have desired to 
designate things individually," that from these inflec- 
tion might be made to indicate plurality, as homines 
' men ' from homo ' man.' They are supposed to have 



sic mares liberos voluisse notari, ut ex his feminae 
declinarentur, ut est ab Terentio Terentia ; sic in 
recto casu quas imponerent voces, ut illinc e sent 
futurae quo declinarentur : sed haec in omnibus 
tenere nequisse, quod et una(e> et <binae>» dicuntur 
scopae, et mas et femina aquila, et recto et obliquo 
vocabulo vis. 

8. Cur haec non tam si(n>ti in culpa quam putant, 
pleraque solvere non difficile, sed nunc non necesse : 
non enim qui potuerint adsequi sed qui voluerint, ad 
hoc quod propositum refert, quod nihilo minus* de- 
clinari potest ab eo quod imposuerunt' scopae scopa- 
<rum),* quam si imposuissent scopa, ab eo scopae, sic 

III. 9- Causa, inquam, cur ea*^ ab impositis 
nominibus declinarint, quam ostendi ; sequitur, in 
quas voluerinf declinari aut noluerint, ut generatim 
ac summatim item informem. Duo enim genera 
verborum, unum fecundum,' quod declinando multas 
ex se parit disparilis formas, ut est lego legi* legam, 

* Mette ; unae et duae A. Sp. ; unae Mve. ; for una et. 

§ 8. ^ Aug., with B, for sit. * For nichilominus. 
' For imposiuerunt. * Reitzenstein, for scopa. 

§ 9. ^ Laefns, M,for earn. * Laetus deleted declinarint 
after voluerint. ^ Rhol., for fcrundum. * />. Sp., for 
legis ; cf. § 3 end. 

^ The genitive. 


desired that male children be designated in such a 
way that from these the females might be indicated 
by inflection, as the feminine Terentia from the 
masculine Tereniivs ; and that similarly from the 
names which they set in the nominative case, there 
might be other forms to which they could arrive by 
inflection. But they are supposed to have been 
unable to hold fast to these principles in every- 
thing, because the plural form scopae denotes either 
one or two brooms, and aquila ' eagle ' denotes both 
the male and the female, and vis ' force ' is used 
for the nominative and for an oblique case ^ of 
the word. 

8. Why such words are not so much at fault as 
men think, it is in most instances not hard to explain, 
but it is not necessarv to do so at this time ; for it is 
not how they have been able to arrive at the words, 
but how they wished to express themselves, that is of 
import for the subject which is before us : inasmuch 
as genitive scoparum can be no less easily derived from 
the plural scopae which they did impose on the object 
as its name, than if they had given it the name scopa 
in the singular, and made the genitive scopae from 
this — and other words Uke^^■ise. 

in. 9- The reason, I say, why they made these 
inflected forms ° from the names which they had set 
upon things, is that which I have shown ; the next 
point is for me to sketch by classes, but briefly, the 
forms " at which they have wished to arrive by inflec- 
tion, or have not wished to arrive. For there are two 
classes of words, one fruitful, which by inflection pro- 
duces from itself many different forms, as for example 
lego ' I gather,' legi ' I have gathered,' legam ' I shall 

§ 9. " Understand voces with eas and with qnas. 



sic alia, alterum genus sterile, quod ex se parit nihil,* 
ut est et iam* vix era*' magis cur. 

10. Quarum rerum usus erat simplex, (simplex)^ 
ibi etiam vocabuli declinatus, ut in qua domo unus 
servus, uno servili op?<st^ nomine, in qua' multi, pluri- 
bus. Igitur et in his rebus quae* sunt nomina, quod 
discrimina vocis plura, propagines plures, et in his 
rebus quae copulae sunt ac iungunt* verba, quod non 
opus fuit declinari in plura, fere singula sunt : uno 
enim loro alligare possis vel hominem vel equum vel 
aliud quod, quicquid est quod cum altero potest 
colligari. Sic quod dicimus in loquendo " Consul fuit 
Tullius et Antonius," eodem illo ' et ' omnis binos 
consules colligore^ possumus, vel dicam amplius, 
omnia nomina, atque «deo' etiam omnia verba, cum 
fulmenturw* ex una syllaba illud ' et ' maneat unum, 
Quare duce natura (factum >s/,* quae imposita essent 
vocabula rebus, ne ab omnibus his declina^us^" puta- 

IV. 11. Quorum^ generum declinationes oriantur, 
partes orationis sunt duae, <ni)si* item ut Dion in 
tris diviserimus partes res quae verbis significantur : 

' For nichil. * GS., for etiam. ' L. Sp., for vixerat ; 
cf. vix magis eras Aug., with B. 

§ 10. ^ Added by Sciop. ' servili L. Sp., opust Sciop., 
for seruilio post. * B,for quam. * L. Sp.,for quorum. 

* Mue., for iunguntur. * Avg., for colligere. ' Sciop., 
for ideo. * Miie., for fulmen tunc. * L. Sp., for si. 
^" Laetus, for declinandus. ^^ Fay, for putarent. 

§11. ^ Laetus, for c\uar\im. ' Roehrscheidt, for si. 

* The invariable and indeclinable words. 

§ 10. " Cf. the Marcipor ' Marcus' boy,' of earlier times. 

* In 63 B.C. ; the example compliments Cicero, to whom the 
work is addressed. ' That is, we should expect some %vords 
to be invariable and uninflected. 



gather,' and similarly other words ; and a second 
class which is barren,* which produces nothing from 
itself, as for example et ' and,' iatn ' now,' vix ' hardly,' 
eras ' to-morrow,' magis ' more,' cur 'why.' 

10. In those things whose use was simple, the 
inflection of the name also was simple ; just as in a 
house where there is only one slave there is need of 
only one slave-name," but in a house where there are 
many slaves there is need of many such names. There- 
fore also in those things which are names, because the 
differentiations of the word are several, there are more 
offshoots, and in those things which are connectives 
and join words, because there was no need for them 
to be inflected into several forms, the words generally 
have but one form : for with one and the same thong 
you can fasten a man or a horse or anything else, 
whatever it is, which can be fastened to something 
else. Thus, for example, we say in our talking, 
" Tullius et ' and ' Antonius were consuls " * : with 
that same et we can link together any set of two con- 
suls, or — to put it more strongly — any and all names, 
and even all words, while all the time that one-syllabled 
prop-word et remains unchanged. Therefore under 
nature's guidance it has come about that we should 
not think that there are inflected forms from all these 
names which have been set upon things.'' 

IV. 11. In the word-classes in which inflections 
may develop, the parts of speech are two, unless, 
following Dion," we divide into three divisions the 
ideas which are indicated by words : one division 

§11. "An Academic philosopher of Alexandria, who 
headed an embassy to Rome in 56 to seek help against the 
exiled king Ptolemy Auletes, and was there poisoned by the 
king's agents. 



unam' quae adsignificat ca^us,* alteram^ quae tem- 
pera, tertia<m)^ quae neutrum. De his Aristoteles 
orationis duas partes esse dicit : vocabula et verba, 
ut homo et equus, et legit et currit. 

12. Utriusque generis, et vocabuU et verbi, quae- 
dam priora, quaedam posteriora ; priora ut homo, 
scribit, posteriora ut doctus et docte : dicitur enim 
homo doctus et scribit docte. Haec sequitur locus et 
tempus, quod neque homo nee scribi<t>^ potest sine 
loco et tempore esse, ita ut magis sit locus homini 
coniunctus, tempus scriptioni. 

13. Cum de his nomen sit primum (prius enim 
nomen est quam verbum temporale et reliqua pos- 
terius quam nomen et verbum), prima igitur nomina : 
quare de eorum declinatione quam de verborum ante 

V. 14. Nomina declinantur aut in earum rerum 
discrimina, quarum nomina sunt, ut ab Terentius 
Terenti(a),^ aut in ea(s)2 res extrinsecus, quarum ea 
nomina non sunt, ut ab equo equiso. In sua dis- 
crimina declinantur aut propter ipsius rei naturam de 

* B, for unum. * Laetus, for capus. ® Laetus, B, for 
alterum. * Mue., for tertia. 

§ 12. ^ B, H, Laetus, for scribi. 

§ 14. ^ Reitzenstein, for Terenti ; cf. ix. 55, 59. ^ V, 
p, Laetus, for ea. 

* A division into nouns, verbs, and convinrtiones went back 
to Aristotle, according to Quintilian, Inst. Oral. i. 4. 18 {cf. 
also Priscian, ii. 34. 5 Keil) ; but more detailed classifications 
of the parts- of speech had also been made before Varro's 
time. ' Rhet. iii. 2 ; but cf. preceding note. 

§ 12. " That is, grammatically subordinate in the phrase. 
§ 13. " Since verbum means both ' word ' in general, and 



which indicates also case, a second which indicates 
also time, a third which indicates neither.* Of these, 
Aristotle '^ says that there are two parts of speech ; 
nouns, Uke homo ' man ' and equus ' horse,' and verbs, 
hke legit ' gathers ' and currit ' runs.' 

12. Of the two kinds, noun and verb, certain 
words are primary and certain are secondary ° : 
primary Uke homo ' man ' and scribit ' MTites,' and 
secondary Uke doctus ' learned ' and docte ' learnedly,' 
for we say homo doctus ' a learned man ' and scribit 
docte ' writes learnedly.' These ideas are attended 
by those of place and time, because neither hofno nor 
scribit can be asserted without the presupposition of 
place and of time — yet in such a way that place is 
more closely associated with the idea of the noun 
homo, and time more closely with the act of ^\Titing. 

13. Since among these the noun is first — for the 
noun comes ahead of the verb," and the other words 
stand later relatively to the noun and the verb — the 
nouns are accordingly first. Therefore I shall speak 
of the form-variations ^ of nouns before I take up 
those of verbs. 

V. 14. Nouns are varied in form either to show 
differences in those things of which they are the 
names, as the woman's name Terentia from the man's 
name Terentius, or to denote those things outside, of 
which they are not the names, as equiso ' stable-boy ' 
from equus ' horse.' To show differences in them- 
selves they are varied in form either on account of the 
nature of the thing itself about which mention is 

' verb ' specifically, Varro here writes verbum temporale to 
avoid any ambiguitj'. * Declinatio denotes not only de- 
clension, but conjugation of verbs, derivation by prefixes 
and suffixes, and composition. 



qua' dicitur aut propter illius <usum>* qui dicit. 
Propter ipsius rei discrimina, aut ab toto (aut a parte. 
Quae a toto, declinata sunt aut propter multitudinem 
aut propter exiguitatem. Propter exiguitatem),^ ut 
ab honiine homunculus, ab capite capitulum ; propter 
multitudinem, ut ab honiine homines ; ab eo (abeo)* 
quod alii dicunt cervices et id Hortensius in poematis 

15. Quae a parte* declinata, aut a corpore, ut a 
mamma mammosae, a manu manubria, aut ab animo, 
ut a prudentia pruden<te>s,* ab ingenio ingeniosi. 
Haec sine agitationibus ; at ubi motus maiores, item 
ab animo (aut a corpore),* ut ab strenuitate et nobili- 
tate strenui et nobiles, sic a pugnando et currendo 
pugiles et cursores. Ut aliae declinationes ab animo, 
aliae a corpore, sic aliae quae extra hominem, ut 
pecuniosi, agrarii, quod foris pecunia et ager. 

VI. 16. Propter eorum qui dicunt usum* dechnati 
casus, uti is qui de altero diceret, distinguere posset, 

' Vertranius,/or quo. * Added by GS., following Reitzen- 
stein, who added it after dicit. * Added by Reitzenstein ; 

aut a parte, ab toto added by L. Sp., after Aug., who 
added aut a parte, a toto, suggested to him by B aut a parte 
aut ab animo. a toto. • Added by Fay. 

§ 15. * For aperte. * L. Sp.,/or prudens. ' Added 
by L. Sp. 

§16. ^ F<?r<ranii«, /or dicuntur sum. 

§ 1-t. ' That is, syntactical variations, indicated by the 
case-forms. " Other categories resulting in variations 
might have been listed. ' Frag. Poet. Lat., page 9 1 Morel. 
** As did also Ennius and Pacuvius, before Hortensius ; the 
plural was the only regularly used form, outside the poets. 

§ 15. " We expect rather a plural adjective meaning ' big- 
handed.' * The long abstract nouns are of course derived 
from the adjectives. * Or perhaps in the original meaning 
' farmers.' 


made, or on account of the use to which the speaker 
puts the word." On account of differences in the 
thing itself, the variation is made either \vith reference 
to the whole thing, or with reference to a part of it. 
Those forms which concern the whole are derived 
either on account of pluraUty or on account of small- 
ness.*" On account of smallness, homunculus ' mani- 
kin ' is formed from homo ' man,' and capitulum ' Uttle 
head ' from caput ' head.' On account of plurality, 
homines ' men ' is made from homo ' man ' ; I pass by 
the fact that others use cervices ' back of the neck ' in 
the plural, and Hortensius <^ in his poems uses it in the 
■^ingular cervix.^ 

15. Those which are derived from a part, come 
either from the body, as mammosae ' big-breasted 
women ' from mamma ' breast ' and manuhria " 
' handles ' from manus ' hand,' or from the mind, as 
prudentes ' prudent men ' from prudentia ' prudence ' 
and ingeniosi ' men of talent ' from ingenium ' innate 
ability.' The preceding are quite apart from move- 
ments : but where there are important motions, the 
derivatives are similarly from the mind or from the 
body, as strenui ' the quick ' and nobiles ' the noble,' 
from strenuitas ' quickness ' and nohilitas ' nobility,' * 
and in this way also pugiles ' boxers ' and cur sores 
' runners ' from pugnare ' to fight ' and currere ' to 
run.' As some derivations are from the mind and 
others from the body, so also there are others which 
refer to external things, as pecuniosi ' moneyed men ' 
and agrarii "^ ' advocates of agrarian laws,' because 
pecunia ' money ' and ager ' field-land ' are exterior to 
the men to whom the derivatives are appUed. 

VL 16. It was for the use of the speakers that the 
case-forms were derived, that he who sp>oke of another 



cum vocaret, cum daret, cum accusaret, sic alia 
eiusdem (modi)^ discrimina, quae nos et Graecos ad 
declinandum duxerunt. Sine* controversia (sunt 
obliqui, qui nascuntur a recto : unde rectus an sit 
casus)* sunt qui quae(rant. Nos vero sex habemus, 
Graeci quinque) * : quis vocetur, ut //ercules ; quem- 
admodum vocetur, ut //ercule ; quo vocetur, ut ad 
//erculem ; a quo vocetur, ut ab //ercule ; cui voce- 
tur, ut //erculi ; cuius vocetur, ut //erculis. 

VII. 17. Propter ea verba quae erant proinde ac 
cognomina, ut prudens, candidus, strenuus, quod in 
his praeterea sunt discrimina propter incrementum, 
quod maius aut minus in his esse potest, accessit 
declinationum genus, ut a candido candidius candi- 
dissimum sic a longo, divite, id genus ahis ut fieret. 

18. Quae in eas res quae extrinsecus declinantur, 
sunt ab equo equile, ab ovibus ovile, sic alia : haec 
contraria illis quae supra dicta, ut a pecunia pecunio- 

^ Added by Mtie. ^ For sinae. * Added by Schoell 
apud GS. ; cf. note b. 

§ 16. " Vocative, dative, accusative cases ; the accusative 
was in Latin a poorly named case, through a mistranslation 
of its Greek name. * The only controversy was whether 

or not the nominative was to be called a case, and the 
text must be expanded to conform to this basic fact ; cf. 
Charisius, i. 154. 6-8 Keil, Priscian, ii. 185. 12-14 Keil, etc. 
Cf. viii. 1 note a, above. " The Greeks had no ablative 

§ 17. " Nowhere recorded as a cognomen, despite Varro. 
*" Recorded as a cognomen in the Claudian and the Julian 
gentes, and in several others. " Not recorded as a cog- 
nomen. ■* Namely, comparison of adjectives. ' For 
such cognomina, cf. Fulvitis Nobilior and Fabius Maximus. 
' i.e., adjectives. 


might be able to make a distinction when he was 
calling, when he was giving, when he was accusing," 
and other differences of this same sort, which led us as 
well as the Greeks to the declension of nouns. The 
oblique forms which develop from the nominative are 
without dispute to be called cases ; but there are 
those who question whether the nominative is properly 
a case.^ At any rate, we have six forms, and the 
Greeks five "^ : he who is called, as (nominative) Her- 
cules ; how the calling is done, as (vocative) Hercule ; 
whither there is a calling, as to (accusative) Herculem ; 
by whom the calling is done, as by (ablative) Hercule ; 
to or for whom there is a calling, as to or for (dative) 
Herculi ; of whom the calling or called object is, as of 
(genitive) Herculis. 

Vn. 17. There are certain words which are like 
added family names, such as Prudens " ' prudent,' 
Candidus ^ ' frank,' Strenuus " ' brisk,' and in them 
differences may be shown by a suffix, since the quality 
may be present in them to a greater or a smaller 
degree : therefore to these words a kind of inflection ** 
is attached, so that from candidum ' shining white 
comes the comparative candidius and the superlative 
candidissimum,^ formed in the same way as similar 
forms from longum ' long,' dives ' rich,* and other 
words of this kind.^ 

18. The terms which are derived for application 
to exterior objects, are for example equile ' horse- 
stable ' from equus ' horse,' ovile ' sheepfold ' from 
oves ' sheep,' and others in this same way ; these are 
the opposite of those which I mentioned above," such 

§ 18. " Here, objects named by derivation from living 

beings ; in § 15, living beings named by derivation from 
inanimate objects. 

VOL. II c 385 


sus, ab urbe urbanus, ab atro atratus : ut nonnunquam 
ab homine locus, ab eo loco homo, ut ab Romulo 
Roma, ab Roma Romanus. 

19. Aliquot modis declinata ea quae foris : nam 
aliter qui a maioribus suis, Laton(i>usi et Priamidae, 
aliter quae (a)^ facto, ut a praedando praeda, a 
merendo merces ; sic alia sunt, quae circum ire non 
difficile ; sed quod genus iam videtur et alia urgent, 

VIII. 20. In verborum genere quae tempora ad- 
significant, quod ea erant tria, praeteritum, praesens, 
futurum, declinatio facienda fuit triplex, ut ab saluto 
salutabam, salutabo ; cum item personarum natura 
triplex asset, qui loqueretur, <ad quem),i de quo, haec 
ab eodem verbo declinata, quae in copia verborum 

IX. 21. Quoniam dictum de duobus, declinatio^ 
cur et in qua(s)2 sit fac^a,* tertium quod relinquitur, 

§ 19. ^ p, Laetus, for latonus F. 'Added by Aug., 
with B. 

§ 20. ^ Added by Laetus after de quo, and transferred to 
this position by Mite. 

§ 21. ^ Mue., for duabus declinationibus. * Kent, for 
qua ; cf. in quas viii. 9. ^ A. 8p.,for fama. 

'' Romulus is derived from Rama, not the reverse, as Varro 
has it. 

§ 19. " Apollo ; but oftener Latonia (fem.), Diana. 
* Especially Hector, Paris, Helenus, Deiphobus. " Cf. v. 44. 

§ 20. ° That is, verbs. 



as pecuniosiis ' moneyed man ' from pecunia ' money,' 
urbanus ' city man ' from vrbs ' city,' atratus ' clad in 
mourning ' from atrutn ' black.' Thus sometimes a 
place is named from a man, and then a man from this 
place, as Rome from Romulus ^ and then Roman 
from Rome. 

19. The nouns which relate to exterior objects are 
derived in sundry ways : those like Latonius ' Latona's 
child ' " and Priamidae ' Priam's sons,' ^ which are 
derived from the names of their progenitors, are 
formed in one way, and those which come from an 
action are made in another way, such as praeda 
' booty ' from praedari ' to pillage ' and merces ' wages ' " 
from mereri ' to earn.' In the same way there are 
still others, which can be enumerated \\ithout diffi- 
culty ; but because this category of words is now 
clear to the understanding and other matters press 
for attention, I pass them by. 

VIIL 20. Inasmuch as in the class of words which 
indicate also time-ideas " there were these three 
time-ideas, past, present, and future, there had to be 
three sets of derived forms, as from the present saluto 
' I salute ' there are the past salutabam and the future 
salutabo. Since the persons of the verb were likewise 
of three natures, the one who was speaking, the one 
to whom the speaking was done, and the one about 
whom the speaking took place, there are these deriva- 
tive forms of each and every verb ; and these forms 
\\\\\ be expounded in the account of the stock of verbs 
which is in use. 

IX. 21 . Since two points have been discussed, why 
derivation exists and to what products it eventuates, 
the remaining third point shall now be spoken of, 
namely, how and in what manner derivation takes 



quemadmodum,nuncdic^tur.* Declinationum genera 
sunt duo, voluntarium et naturale ; voluntarium est, 
quo ut cuiusque tulit voluntas declinavit. Sic tres 
cum emerunt Ephesi singulos servos, nonnunquam 
alius declinat nomen ab eo qui vendit Artemidorus, 
atque Artemam appellat, alius a regione quod ibi 
emit, ab Ion<i>a* lona,* alius quod Ephesi Ephesium, 
sic alius ab alia aliqua re, ut visum est. 

22. Contra naturalem declinationem dico, quae 
non a singulorum oritur voluntate, sed a com(m>uni 
consensu. Itaque omnes impositis nominibus eorum 
item declinant casus atque eodem modo dicunt huius 
Artemidori^ et huius lonis et huius Ephesi,* sic in 
casibus aliis. 

23. Cum utrumque nonnunquam accidat, et ut in 
voluntaria declinatione animadvertatur natura et in 
naturali voluntas, quae, cuiusmodi sint, aperientur 
infra ; quod utraque declinatione alia fiunt similia, 
alia dissimilia, de eo Graeci Latinique libros fecerunt 
multos, partim cum alii putarent in loquendo ea verba 
sequi oportere, quae ab similibus similiter essent 
declinata, quas appellarunt avaAoytas,^ alii cum id 

* Ang., for dicitur. * Laetus, for lona. * Miie., for 

§ 22. ^ Apparently Varro's oion slip for Artemae. 

* RfioL, for Ephesis. 

§ 23. ^ For analogiias. 

§21. " This term includes both word-formation and word- 
inflection. * Practically equal to subjective and objective. 

* A common type of hypocoristic or nickname, cf. Demas 
from Democritus and similar names, Hippias from Hip- 
parchus, etc. 

§ 22. " This is inflection. * Specifically, declension. 
§23. ' Cf. viii. 15-16, 51. " Cf. page 118 Funaioli. 



place. There are two kinds of derivation," voluntary 
and natural.* V'oluntary derivation is that which is 
the product of the individual person's volition, direct- 
ing itself apart from control by others. So, when 
three men have bought a slave apiece at Ephesus, 
sometimes one derives his slave's name from that of 
the seller Artemidorus and calls him Artemas " ; 
another names his slave Ion, from Ionia the district, 
because he has bought him there ; the third calls his 
slave Ephesius, because he has bought him at Ephesus. 
In this wav each derives the name from a different 
source, as he preferred. 

22. On the other hand I call that derivation 
natural, which is based not on the vohtion of indivi- 
duals acting singly, but on general agreement." So, 
when the names have been fixed, they derive the 
case-forms of them in Uke fashion,* and in one and the 
same way they all say in the genitive case Artemidori, 
lonis, Ephesi ; and so on in the other cases. 

23. Sometimes both are found together, and in 
such a way that in the voluntary derivation the pro- 
cesses of nature are noted, and in the natural deriva- 
tion the effects of volition ; of what sort these are, 
will be recounted below.» Since in the two kinds of 
derivation some things approach hkeness and others 
become unUke, the Greeks and the Latins * have 
\vTitten many books on the subject : in some of them 
certain writers express the idea that in speaking men 
ought to follow those words and forms which are 
derived in similar fashion from like starting-points — 
which they called the products of Analogy « ; and 

« The regularizing principle which tends to eliminate irre- 
gular forms of less frequent occurrence, still called Analogy, 
by scientific linguists, 



neglegendum putarent ac potius sequendam (dis)- 
similitudinem,* quae in consuetudine est, quam 
vocaruw^* d(i'>oi/xuAtai/ ,* cum, ut ego arbitror, utrum- 
que sit nobis sequendum, quod (in) * declinatione 
voluntaria sit anomalia, in naturali magis analogia. 

24«. De quibus utriusque generis declinationibus 
libros faciam bis ternos, prioris tris de earum declina- 
tionum disciplina, posteriores de^ eius disciplinae 
propaginibus. De prioribus primus erit hie, quae 
contra similitudinem declinationum dicantur, secun- 
dus, quae contra dissimilitudinem, tertius de simili- 
tudinum forma ; de quibus quae experfiero^ singulis 
tribus, turn de alteris totidem scribere ac dividere' 

X. 25. Quod huiusce^ libri est dicere contra eos 
qui similitudinem sequuntur, quae est ut in aetate 
puer ad senem, (puella)^ ad anum, in verbis ut est 
scribo scribam,* dicam prius contra universam ana- 
logiam, dein turn de singulis partibus. A natura 
sermo(nis>* incipiam. 

XI. 26. Omnis oratio cum debeat dirigi ad utili- 
tatem, ad quam tum denique pervenit, si est aperta 

* Aug., with B, for similitudinem. ' For vocarum. 

* Aldus, for AtoMAeNAN. ^ Added by Aug. 

§ 24. ^ L. Sp.,for ex. * Mue. ; expedierint Aug. ; for 
experiero. * L. Sp. deleted incipimus after dividere. 

§ 25. ^ For huiuscae. * Added by Aldus. ' L. Sp. 
deleted dico after scribam. * Aug., for sermo. 

'' The irregularities summed up in this term are the products 
of the regular working of phonetic law,' unrestrained by the 
operation of Analogy ; the term Anomaly names it from 
the product rather than from the working process. * It 

seems better henceforth to translate analogia by Regularity 
or the like, rather than to keep the word Analogy. 



others are of opinion that this should be disregarded 
and rather men should follow the dissimilar and 
irregular, which is found in ordinary habitual speech 
— which they called the product of Anomaly .•* But 
in my opinion we ought to follow both, because in 
voluntary derivation there is Anomaly, and in the 
natural derivation there is even more strikingly 

24-. About these two kinds of derivation I shall 
write two sets of three books each : the first three 
about the principles of these derivations, and the 
latter set about the products of these principles. In 
the former set the first book will contain the \-iews 
which may be offered against likeness in derivation 
and declension ; the second will contain the argu- 
ments against unlikeness ; the third >vill be about the 
shape and manner of the likenesses. What I have 
set in order on these topics, I shall write in the three 
separate books ; then on the second set of topics I 
shall begin to write, with due division into the same 
number of books. 

X. 25. Inasmuch as it is the task of this book to 
speak against those who follow likeness " — which is 
like the relation of boy to old man in the matter of 
human Ufe, and like that of girl to old woman, and in 
verbs is the relation of scribo ' I wTite ' and scribam ' I 
shall write ' — I shall speak first against Regularity in 
general, and then thereafter concerning its several 
subdivisions. I shall begin with the nature of human 

XI. 26. All speaking ought to be aimed at 
practical utiUty, and it attains this only if it is clear 

§ 25. " That is, regularity of paradigms resulting from 
the process of Analogy. 



et brevis, quae petimus, quod obscurus' et longi(or>* 
orator est odio ; et cum efficiat aperta, ut intellegatur, 
brevis, wt' cito intellegatur, et aperta(m>* consuetudo, 
brevem temperantia loquentis, et utrumque fieri 
possit sine analogia, nihil^ ea opus est. Neque enim, 
utrum Herculi an Herculis clavam dici oporteat, si 
doceat analogia, cum utrumque sit in consuetudine, 
non neglegendum,* quod aeque sunt et brevi(a> et 

XII. 27. Praeterea quoius^ utilitatis causa quae- 
que res sit inventa, si ex ea quis id sit consecutus, 
amplius ea(m>2 scrutari cum sit nimium otiosi, et cum 
utilitatis causa verba ideo sint imposita rebus ut 
ea<s)' significent, si id consequimur una consuetudine, 
nihil* prodest analogia. 

XIII. 28. Accedit^ quod quaecumque usus causa 
ad vitam sint assumpta, in his no(strumst)'' utilitatem 
quaerere, non similitudinem : itaque in vestitu cum 
dissimillima sit virilis toga tunica(e>,' muliebri<s)* 
stola pallio, tamen inaequabilitatem hanc sequi/«ur* 
nihilo* minus. 

XIV. 29. In «edificiis, quo?7«^ non videamus habere 

§ 26. ^ Aldus, for obscurum. * GS., for longi {Aldus 
longus). ^ Aldus, for et. * Aup., for aperta.. ^ For 
nichil. * Aug. deleted sunt after neglegendum. 

§27. ^ Mue., for quod ius. ^ Aug., for ea. ^ Ver- 
tranius, for ea. * For nichil. 

§28. ^ Aldus, for accidii. ^ Fay,fornon. ^ Laetus, 
for tunica. > * Cuper, for muliebri. * Aug., with B,for 
sequitur. * For nichilo. 

§ 29. ^ Mue. ; quod quom L. Sp. ; for quod. 



and brief : characteristics which we seek, because 
an obscure and longish speaker is disliked. And 
since clear speaking causes the utterance to be 
understood, and brief speaking causes it to be under- 
stood quickly, and since also habitual use makes the 
utterance clear and the speaker's self-restraint makes 
it brief, and both these can be present Avithout Regu- 
larity, there is no need of this Regularity. For if 
Regularity should instruct us whether we ought to 
say Herculi " or Hercidis for the genitive, as in the 
phrase ' the club of Hercules,' we must not fail to 
disregard its teaching, since both are in habitual use, 
and both forms are equally short and clear. 

XII. 27. Besides, if from a thing one has secured 
that useful serxice for which it was invented, it is the 
act of a person with a great deal of idle time, to 
examine it further ; and since the useful ser\ice for 
which names are set upon things is that the names 
should designate the things, then if we secure this 
result by habitual use alone. Regularity adds no gain. 

XIII. 28. There is the additional fact that in 
those things which are taken into our daily Ufe for 
use, it is our practice to seek utiUty and not to seek 
resemblance ; thus in the matter of clothing, although 
a man's toga " is very unlike his tunic,* and a woman's 
stola '^ is very unlike a palUum,'^ we make no objection 
to the difference. 

XIV. 29. In the case of buildings, although we do 

§ 26. " This form occurs in Plautus, Persa 2, Rudens 822, 
and in other authors. 

§ 28. " The formal outer garment of a Roman man. 
* A shirt or undergarment. ' The dress of a Roman 

matron. ■* The long outer garment of the Greeks, properly 
a man's garb only, but worn also by prostitutes both in 
Greece and in Italy as a sign of their livelihood. 


(ad)" atrium Trepta-TvXoi'^ similitudinem et cubiculum 
ad equile,* tamen propter utilitatem in his dissimili- 
tudines potius quam similitudines sequtmur^ : itaque 
et hiberna triclinia et «estiva non item valvata ac 
fenestrata facimus. 

XV. 30. Quare cum, wt^ in vestitu aedificiis, sic in 
supellectile cibo ceterisque omnibus quae usus (causa) " 
ad vitam sunt assumpta dominetur inaequabilitas, in 
sermone quoque, qui est usus causa constitutus, ea 
non repudianda. 

XVI. 31. Quod si quis duplicem putat esse sum- 
mam, ad quas metas^ naturae sit perveniendumin usu, 
utilitatis et elegantiae, quod non solum vestiti esse 
vol umus ut vitemus frigus, sed etiam ut videamur vestiti 
esse honeste, non domum habere ut simus in tecto et 
tuto solum, quo^ necessitas contruserit, sed etiam ubi 
voluptas retineri possit, non solum vasa ad victum 
habilia,sed etiam figura bella atque ab artifice (ficta),' 
quod aliud homini, aliud humanitati satis est ; quod- 
vis sitienti homini poculum idoneum, humanitati 
(ni)si'* bellum parum ; sed cum discessum e(s)t* ab 
utilitate ad voluptatem, tamen in eo ex dissimilitudine 
plus voluptatis quam ex similitudine saepe capitur. 

32. Quo nomine et gemina conclavia dissimiliter 

2 Added by L. Sp. » For nePHCThAON. * 3Iue. 

deleted quod after equile. * V, p, Mue., for sequamur. 

§ 30. ^ Stephanus, for et. " Added by L. Sp. 

§31. ^ For maetas. ^ Aug. {quoting a friend), for 
quod. ' Fay ; facta L. Sp. ; to fill a blank space in F of 
about 4 letters. * Aldus, for si. ^ Aug., with B, for et. 

§ 29. ° The garden in the rear part of the house, surrounded 
by colonnaded porticos. * The main hall in the front of 
the house, with a central opening to the sky under which 
there was a rectangular water-basin built in the floor. 



not see the persistyle " bearing resemblance to the 
atrium * nor the sleeping-room bearing resemblance 
to the horse-stable, still, on account of the utility in 
them we seek for unlikenesses rather than likenesses ; 
so also we proWde >\inter dining-rooms and summer 
dining-rooms with a different equipment of doors and 

X\\ 30. Therefore, since difference prevails not 
only in clothing and in buildings, but also in furniture, 
in food, and in all the other things which have been 
taken into our daily life for use, the principle of 
difference should not be rejected in human speech 
either, which has been framed for the purpose of use. 

XVL 31. But if one should think that the sum of 
those natural goals to which we ought to attain in 
actual use consists of two items, that of utility and 
that of refinement, because we wish to be clothed not 
only to avoid cold but also to appear to be honourably 
clothed ; and we wish to have a house not merely that 
we may be under a roof and in a safe place into which 
necessity has crowded us together, but also that we 
may be where we may continue to experience the 
pleasures of life ; and we wish to have table-vessels 
that are not merely suitable to hold our food, but also 
beautiful in form and shaped by an artist — for one 
thing is enough for the human animal, and quite 
another thing satisfies human refinement : any cup 
at all is satisfactory to a man parched with thirst, but 
any cup is inferior to the demands of refinement unless 
it is artistically beautiful : — but as we have digressed 
from the matter of utility to that of pleasure, it is a 
fact that in such a case greater pleasure is often got 
from difference of appearance than from Ukeness. 

32. On this account, ic^entical rooms are often 



poliunt^ et lectos non omnis paris magnitudine ac 
figura faciunt. Quod (si)" esset* analogia petenda 
supellectili, omnis lectos haberemus domi ad unam 
formam et aut cum fulcro aut sine eo, nee cum ad 
tricliniarem gradum, non item ad cubicularem ; neque 
potius delectaremur supellectile distincta quae esset 
ex ebore <aliisve>* rebus disparibus figuris quam 
grabatis,* qui di'a Aoyov' ad similem formam plerum- 
que eadem materia fiunt. Quare aut negandum 
nobis disparia esse iucunda aut, quoniam necesse est 
confiteri, dicendum verborum dissimilitudine(m>, 
quae sit in consuetudine,' non esse vitandam. 

XVII. 33. Quod si analogia sequenda est nobis, 
aut ea observanda est quae est in consuetudine aut 
quae non est. Si ea quae est sequenda est, prae- 
ceptis nihiU opus est, quod, cum consuetudinem 
sequemur, ea nos sequetur ; si quae non est in con- 
suetudine, quaeremus : ut quisque duo verba in 
quattuor formis finxen't^ similiter, quamvis haec 
nolemus, tamen erunt sequenda, ut Iuppit(r>i,' 
Marspitrem ? Quas si quis servet analogias, pro 
insano sit reprehendendus. Non ergo ea est se- 

§ 32. ^ Koeler, for pollent. * Added by Laetus. 
^ Laetus, for essent. * Fay ; aliisque Laetus ; to fill a 
blank space of about 4 letters in F ; cf. ix. 47. * For 
grabattis. * Mue., for analogon ; cf. x. 2, ' For 

§33. ^ For nichil. * Vertranius, for ^nxerunt. ^ L. 
Sp., for luppiti. 

§ 33. " Namely, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, 
from the nominative as starting-point. ^* Such forms, 

retaining and inflecting the pater which forms the second 



ornamented in unlike manner, and couches are not all 
made the same in size and shape. But if Regularity 
were to be sought in furniture, we should have all the 
couches in the house made in one fashion, and either 
with posts or without them, and when we had a couch 
suited for use beside the dining-table, we should not 
fail to have just the same for bedroom use ; nor should 
we rather be delighted with furniture which was 
decorated with varying figures of ivory or other 
materials, any more than in camp-beds, which with 
regularity are almost always made of the same 
material and in the same shape. Therefore either we 
must deny that differences give pleasure, or, since we 
must admit that they do, we must say that the un- 
likeness in words which is found in habitual usage, is 
not something to be avoided. 

XVn. 33. But if we must follow Regularity, 
either we must observe that Regularity which is 
present in ordinary usage, or we must observe also 
that which is not found there. If we must follow that 
which is present, there is no need of rules, because 
when we follow usage, Regularity attends us. But if 
we ought to follow the Regularity which is not present 
in ordinary usage, then we shall ask. When any one 
has made two words in four forms " according to the 
same pattern, must we employ them just the same, 
even though we do not wish to — as for example a 
dative luppitri and an accusative Marspitrem ? * If 
any one should persist in using such ' regular forms,' 
he ought to be rebuked as crazy. This kind of 
Regularity, therefore, is not to be followed. 

part of luppiter and Marspiter, are quite abnormal, and are 
found chiefly in the grammarians as examples of forms which 
are not to be used. 



XVIII. 34. Quod si oportet id es<se>,^ ut a simili- 
bus similiter omnia declinentur verba, sequitur, ut ab 
c?issimilibus* dissimilia debeant fingi, quod non fit : 
nam et <ab>' similibus alia fiunt similia, alia dis- 
similia, et ab dissimilibus partim similia partim dis- 
similia. Ab similibus similia, ut a bono et malo 
bonum malum ; ab similibus dissimilia, ut ab lupus 
lepus lupo lepori. Contra* ab dissimilibus dissimilia, 
ut Priamus Paris, Priamo Pari ; ab dissimilibus 
similia, ut lupiter ovis, Iot;i ovi. 

35. Eo iam magis analogias (esse negandum,^ 
quod non modo ab similibus) ^ dissimilia finguntur, sed 
etiam ab isdem* vocabulis dissimilia neque a dis- 
similibus similia, sed etiam eadem. Ab isdem* voca- 
bulis dissimilia fingi apparet, quod, cum duae sint 
Alfeae, ab una dieuntur Albani, ab altera Albenses ; 
cum trinae fuerint Athenae, ab una dicti Athenae<i>,* 
ab altera Athenaiis, a tertia Athenaeopolitae. 

36. Sic ex diversis verbis multa facta in declinando 
inveniuntur eadem, ut cum dico ab Saturni Lua Luam, 

§ 34. 1 id esse Canal ; ita esse Mue., for id est. * L. 
Sp.,for his similibus. ^ Added by L. Sp. ; a Aug.., with B. 
* Aug., for contraria. 

§ 35. ^ Added by L. Sp. * Added by Christ, who has 
non solum a, for which Groth, citing L. Sp., gives non modo 
ab. * Mue. ; iisdem Laetus ; for hisdem. * For 
hisdem. * Laetus, for Athenae. 

§ 34. " Or accusative masculine. 

§ 35. " Inhabitants of Alba Longa. "" Inhabitants of 
Alba Fucens or Fucentia, among the Aequi on the borders of 
the Marsi. " There were several cities named Athens, 
only that in Attica being important ; the forms of the names 
are uncertain, especially that of the second, which may 
however stand for ' Adr]vai.€LS like Aeolis v. 25 for kloXels. 
There were many ethnics in -evs, plural -els. 


XVIIL 34. But if the proper thing is that all words 
that start from similar forms should be inflected 
similarly, it follows that from dissimilar starting forms 
dissimilar forrt^ should be made by inflection : and 
this is not what is found. For from hke forms some 
like forms are made, and other unhke forms, and from 
unlike forms also come some like forms and some 
unlike forms. For instance, from likes cume likes, as 
from bonus ' good ' and malus ' bad ' come the neuter " 
forms bonum and malum ; also from hkes come unUkes, 
as from lupus ' wolf ' and lepus ' hare ' come the unlike 
datives lupo and lepori. On the other hand, from 
unlikes there are unlikes, as from the nominatives 
Priamus and Paris come the datives Priamo and Pari ; 
also from unlikes there are likes, as nominatives 
lupiier ' Jupiter,' ovis ' sheep,' and datives lovi and 

35. So much the more now must it be denied 
that Regularities exist, because not only are un- 
likes made from likes, but also from identical 
words unlikes are made, and not merely likes, but 
identicals are made from unlikes. From identical 
names unlikes, it is clear, are made, because while 
there are two towns named Alba, the people of the 
one are called Albajii " and those of the other are 
called Albenses ^ ; while there are three cities named 
Athens, the people of the one are called Athenaei, 
those of the second are Athenaiis, those of the third 
Athenaeopolitae. ' 

36. Similarly, many words made in derivation 
from different words are found to be identical, as 
when I sav accusative Luam from Saturn's Lua,'^ and 

§ 36. " An old Italic goddess who expiated the blood shed 
in battle ; her formulaic connexion with Saturn is uncertain. 


et ab solvendo luo^ luam.^ Omnia' fere nostra 
(n)omina* vmlia* et muliebria multitudinis cum recto 
casu fiunt dissimilia, ea(de>m <in>* danc?(i>^ : dis- 
similia, ut mares Terentiei, feminae Terentia(e>,* 
eadem in dandi, vireis Terentieis et mulieribus 
Terentieis. Dissimile Plautus et Plautius, (Marcus et 
Marcius) ' ; et co(m)mune, ut huius Plauti et Marci. 

XIX. 37. Denique si est analogia, quod in multis 
verbis e<s)t^ similitude verborum, sequitur, quod in 
pluribus est dissimilitude, ut non sit in sermone 
sequenda analogia. 

XX. 38. Postremo, si est in oratione, aut in 
omnibus eius partibus est aut in aliqua^ : at^ in omni- 
bus non est, in aliqua esse parum est, ut album esse 
^ethiopa' non satis est quod habet candidos dentes : 
non est ergo analogia. 

XXI. 39. Cum ab similibus verbis quae declinan- 
tur similia fore polliceantur qui analogias esse dicunt, 
et cum simile tum^ denique dicant esse^ verbo ver- 
bum, ex eodem si' genere eadem figura transitum de 
cassu in cassum similiter ostendi possit, qui haec 
dicunt utrumque ignorant, et in quo loco similitude 
debeat esse, et quemadmodum spectari soleat, simile 

§ 36. ^ Suerdsioeus, for abluo. * Aug., for abluam. 

* For omina. * L. Sp.,for omina. * Scaliger, for libe- 
ralia. • L. Sp.,for eum. ' Laetus,for dant. * Laetus, 
for femina e terentia. • Added by Groth. 

§37. ^Avp.,foret. 

§ 38. ^ Aug., with B, deleted esse parum after aliqua. 
^ Canal, for et. ' Mue., for ethiopam. 

§ 39. ^ Aug., with B, for simili laetum. ^ L. Sp., for 
dicantes se. ' L. Sp., for sit. 

* Solvendo is here attached to luo as a prloss, just as Saturni is 
attached to Lva. " The older spelling -KI, historically 
correct in these forms, was normal after I until the end of the 



also luam as future of luo ' loosing.' ** Almost all our 
names of men and women are unlike in the nomina- 
tive case of the plural, but are identical in the dative : 
unhke, as the men Terentii,'^ the women Terentiae, but 
identical in the dative, men Terefitiis ' and women 
Terentiis.^ Unlike are Plautus and Plautius, Marcus 
and Marciiis ; and vet there is a form common to 
both, namely the genitive Plauli and Marci.^ 

XIX. 37. Finally, if Regularity does exist for the 
reason that in many words there is a likeness of the 
word-forms, it follows that because there is unlikeness 
in a greater number of words the principle of Regu- 
larity ought not to be followed in actual talking. 

XX. 38. In the last place, if Regularity does 
exist in speech, it exists either in all its parts or in 
some one part ; but it does not exist in all, and it is 
not enough that it exists in some one part, just as the 

. fact that an Ethiopian has white teeth is not enough 
to justify us in saying that an Ethiopian is white : 
therefore Regularity does not exist. 

XXI. 39. Since those who declare that Regulari- 
ties exist, promise that the inflected forms from 
like words ^^^\\\ be alike, and since they then say that 
a word is like another word only if it can be shown 
that starting from the same gender and the same 
inflectional form it passes in like fashion from case to 
case, those who make these assertions show their 
ignorance both of that in which the likeness must be 
found and of how the presence or absence of the like- 
Republic, and was therefore Varro's regular orthography. 
In the translation the standardized Latin forms are used. 
** The contracted form ending in -I was practically the exclu- 
sive form used as genitive of nouns ending in -lUS in the 
nominative, until the end of the Republic. 

VOL. II D 401 


sit necne. Quae cum ignorant, sequitur ut, cum 
<de) analogia* dicere non possint, sequi <non>^ de- 

40. Quaero enim, verbum utrum dicant vocem 
quae ex syllabis est ficta, earn quam audimus, an quod 
ea significat, quam intellegimus, an utrumque. Si 
vox voci esse debet similis, nihil' refert, quod significat 
mas an femina sit, et utrum nomen an vocabulum sit, 
quod iWi^ interesse dicunt. 

41. Sin illud quod significatur debet esse simile, 
Diona et Theona quos dicunt esse paene ipsi geminos, 
inveniuntur esse dissimiles, si alter erit puer, alter 
senex, aut unus albus et alter ^4ethiops, item aliqua 
re alia dissimile(s).i Sin ex^ utraque parte debet 
verbum esse simile, non cito invenietur qui(n)* in 
altera utra re claudicet, nee Perpenna et Alfen<a>* 
erit simile, quod alterum nomen virum, alterum 
mulierem significat. Quare quoniam ubi similitudo 
esse debeat nequeunt ostendere, impudentes sunt qui 
dicunt esse analogias. 

XXII. 42. Alterum illud quod dixi, quemad- 
modum simile <s)pectari' oporteret, ignorare apparet 
ex eorum praecepto, quod dicunt, cum transient e 

* GS,,for analogiam ; cf. viii. 43. * Added by Vertranius. 

§ 40. ^ For nichil. * Laetus, for illae. 

§41. ^ Aug., for dissimile. ^ For ex ex. ^ Ed. 
Veneta, for qui. * GS. ; Alphena L. Sp, ; Alphaena 
Rhol. ; Alfaena Laetus ; for Alfaen. 

§ 42. ^ Victorius, for expectari. 

§ 41. " These names were often used by the philosophers 
as a typical pair in their discussions ; the accusatives Diana 
and Theona in the text, instead of the nominative, are assimil- 



ness is wont to be recognized. Since they are ignorant 
of these matters, it follows that we ought not to 
follow them, inasmuch as they are unable to pro- 
nounce \nth authority on the subject of Regularity. 

40. For I ask whether by a ' word ' they mean 
the spoken word which consists of syllables, that word 
which we hear, or that which the spoken word indi- 
cates, which we understand, or both. If the spoken 
word must be like another spoken word, it makes no 
difference whether what it indicates is male or female, 
and whether it is a proper name or a common noun ; 
and yet the supporters of Regularity say that these 
factors do make a difference. 

il. But if that which is denoted by like words 
ought to be like, then Dion and Theon,'* which they 
themselves say are almost identical, are found to be 
unlike, if the one is a boy and the other an old man, 
or one is white and the other an Ethiopian * ; and 
Uke\\'ise if they are unlike in some other respect. But 
if the word must be like in both directions, there will 
not quickly be found one that is not defective in one 
respect or the other, nor will Perpenna and Alfena 
prove to be alike, because the one name denotes a 
man and the other a woman. Therefore, since they 
are unable to show wherein the likeness must exist, 
those who assert that Regularities exist are utterly 

XXn. 42. The other matter that I have men- 
tioned, how the likeness is to be recognized, they 
clearly fail to appreciate in that they set up a precept 
that only when the passage is made from the nomina- 

ated to the immediately following relative. ^ For the same 
contrast, cf. Juvenal, 3. 23 : Loripedem rectus derideat, 
Aethiopem albus ; cf. also be. 4-2, below. 



nominandi casibus in eos quos appellant vocandi, turn 
denique posse dici rectos esse similis aut dissimilis : 
esset enim ut si quis, Mewaechmos^ geminos cum 
videat, dicat non posse iudicare similesne sint, nisi 
qui ex his sint nati considerarit num discrepent' 
inter se. 

43. Nihil, 1 inquam, quo magis minusve sit simile 
quod conferas cum altero, ad iudicandum extrinsecus 
oportet sumi. Quare cum ignorent,* quemadmodum 
similitudo debeat sumi, de analogia dicere non possunt. 
Haec apertius dixissem, nisi brevius eo nunc mallem, 
quod infra sunt planius usurpanda. Quare quod ad 
universam naturam verborum attinet, haec attigisse 
modo satis est. 

XXIII. 44. Quod ad partis singulas orationis, 
deinceps dicam. Quoius quoniam sunt divisiones 
plures, nunc ponam potissimum eam^ qua dividitur 
oratio secundM7w^ naturam in quattuor partis : in 
earn' quae habet casus et quae habet (tempora et 
quae habet)* neutrum et in qua est utrumque. Has 
vocant quidam^ appellandi, dicendi, adminiculandi, 
iungendi. Appellandi dicitur ut homo et Nestor, 

* Aldus, for Me hech mos. * Aug., for nunc discrepat. 

§ 43. ^ For nichil, * Rhol., for ignorarent. 

§ 44. ^ Lachmann, for iam. ^ Lachniann, for secunda 
ut. ' Mue., with a, for iam. * Added from H and G. 
' Laetus, for quidem. 

§ 42. " Thus lupus and lepus, though alike in the nomina- 
tive, are not aHke because their other case-forms are not alike 
in their endings ; c/. § 34. But bipus and campus judged 
to be likes, when the other case-forms are found to be alike 
in their endings. * In Plautus's play, the Menaechmi ; in 

Varro's comparison, the Menaechmus twins are the nomina- 
tives with like endings, and the children of the Menaechmi 
are the derivative case-forms. 

§ 43. " X. §§ 3 ff., 10 ff. 


tives to the vocative forms can it be said whether the 
nominatives are like or unlike " ; for this would be as 
if a man, on seeing the Menaechmus t\\ins,'' should 
say that he could not decide whether or not they 
were alike, unless he should scrutinize their children, 
to see if they showed any differences from one another. 

43. Nothing, I say, whereby that which you are 
comparing with the other may be made more like it 
or less hke it, ought to be brought in from outside, for 
the purpose of aiding the decision. Therefore, since 
they do not know in what way the likeness ought to 
be dra>\Ti, they are incompetent to speak about Regu- 
larity. I should have said this more plainly, if I were 
not wishing now to speak more briefly because later 
on " these matters are to be treated at greater length. 
Accordingly it is sufficient now to have touched upon 
them as far as is connected with the general nature 
of words. 

XXIII. 44. I shall next speak of what concerns 
the individual parts of speech. Since there are several 
methods of di\'ision thereof, I shall now take by prefer- 
ence that by which speech is according to its nature 
divided into four parts : that which has case-forms, that 
which has time-forms, that which has neither, that in 
which both case and time are indicated." Some gram- 
marians call these the parts respectively of naming, 
saying, supporting, joining * : the part of naming is 
said to be such words as homo ' man ' and Xestor, 

§ 44. " Participles. * The part of ' supporting ' in- 
cludes tfie adverbs, as indeclinable modifiers ; tfiat of ' join- 
ing ' includes participles, wfiich are so called because they 
join in the same word the indication of case and that of time, 
or else because they unite in themselves the syntactical func- 
tions of adjective and verb {c/. Greek fierox^ ' sharing,' as 
name of the participle). 



dicendi ut scribo et lego, iungendi ut* (scribens et 
legens),' adminiculandi ut docte et commode. 

45. Appellandi partes sunt quattuor, e quis dicta a 
quibusdam provocabula quae sunt ut quis, quae^ ; 
(vocabula)^ ut scutum,' gladium ; nomina ut Ro- 
miulus, Remus ; pronomina ut hie, haec. Duo media 
dicuntur nominatus ; prima et extrema articuli. 
Primum genus est infinitum, secundum ut infinitum, 
tertium ut finitum,* quartum finitum. 

46. Haec singulatim triplicia esse debent quod 
<ad)* sexum, multitudinem, casum : sexum, utrum 
virile an muliebre an neutrum sit, ut doctus docta 
doctum ; multitudinem, unum an plura significet, ut 
hie hi, haec (hae)'* ; casum, utrum recto sit ut Marcus, 
an obliquo ut Marco, an com(m>uni ut ovis.' 

XXIV. 47. His di(s>cretis^ partibus singulas 
perspice, quo facilius nusquam esse analogias quas 
sequi debeamus videas. Nempe esse oportebat 
vocis formas ternas, ut in hoc humanus humana hu- 
manum, sed habent quaedam binas, ut cervus cerva, 

* Zippmann deleted que after ut. ' Added by Zippmann ; 
cf. X. 17. 

§ 45. ^ Aug., for que. * Added by Laetus, cf. viii. 52, 
and X. 19. * Bentinus deleted ut after scutum. * Aug., 
for effinitum. 

§ 46. ^ quod ad L. Sp. : quoad Aug. ; for quod. 
^ Added by Mue. ^ L. Sp., for iouis ; cf. viii. 49, but also 
viii. 74. 

§ 47. ^ Aug., for decretis. 

" The third and the fourth items are here reversed in order 
from the previous listing. 

§ 45. " The neuter form of this word is quoted by Nonius 
Marcellus, 208. 12 M., from Lucilius (1187 Marx), though it 



that of saying such as scribo ' I \vrite ' and lego ' I 
read,' that of joining " such as scribens ' writing ' 
and legens ' reading,' that of supporting such as docte 
' learnedly ' and commode ' suitably.' 

45. The kinds of naming are four, of which the 
words which are like (masc.) quis, (fern.) quae ' which ' 
have by certain grammarians been called Pro vocables; 
those like scutum ' shield ' and gladium <* ' sword ' have 
been called \'ocables ; those like Romulus and Remus 
have been called Proper Nouns ; those like (masc.) 
hie, (fern.) haec ' this ' have been called Pronouns.* 
The two middle kinds are called Denominations ; the 
first and last are called Articles. The first class is 
indefinite, the second is almost indefinite, the third 
is almost definite, the fourth is definite. 

46. Each of these ought to be threefold in nature, 
as concerns gender, number, and case : gender, 
whether it is masculine or feminine or neuter, as masc. 
doctus, fern, docta, neut. doctum ' learned ' ; number, 
whether it denotes one or more, as masc. sing, hie, pi. 
hi ' these,' and fem. sing, haec, pi. hae ; case, whether it 
is in the nominative, as Marcus, or in an oblique case, 
as Marco, or in a non-distinctive case-form, as ovis 
' sheep.' 

XXI\'. 47. Now that these divisions have been 
made, examine them one by one, that you may the 
more easily see that there are nowhere any Regulari- 
ties which we ought to follow. To be sure some 
words had to have three several forms, as in this 
example : masc. humanus, fem. humana, neut. huma- 
num ' human ' ; but some have only two apiece, Uke 

is condemned by Quintilian, Inst. Oral. i. 5. 16. * Varro 
distinguishes two kinds of pronouns : provocabula, which 
subordinate, and pronomina, which do not. 



quoedam singulas, ut aper, et sic multa. Non ergo 
est in huiuscemodi generibus analogia. 

XXV. 48. Et in multitudine ut ununi significat 
pater, plures patres, sic omnia debuerMnt^ esse bina. 
Sed et singularia solum sunt multa, ut cicer, siser : 
nemo enim dicit cicera, sisera ; et multitudinis sunt, 
ut salinae (balneae)^ : non enim ab his singulari 
specie dicitur salina et balnea. Neque ab eo quod 
dicunt balneum habet multitudinis consuetude : nam 
quod est ut praedium balneum, debuerunt esse plura, 
ut praedia balnea, quod non est : non est ergo in his 
quoque analogia. 

XXVI. 49. Alia casus^ habent et rectos et obli- 
quos, alia rectos solum, alia modo obUquos habent : 
utrosque ut luno, lunonis, rectos modo ut lupiter, 
Maspiter, obliquos solum ut lovis, lovem : non ergo 
in his est analogia. 

XXVII. 50. Nunc videamus in ilia quadripertita. 
Primum si esset analogia^ in infiniteis^ articulis, ut est 
quis' ^Moius,* sic diceretur quae quaiMS* ; et ut est 
quis quoi,^ sic diceretur qua quae : nam est propor- 
tione simile : ut deae bonae quae, sic' dea bona qua* 

§ 48. ^ Aug., with B,for debuerint. * Added by L. Sp. 

§ 49. ^ Alia casus is repeated in F. 

§ 50. 1 L. Sp. deleted ut after analogia. " For in- 
feineiteis. ' L. Sp. deleted quem after quis. * Aug., 
H, for cuius. * quaius L. Sp. ; quam quaius Aug. ; for 
quamuis. * quis quoi Aug., for a quiuis cui. '' L. Sp., 
for sit. * Sciop., for quae. 

§ 48. " Cf. ix. 68. 

§ 49. " The oblique cases lack the affixed -piter =pater of 
the nom.-vDc. form, and have the appearance therefore of 
not coming from the same word. 

§ 50. " This form is nowhere found in use. * Gen. 



cervus ' stag,' cerva ' hind,' and certain others have but 
one, like aper ' boar ' ; and so on with many others. 
Therefore Regularity simply does not exist in classes 
of this sort. 

XX\'. 48. In number also, as pater ' father ' de- 
notes one and patres ' fathers ' denotes more than one, 
all ought in this fashion to have two forms. But many 
are singulars only, Hke cicer ' chickpea ' and siser 
' skirret ' — for nobody says cicera and ^sera in the 
plural ; and there are words that are plurals only, 
such as salinae ' saltworks ' and balneae ' public 
baths ' : for from these there are no singulars salina 
and balnea in use. Nor from the singular balneum does 
general usage make a plural : for because balneum 
' bath ' " is Vike praedium ' farm estate,' there ought to 
be plurals, balnea as well as praedia, but this is not the 
case. Therefore in these also there is no Regularity. 

XX\T. 49. Some have both nominatives and 
oblique cases, others have nominatives only, others 
oblique cases only : both, as in nom. luno, gen. luno- 
nis ; nominatives only, as in lupiter, yiaspiter ° ; 
oblique cases only, as in gen. lovis, dat. /017. There- 
fore in these Regularity does not exist. 

XXVII. 50. Now let us look into those of the four- 
fold di\-ision. First, if there were Regularity in the 
indefinite articles, the proper forms would be feminine 
quae, gen. quaius," Uke mascuUne quis, gen. quoius ** ; 
and as quoi is dative to masculine quis, so quae " would 
be used as dative to feminine qua. For it is similar by 
proportion : dea bona qua ' a good goddess who ' is 
hke deae bonae quae ' to a good goddess to whom.' 

quoius and dat. quoi were the regular forms down to the end of 
the Republic. ' The writing quai for the dat, sing. fem. is 
found on one inscription, Corp. Insc. Lot. ii. 89. 



est ; et ut est quem quis, sic quos ques. Quare quod 
nunc dicitur qui homines, dici oportuit ques. 

XX\'III. 51. Proeterea ut est ab is^ (ei),'' sic ab 
ea eae diceretur, quod nunc dicitur ei, <et>' pronun- 
tiaretur ut in i<e)is* viris, sic e<ai)s5 mulieribus ; et 
ut est in rectis casibus <is>* ea,' in obliquis esset eius 
eaius ; nunc non modo in virili sicut in muliebri 
dicitur eius, sed etiam in neutris articulis, ut eius viri, 
eius mulieris, eius pabuli, cum discriminentur in 
rectis casibus is ea id. De hoc genere parcius tetigi, 
quod Ubrarios haec sp(i>«osiora' inde/igentius* elaturos 

XXIX. 52. De nominati6?<s^ qu?" accedunt pro- 
xime ad <in>finitam^ naturam articulorum atque 
appellantur vocabula, ut homo equus, eorum declina- 
tionum genera sunt quattuor : unum nominandi, ut 
ab equo equile, alterum casuale, ut ab equo equum, 

§51. ^ La£tns, for his. ^ Added by Laetus. ^ Added 
by C. F. W. Mueller. * Aug., with B,for his. * A. Sp.; 
eeis Mue. ; eaeis Aug.; for es. ^ Added by Aug. 
' Mue. deleted id after ea. ^ Victorius, for sponsiora. 
* Sciop., for indulgentius. 

§ 52. ^ L. Sp., for nominatiuis. * L. Sp., with H, for 
quae. ' Aug., for finitani ; cf. viii. 43. 

" This form is well attested for old Latin ; cf. Charisius, 
i. 91 and 133 Keil, who cites it from Pacuvius {R.O.L. 
ii. 252-253 Warmington) and Cato, and Festus, 261 a 23 M. 
§ 51. " Found in Plautus, Miles 348, Cato, Agr. 46. 1 and 
142 ; but out of use in Varro's time. * This form, with the 

older orthography, must here be restored in Varro's text, to 
make clear the logic of his argument ; but to restore -eis for 
all the dative-ablative plurals in -is would confuse rather than 
help the reader, though Varro certainly used the -eis spelling 
after a preceding -i-, and probably elsewhere. " Or eaes, 
with Fay ; the logic does not make clear precisely what form 
Varro would consider to have been a ' regular ' formation. 



Similarly, the nom. masc. ques stands in the same 
relation to ace. quos, as the sing. masc. quis to the ace. 
quern ; therefore for the qui homines ' which men ' 
which is now used in the nominative, we ought to say 

XXVIIL 51. Besides, as from masc. is ' this ' 
there is dat. ei, so from fem. ea there would be spoken 
a dat. eae,'^ which is now actually spoken as ei ; and 
like the dat. pi. in ieis * viris ' to these men,' there 
would be pronounced a dat. pi. fem. eais '^ mulierihus 
' to these women.' And as in the nominatives there 
are masc. is, fem. ea, in the oblique forms there would 
be masc. eius, fem. eaius ** ; but now eius is said for the 
genitive not only in the mascuhne and the feminine 
alike, but even in the neuter articles, as eius viri ' of 
this man,' eius mulieris ' of this woman,' eius pabuli ' of 
this fodder,' although masc. is, fem. ea, neut. id are 
distinguished in the nominative. I have touched 
upon this classification more sparingly, because I am 
of opinion * that the copyists will not take proper care 
in transferring these quite confusing matters. 

XXIX. 52. From the appellations which come 
nearest to the indefinite nature of the articles and are 
called common nouns, such as homo ' man ' and equus 
' horse,' there are four kinds of derivation " : one of 
name-giving, as equile ' horse-stable ' from equus 
' horse ' ; the second that of the cases, as accusative 
equum from equus ; the third that of augmentation, as 

•* Nowhere found. « The condition of the manuscripts 
shows that Varro was right. 

§ 52. " We should call these four respectively derivation 
by suffixes, declension, comparison of adjectives, derivation 
by a suffix denoting diminution ; the fourth is a division of 
the first, and so also, in the broad sense, is the third, though 
it has a more specialized function. 



tertium augendi, ut ab albo albius, quartum minuendi, 
ut <a>* cista cistula. 

53. Primum genus, ut dixi, id est, cum (ahy 
aliqua parte orationis declinata sunt recto casu voca- 
bula,2 ut a balneis balneator. Hoc fere triplices 
habet radices, quod et a vocabulo oritur, ut a venatore 
venabulum, et a nomine, ut a Tibure* Tiburs, e^* a 
verbo, wt* a currendo cursor. In nullo horum analo- 
giam servan'^ videbis. 

XXX, 54. Primum cum dicatur ut ab ove et sue 
ovile et suile, sic a bove bovile non dicitur ; et cum 
simile sit avis et ovis, neque dicitur ut ab ave aviarium 
<ab ove oviarium, neque ut)* ab ove ovile ab ave avile ; 
et cum debuerit esse ut a cubatione cubiculum sic^ a 
sessione sediculum, non est. 

55. Quoniam taberna, ubi vem't^ vinum, a vino 
vinaria, a creta cretaria, ab unguento unguentaria 
dicitur, dva Aoyov^ si essent vocabula, ubi caro venit, 
carnaria, ubi pelles, pelliaria, ubi calcei, calcearia 
diceretur, non laniena ac pellesuina et sutrina. Et 

* Added by Aldus. 

% 53. ^ Added by L. Sp. ^ Aldus, for vocabulum. 

* Laetus, for tibura. * Aug., with B, for tibur Sed. 

* For et. * Aug., a, for servare. 

§ 54. 1 Added by Mue., after Stephanus. ^ Laetus, 
for sit. 

§ 55. ^ For uenet. ^ GS. ; analogon L. Sp. ; for 

§ 53. " That is, declinable stems, and not merely other 
case-forms of the same stem. * Properly, both from venari 
' to hunt,' 

§ 54. " The correct form is bubile ; but Charisius, i. 104, 
28 Keil, testifies that Cato used bovile at least once. 
"" Properly both from sedere ' to sit ' ; despite Varro, Festus, 



albiiis ' whiter ' from album ' white ' ; the fourth that 
of diminution, as cistula ' little box ' from cista ' box.' 

53. The first class, as I have said, is that in which 
words in the nominative " are derived from some part 
of speech, as balneator ' bath-keeper ' from balneae 
' public baths.' This class has in general three 
sources, because it develops from a common noun, as 
venabulum * ' hunting spear ' from venator ' hunter,' 
and from a proper name, as Tibtirs ' man of Tibur ' 
from Tibur, and from a verb, as cursor ' runner ' from 
currere ' to run.' In none of these will you see Regu- 
larity preserved. 

XXX. 54. First, although from ovis ' sheep ' and 
sus ' swine ' there are said ovile ' sheepfold ' and suite 
' hog-sty,' there is no bovile " from bos ' ox ' ; and 
although avis ' bird ' and ovis ' sheep ' are alike, we do 
not sav oviarium from ovis as we say aviarium ' a\iary ' 
from avis, nor do we say avile from avis as we say ovile 
' sheepfold ' from avis ; and although there ought to 
be a sediculum ' chair ' from sessio ^ ' sitting ' like 
cubiculum ' sleeping-room ' from cubatio " ' reclining,' 
there is not. 

55. Since a shop where wine is sold is called vinaria 
from vinum ' wine,' and cretaria from creta ' chalk,' " 
unguentaria from unguentum ' perfume,' then if words 
went in regular fashion a shop where caro ' meat ' is sold 
would be called carnaria, one where pelles ' hides ' are 
sold would be called /)e//«ana, one where calcei ' shoes ' 
are sold would be called calcearia, instead of laniena 
' butcher's shop,' pellesuina ' leather-shop,' sutrina 

336. 6 M., quotes sediculum as occurring, but without men- 
tioning where. ' Proj)erly both from cubare ' to recline.' 
§ 55. " That is, ' Cretan (earth),' used at Rome for clean- 
ing purposes. 



sicut est ab uno uni, ab tribus trini, a quattuor quad- 
rini, sic a duobus duini, non bini diceretur ; nee non 
ut quadrigae trigae, sic potius duigae quam bigae. 
Permulta sunt huiusce generis, quae quoniam admoni- 
tus perspicere potest, omitto. 

XXXI. 56. Vocabula quae ab nominibus oriuntur, 
si ab similibus nominibus similia esse debent, dicemus, 
quoniam gemina sunt Parma' Roma, (ut) Parmenses 
<sic Romenses)* ; aut quoniam est similis Roma Nola 
Parma, dicemus ut Romani Nolani sic Parmani ; et a 
Pergamo, ab Ilio similiter Pergamenus Ilienus ; aut 
ut Ilius^ et Ilia mas et femina, sic Pergamus et Per- 
gama vir et mulier ; et quoniam similia nomina sunt 
Asia Libj/a, dicemus Asiaticos et Lib^aticos homines. 

XXXII, 57. Quae vocabula dicuntur a verbis, 
fiunt ut a scribendo scriptor, a legendo lector, haec 
quoque non servare similitudinem licet videre ex his : 
cum similiter dicatur ut ab amando amator, ab salu- 
tando salutator, (non est)' a cantando cantator ; et 

§ 56. ' Sciop. deleted Alba after Parma ,• cf. viii. 35. 

* After Fay's ut Parmenses sic Albenses Romenses ,• ut 
Parmenses Albenses Romenses 3Iue. ; Romenses et Albenses 
ut Parmenses Avg. {quoting a friend); for Parmenses. 
' Aug., with B, deleted unus after Ilius. 

§ 57. ' Added by Canal {L. Sp. placed non est after can- 
tator ,• Popma added non before cantator). 

* The plural of unus is used to modify nouns plural in 
form but singular in meaning ; though not strictly a multi- 
plicative (singidi means ' one apiece '), uni is quoted here 
because its ending agrees with that of the higher multipli- 
catives. . " \'arro fails to realize that before a vowel du- 
varied with dw-, and that dw- at the beginning of a Latin 
word became b- ; so that bini and bigae are quite proper 
in these series. 



' cobbler's shop.' And just as from unus ' one ' 
comes the plural uni ^ ' one set of,' and from ires 
' three ' comes trini ' three each,' from quatiuor ' four ' 
quadrini ' four each,' so from duo ' two ' there should 
be a duin't and not a hini <^ ' t"\vo each ' ; also, after 
quadrigae ' team of four ' and trigae ' team of three,' 
there should be rather duigae than bigae ' team of 
two.' There are a great many examples of this class, 
but I pass them by, since he who has had his attention 
called to them cannot fail to notice them. 

XXXL 56. If words which develop from proper 
names ought to be alike if from Uke names, then since 
Parma and Roma are identical we shall say Romenses," 
like Parmenses ; or since Roma. Xola, Parma are aUke, 
we shall say Parmani," Uke Romani and Xolani. And 
from Pergamum and Ilium we shall have not only 
Pergamenus ' Pergamene,' but also lUenus " ; or like 
Ilius and Ilia ' Ilian ' male and female, we shall sav 
Pergamus ° and Pergama " respectively for a man 
and a woman of Pergamum. And since Asia and 
Libya are like names, we shall call the people Asiatic 

XXXII. 57. The words which are made from 
verbs are such as scriptor ' writer ' from scribere ' to 
^\•rite ' and lector ' reader ' from legere ' to read ' ; 
that those also do not preserve a Ukeness can be seen 
from the following : although amator * lover ' from 
amare ' to love ' and salutator ' saluter ' from salutare 
' to salute ' are formed in like manner, there is no 
cantator ° ' singer ' from cantare ' to sing ' ; and 

§ 56. • Wrong forms, formed for purposes of ar^ment. 
* Not Libyatici, but Libyci was the form in use. 

§ 57. ■ Up to Varro's time, only cantor was used ; can- 
tator is a later word. 



cum dicatur lassus sum metendo ferendo, ex his voca- 
bula non reddunt proportionem, quo(niam)2 non fit 
ut messor fertor. Multa sunt item in hac specie in 
quibus potius consuetudinem sequimur quam ra- 
tionem verborum. 

58. Praeterea cum sint ab eadem origine ver- 
borum vocabula dissimilia superiorum, quod simul 
habent casus et tempora, quo vocantur participia, et 
multa sint contraria ut amo amor, lego legor,^ ab amo 
et eiusmodi omnibus verbis oriuntur praesens et 
futurum tit^ amans et amaturus,* ab eis verbis tertium 
quod debet fingi praeteriti, in lingua Latina reperiri 
non potest : non ergo est analogia. Sic ab araor* 
legor et eiusmodi verbis* vocabulum eius generis 
praeteriti te<m)poris fit, ut amatus,* neque praesentis 
et futuri ab his fit. 

59. Non est ergo analogia, praesertim cum tantus 
Humerus vocabulorum in eo genere interierit^ quod 
dicimus. In his verbis quae contraria non habent, 
(ut)" loquor et venor, tamen dicimus loquens et 
venans, locuturus <et venaturus,' locutus et venatus),* 
quod secundum analogias non est, quoniam dicimus 

* L. Sp., for quo. 

§ 58. ^ L. Sp.,/or amor amo seco secor. * Bentinus,for et. 
^ H, B, Ijoetus, for ueta maturus. * ^'^ug., for amabor. 

* Aug., for uerbi est. * L. Sp.,for amaturus eram sum ero. 

§ 59. ^ Laetus, for inter orierit. ^ Added by L. Sp. 
' Added by Laetus. * Added by Fay. 

* The corresponding noun of agency is lator. 

§ 58. "That is, active and passive voices. * Of the 

active voice. "^ Of the passive voice. "* Varro does not 
consider the gerundive amandus to be a future passive par- 


though we say " I am tired with metendo ' reaping ' 
and Jerendo ' carrying,' " the words from these do not 
represent a Uke relation, since there is no Jertor * 
' carrier ' made Uke messor ' reaper.' There are Uke- 
vrise many others of this class in which we follow usage 
rather than conformity to the verbs. 

58. Besides these there are other words which 
also originate from verbs but are unUke those of which 
we have already spoken, because they have both cases 
and tenses, whence they are called participles. And 
as many verbs have opposite forms," such as amo ' I 
love,' amor ' I am loved,' lego ' I read,' legor ' I am 
read,' from amo and all verbs of this kind * there 
develop present and future participles, such as amans 
' loving ' and amatiirus ' about to love,' but from these 
verbs the third form which ought to be made, namely 
the past participle, cannot be found in the Latin 
language : therefore there is no Regularity. So also 
from amor ' I am loved,' legor ' I am read,' and verbs 
of this kind <^ the word of this class is made for past 
time, as amatus ' loved,' but from them none is made 
for the present and the future.** 

59. Therefore there is no Regularity, especially 
since such a great number of words has perished " in 
this class which we are mentioning. In these verbs 
which have not both voices, such as loquor ' I speak ' 
and venor ' I hunt,' ^ we none the less say loquens 
' speaking ' and venans ' hunting,' locuturus ' about 
to speak ' and venaturus ' about to hunt,' locutus 
' ha\-ing spoken ' and venatus ' having hunted.' This 
is not according to the Regularities, since we say 

§ 59. " That is, many verbs lack a complete paradigm 
that includes both active and passive forms. * Deponent 

VOL. II E 417 


loquor et venor, <non loquo et veno)/ unde * ilia erant 
superiora ; e<o) minus' servantur, quod* ex his quae 
contraria verba non habent® alia efficiunt terna, ut ea 
quae dixi, alia bina, ut ea quae dicam : currens 
ambulans, cursurus ambulaturus : tertia enim prae- 
teriti non sunt, ut cursus sum, ambulatus sum. 

60. Ne in his quidem, quae saepius quid fieri 
ostendunt, servatur analogia : nam ut est a cantando 
cantitans, ab amando amitans non est et sic multa. 
Ut in his singularibus, sic in multitudinis : sicut enim 
cantitantes seditantes^ non dicuntur. 

XXXIII. 61. Quoniam est vocabulorum genus 
quod appellant compositicium et negant conferri id 
oportere cum simplicibus de quibus adhuc dixi, de 
compositis separatim dicam. Cum ab tibiis et canendo 
tibicines dicantur, quaerunt, si analogias sequi opor- 
teat, cur non a cithara et psalterio et pandura dicamus 
citharicen et sic alia ; si ab aede et tuendo (aeditumus 

* Added by L. Sp. * venor unde Laetus, for uenerunt 
de. '' L. Sp., for eminus. * Alue. deleted cum after 
quod. * Aug., with B, for habentur. 
§ 60. ^ M, Laetus, for sed ettitantes. 

"That is, the deponent verbs, since they lack the active 
forms otherwise, should not have the active participles 
which actually they have. ** Deponent verbs. ' In- 
transitive verbs of active form, which naturally have 
no passive, and consequently no passive participle. 
f Varro's logic here deserts him, since the deponent verbs 
have a perfect participle of passive form and active mean- 
ing, and there is no reason why intransitive verbs of active 
form should not have a perfect participle passive in form 
and active in meaning : in fact, such a participle is sometimes 
found, like adult us ' grown up,' from adolescere ' to grow up.' 



loquor and venor, not loquo and veno, whence came the 
forms given above. '^ The Regularities are the less 
preserved, because some of the verbs which have not 
both voices, make three participles each, hke those 
which I have named,** and other make only two each,* 
such as those which I shall now name : currens 
' running ' and ambulans ' walking,' cursurus ' about to 
run ' and avibulaturus ' about to walk ' ; for the third 
forms, those of the past, do not exist,^ as in cursus sum 
' I am run,' ambulatus sum ' I am walked.' 

60. But Regularity is not preserved even in those 
which indicate that something is done with greater 
frequency ; for though there is a cantitans ' repeatedly 
singing ' from cantare ' to sing,' there is no amitans 
' repeatedly lo\ing ' from amare ' to love,' and simi- 
larly with many others. The situation is the same in 
the forms of the plural as in those of the singular : 
though the plural cantitantes is used, sedttantes'^ 
' sitting ' is not. 

XXXIII. 61. Since there is a class of words which 
they call compositional, saying that they ought not to 
be grouped in the same category with the simple words 
of which I have so far spoken, I shall deal separately 
with these compounds. Since from tibiae ' pipes ' and 
canere ' to play ' the iibicines ' pipers ' are named, they 
ask, If we ought to follow the Regularities, why then 
from cithara ' lute ' and psalierium ' psaltery ' and 
pandura ' Pan's strings ' should we not say citharicen " 
' lute-player ' and the rest in the same way } If 
from aedes ' temple ' and tueri ' to guard ' the aedi- 

§ 60, " The singular seditans also is not used, which is 
implied by Varro, but not stated. 

§61. " Citharista, fern, citharistria, are used, both taken 
from Greek. 



dicatur, cur non ab atrio et tuendo>i potius atritumus 
sit quam atriensis ; si ab avibus capiendis auceps 
dicatur, debuisse aiunt a piscibus capiendis ut aucu- 
pem sic pisci<cu)pem2 dici. 

62. Ubi lavetur aes aerarias, non aerelavinas 
nominari ; et ubi fodiatur argentum argentifodinas 
dici, neque (ubi)^ fodiatur ferrum ferrifodinas ; qui 
lapides coedunt lapicidas, qui ligna, lignicidas non 
dici ; neque ut aurificem sic argentificem ; non 
doctum dici indoctum, non salsum insulsum. Sic ab 
hoc quoque fonte quae profluant, (analogiam non 
servare)'^ animadvertere est facile. 

XXXI\\ 63. Reliquitur de casibus, in quo Aris- 
tarchei suos contendunt nervos. XXXV. Primum si 
in his esset^ analogia, dicunt defcwisse* omnis nomi- 
natus* et articulos habere totidem casus : nunc alios 
habere unum solum, ut litteras singulas omnes, alios 
tris, ut praedium praedii praedio, alios quattuor, ut 

§61. ^ The omission in F {and all codd.) was filled by 
Laetus with edituus est cur ab atrio et tuendo ; A Idiis inserted 
non after tuendo ; Mue. wrote aeditumus and (with B) set 
non after cur; A. Sp. proposed dicatur /or sit. ^ Avg., 
with B, for piscipem. 

§ 62. ^ Added by Laetus. * Added by Christ, 
§ 63. ^ For essent. * Aldus, for de risse. ' L. Sp., 
for nominatiuos. 

* The regular word is piscator ; one inscription has pise icap us. 

§ 62. " Yiegu\a.r\y ferrariae ' iron-mines.' ^ Regularly 
lignatores ' wood-cutters.' ' Regularly argentarius ' silver- 
smith.' "^ The difference here consists in the change of the 
radical vowel of salsvs, when it comes to stand in a medial 
syllable ; the process is called Vowel Weakening. 

§ 63. ^ Aristarchus, of Samothrace, famous grammarian 
of Alexandria, lived about 216-144 b.c. He wrote many 
commentaries on Greek authors, and many works on gram- 
mar, in which he defended the principle of Regularity. 



tumus ' sacristan ' is named, why from atrium ' main 
hall ' and tveri ' to guard ' is it not atritumus ' butler ' 
rather than atriensis ? And if from avis capere ' to 
catch birds ' the auceps ' fowler ' is named, they say, 
from piscis capere ' to catch fish ' there ought to be a 
pisciceps ^ ' fisherman ' named Hke the auceps. 

62. They remark also that establishments where 
aes ' copper ' lavatur ' is refined ' are called aerariae 
' smelters ' and not aerelavinae ' copper- washery ' ; 
and places where argentum ' silver ' foditur ' is mined ' 
are called argentifodinae ' silver-mines,' but that 
places where ferrum ' iron ' is mined are not called 
ferrifodinae " ; that those who caedunt ' cut ' lapides 
' stones ' are called lapicidae ' stone-cutters,' but that 
those who cut ligna ' firewood ' are not called lisni- 
cidae * : that there is no term argentifex * ' silver- 
smith ' like aurifex ' goldsmith ' ; that a person who is 
not doctiis ' learned ' is called indoctus, but one who is 
not salsus ' witty ' is called insulsus.^ Thus the words 
which come from this source also, it is easy to see, do 
not observe Regularity. 

XXXR'. 63. It remains to consider the problem 
of the cases, on which the Aristarcheans " especially 
exert their energies. XXXV. First, if in these there 
were Regularity, they * say that all names and articles 
ought to have the same number of cases ; but that as 
things are some have one only,*' like all indi\idual 
letters, others have three,"* like praedium praedii 

Among his pupils were important scholars of the next genera- 
tion. " Those who do not believe in the principle of Regu- 
larity. ' These are the indeclinable nouns. '' Varro 
counts only different case-forms : where he finds three, the 
nom., ace., and voc. are identical, and the dat. and abl. are 
identical ; etc 



mel mellis melli melle, alios quinque, ut quintus 
quinti quinto quintum quinte, alios sex, ut unus unius 
uni unum une uno : non esse ergo in casibus analogias. 

XXXVI. 6t. Secundo quod Crates, ^ cur quae 
singulos habent casus, ut litterae Graecae, non dican- 
tur alpha alphati alphatos, si idem mihi respondebitur 
quod Crateti,^ non esse' vocabula nostra, sed penitus 
barbara, quaerani, cur idem nostra nomina et Per- 
sarum et ceterorum quos vocant barbaros cum casibus 

65. Quare si essent in analogia, aut ut Poenicum 
et .-fegjyptiorum vocabula singulis casibus dicerent, 
aut pluribus ut Gallorum ac ceterorum ; nam dicunt 
a\auda alaudas^ et sic alia. Sin^ quod scrib«nt' dicent, 
quod Poenicum si<n>t,* singulis casibus ideo eas lit- 
teras Graecas nominari : sic Graeci nostra senis 
casibus non quinis^ dicere debebant ; quod cum non 
faciunt, non est analogia. 

XXXV'II. 66. Quae si esset,^ negant ullum casum 
duobus modis debuisse dici ; quod fit contra. Nam 
sine reprehensione vulgo alii dicunt in singulari hac 

§ 64. ^ Laetus, for grates. * Laetus, for grateti. 

' Aug., with B, for essent. * Laetus, for dicat. 

§ Q5. ^ Scat iff er, for alacco alaucus. " Popma, for 
alias in. * Popma, M, for scribent. * RhoL, for sit. 

* Jyaetus transposed quinis non. 

%66. ^ Laetus, for essent. 

§ 64. " Crates of Mallos, head of the Pergamene school of 
scholarship, was a contemporary and opponent of Aris- 
tarchus, and championed the principle of Anomaly. 

* Names of letters were indeclinable both in Greek and in 

§ 65. " Not the Carthaginians, but the Phoenicians. 
^ Varro knew that neither language had a case system. 



praedio ' farm,' others four, like mel mellis melli melle 
' honey,' others five, Uke quintus quinti quinto quintum 
quinte ' fifth,' others six, like unus unius uni unum 
une uno ' one ' ; therefore in cases there are no 

XXX^T. 64'. Second, in reference to what Crates <» 
said as to why those which have only one case-form 
each are not used in the forms alpha, dat. alphati, gen. 
alphatos, because they are Greek letters * — if the 
same answer is given to me as to Crates, that they are 
not our words at all, but utterly foreign words, then I 
shall ask why the same persons use a full set of case- 
forms not only for our o'\\ti personal names, but also 
for those of the Persians and of the others whom they 
call barbarians. 

65. Wherefore, if these proper names were in a 
state of Regularity, either they would use them ^Wth 
a single case-form each, Uke the words of the Phoeni- 
cians " and the Egyptians,'' or vith several, like those 
of the Gauls and of the rest : for they say nom. 
alauda <^ ' lark,' gen. alaudas, and similarly other 
words. But if, as they >\Tite, they say that the Greek 
letters received names \nth but one case-form each 
for the reason that they really belong to the Phoeni- 
cians, then in this way the Greeks ought to speak our 
words in six cases •* each, not in five : inasmuch as 
they do not do this, there is no Regularity. 

XXXVn. 6Q. If Regularity existed, they say, no 
case ought to be used in two forms ; but the opposite 
is found to occur. For without censure quite com- 
monly some say in the ablative singular ovi ' sheep ' 

* The text is desperate here ; but at any rate alauda is Celtic. 
■* Greek had no form by which it might represent the Latin 



ovi et avi, alii hac ove et ave ; in multitudinis hae 
puppis restis et hae puppes restes ; item quod in 
patrico* casu hoc genus dispariliter dicuntur civitatum 
parentum et civitatium parentium, in accusandi hos 
montes fontes et hos montis fontis. 

XXXVIII. 67. Item cum, si sit analogia, debeant 
ab similibus verbis similiter declinatis similia fieri et 
id non fieri ostendi possit, despiciendam earn esse 
rationem. Atqui ostenditur : nam qui potest similius 
esse quam gens, mens,^ dens ? Cum horum casus 
patricus et accusativus in multitudine sint dispariles^: 
nam a primo fit gentium et gentis, utrubique ut sit 
(I),' ab secundo mentium et mentes,* ut in priore solo 
sit I, ab tertio dentum et dentes, ut in neutro sit. 

68. Sic item quoniam simile est recto casu surus 
lupus lepus, rogant, quor non dicatur proportioned 
sure lupo lepo. Sin respondeatur similia non esse, 
quod ea vocemus dissimiliter sure lupe lepus (sic enim 
respondere voluit AristarcAus Crateti : nam cum 
scripsisset similia esse Philomedes Heraclides MeU- 
certes, dixit non esse similia : in vocando enim cum 
<E)* brevi dici Philomede(s),' cum E longo Heraclide, 

^ Laetus, for patricos. 

§ 67. ^ L. Sp. transposed mens gens of F. * For dis- 
parilis. ^ Added by Aug., with B. * Laetus, for mentis, 

§ 68. ^ AldxLS, for proportionem, * Added by Laetus. 
' Mue.,for philomede. 

§ 66. " The doublet forms originated from the amalgama- 
tion, in Latin, of the declension of consonant-stems and that 
of /-stems. 

§ 67. " Varro is alone in giving a gen. dentiim ; all others 
use dentium. In the accusative, the form in -is is historically 


and avi ' bird,' others say ove and ate ; in the plural, 
the nominative is puppis ' ship's sterns ' and restis 
' ropes,' also puppes and restes ; likewise there is the 
fact that in the genitive plural of words of this class 
there are used the variant forms civitatum ' of states,' 
parentum ' of parents,' and civitatium, parentium, and 
in the accusative plural monies ' mountains,' fontes 
' springs,' and montis,fontis.'^ 

XXX\TIL 67. Likewise they say that, if there is 
Regularity, hke forms ought to be made from hke 
words declined alike, and that this can be shown not 
to take place ; that therefore this theory is to be 
rejected. And yet this failure can be shown ; for 
how can anything be more alike than gens ' clan,' 
mens ' mind,' dens ' tooth ' ? Despite which their 
genitives and accusatives in the plural are unlike ; 
for from the first word are made gentium and gentis, 
with I in both, from the second come mentium and 
mentes, with I in the former only, from the third 
dentum and denies,'^ with I in neither form. 

68. So hkewise since sums ' stake,' lupus ' wolf,' 
lepus ' hare ' are alike in the nominative, they ask 
why there is not said in like fashion " suro, lupo, lepo. 
But if the answer is given that they are not alike, 
because in the vocative we use the unhke forms sure, 
lupe, lepus (this to be sure is what Aristarchus wished 
to say in reply to Crates ; for when Crates had 
\\-ritten that Pkilomedes, Heraclides, Melicertes were 
alike, he said that they were not aUke, because in the 
vocative * Pkilomedes is said %\ith a short E, Heraclide 

correct in all three ; -es was transferred to them by the in- 
fluence of consonant-stems. 

§ 68. " Datives or ablatives ; lepus has dat. lepori, abl. 
lepor^. * Greek names, with their Greek vocative forms. 



cum <A>* brevi Melicerta^), in hoc dicunt Aris- 
tarcAum non intellexisse quod quceretur se non 

69. Sic enim, ut quicque in obliquis casibus dis- 
crepavit, dicere potuit propter earn rem rectos casus 
non^ esse similis ; quom quoeratur duo inter se 
similia sint necne, non debere extrinsecus adsum<i)* 
cur similia smt.* 

70. Item si esset analogia, similiter ut dicunt 
aves oves sues, dicerent item avium ovium suium. Si 
analogia est, inquit, cur populus dicit Dei Penates, 
Dei Consentes, cum sit ut hie reus fer(re)us deus, 
sic hei re<e>i fer<re)ei de<e>i ?^ 

71. Item quaerunt, si sit analogia, cur appellant 
omnes aedem Deum Consentium et non Deorum 
Consentium ? Item quor dicatur mille denarium, non 
mille denariorum ? Est enim hoc vocabulum figura 
ut Va/inius,i Manilius, denarius : debet igitur dici ut 
Vatiniorum* Maniliorum denariorum ; et non equum 

* Added by Sciop. ^ Sciop., for Melicerte. * Oroth, 

for si non solveret. 

§69. ^ Aug., with B, for noti. ^ Laetus, for adsum. 
' L. Sp., for sunt. 

§ 70. ^ All additions by L. Sp. 

§71. ^ Laetus, for uarinius. ^ Laetus, for uariniorum. 

§ 69. " Aristarchus. * Crates and his followers. 

§ 70. " For the correct suum. * Crates. " With EI 
graphic for long i ; but cf. note e. ** The twelve Great 
Gods : Jupiter, Neptune, Vulcan, Mars, Mercury, Apollo, 
Juno, Ceres, Vesta, Venus, Diana, Minerva. Consentes 
' who are together,' rather than for consentientes ' who agree 



with a long E, Melicerta with a short A), in this, they 
say, Aristarchus did not realize that he was not giving 
a solution of the question that was asked. 

69- For in this way, whenever there was any 
difference in the oblique cases, he " could say that for 
this reason the nominatives were not alike ; but since 
the question is whether the two nominatives are like 
each other, or not, there should be notliing brought 
in from outside, they say,'' as to why they are aUke or 

70. Likewise if there were Regularity, then just 
as thev say in like fashion the nominatives aves * birds,' 
oves ' sheep,' sues ' s>\ine,' they would say in the geni- 
tive suium " just as they do avium and ovitim. If there 
is Regularity, he ^ says, why do the people say dei ' 
' gods ' in Dei Penates ' Household Gods ' and Dei 
Consentes ' United Gods,' ** although in the nominative 
singular deus ' god ' is just like reus ' defendant,' 
ferreus ' of iron,' and so the plurals should be ree?,* 
ferreei, deei "'. 

71. Likewise they ask, if Regularity exists, why 
do people all say the Temple Deum " Consentium ' of 
the United Gods ' and not Deorum Consentium ? Like- 
wise, why do they say a thousand denarium " ' of 
denarii ' and not a thousand denariorum ? For this 
word denarius is in form exactly like Vaiinius and 
Manilius, and therefore denariorum ought to be used 
as genitive, like Vatiniorum and Maniliorum. They 

in council.' ' All with EI for long I ; unless we are to read 
di above, and rei, ferrei, dei here. At any rate, the normal 
plural of deus was monosyllabic, and was not made like the 
plurals of the other words. 

§ 71. " The genitive in -UM was an older form than that 
in -ORUM, and was retained in many words pertaining to 
religion and law, and in weights and measures. 



puplicum mille assarium esse, sed niille assariorum : 
ab uno enim assario multi assarii, ab eo assariorum. 

72. Item secundum illorum rationem debemus 
secundis syllabis longis Hectorem Nestorem : est enim 
ut quaestor praetor Nestor qu«estorem praetorem 
Nestorem, quaestoris praetoris Nestoris ; et non 
debuit dici quibus das, his^ das : est enim ut hi' qui 
his quis, a<u)t^ sicut quibus hibus. 

73. Cum dicatur da patri familia,?,^ si analogias 
sequi vellent, non debuerunt dicere hie pater familias, 
quod est ut Atiniae Catiniae familiae, sic una Atinia 
Catinia familia. Item plures patres familias dicere 
non debuerunt, sed, ut Sisenna scribit, patres fami- 

74. Neque oportebat consuetudinem natare^ alios 
dicere boum greges, alios boverum, et signa alios 
loum, alios loverum, cum esset ut lovis bovis struis et 

§ 72. ^ Mue., for quis. ^ L. Sp, ; hei Sclop. ; for ei. 
' L. Sp.,for at. 

§ 73. ^ B, Ed. Veneta, for familiai. 
§ 74. ^ Canal, for notare. 

*" That of an eques in the Roman army ; cf. Pauly-Wissowa, 
Realenc. d. cl. Altertumswiss. vi. 277. " Probably mille 
assarium is a single word, a compound adjective, in the 
accusative singular, since the word assariiis is not otherwise 
known ; cf. F. Stolz, Lateinische Grammatik, ed. 5, page 
212, revised by M. Leumann: milleassarius ' worth one 
thousand asses librales.' 

§ 72. " These names are Greelc, and have short o in the 
oblique cases, in Greek ; the Roman writers usually imitated 
the Greek quantities, even though it made them unlike the 
native Latin words. *" Quis, qtiibus, and his are familiar 

in the dat.-abl. plural ; but hibus is well attested only in 
Plautus, Curculio, 506. 

§ 73. " A genitive of an older type. * Varro seems to 
think that in the nominative pater familias, the familias also 



say also that a cavalninan's horse * is worth not a 
thousand assarium '^ ' of assarii,' but a thousand a*- 
sariorum ; for from the singular assarius comes the 
plural assarii, and from that should come the geni- 
tive assariorvm. 

72. Likewise, according to their theory, it is with 
long second syllables that we should pronounce Hec- 
torem and Nestorem " ; for the accusatives quaestorem 
praetarem Xestorem, and the genitives quaestoris prae- 
toris Nestoris correspond to the nominatives quaestor 
praetor Nestor. And we ought not to say quibus das 
' to whom you give,' his das ' to these you give ' ; for 
it is dative his and quis, like nominative hi and qui, or 
else it is hibus like quibus.^ 

73. Although the dative patri familias " ' to the 
father of the household ' is used, still, if they wished 
to follow Regularities, they ought never to have said 
nominative paterfamilias, because the word is genitive 
familiae, like Atiniae and Catiniae, and therefore 
nominative familia,^ like Atinia and Catinia. Like- 
wise, they ought not to say patres familias '^ ' fathers 
of a household,' but as Sisenna ** writes, they should 
sa.y patres familiarum ' fathers of households.' 

74. Nor ought usage to fluctuate, in that some 
said herds bourn ' of cattle,' others boverum,'^ and others 
said statues loum ' of Jupiters,' others loveru?»," since 

is a nominative ; or else the text is too corrupt for restoration. 
' In favour of this form, see Charisius, i. 107 Keil. ■* Page 
128 Funaioli ; L. Cornelius Sisenna, 119-67 b.c, orator and 
statesman, author of a history dealing chiefly with the times 
of Sulla. 

§ 74. " It is doubtful if these forms had any real existence ; 
if so, borerum was formed after lugerum, and loverum after 
]'enerum, to avoid the inconvenient forms bourn and loum, 
which \'arro would have pronounced bovom and lovom. 



lovem bovem struem lovi bovi strui ; nee eum haec 
convenirent in obliquis easibus, dubitare debuerunt in 
reetis, in quibus^ nune in consuetudine aliter dieere, 
pro lous' lupiter, pro b<o>us* bos, pro strus^ struts.* 

XXXIX. 75. Deinceps dicam de altero genera 
vocabulorum, in quo contentiones fiunt, ut albuTw^ 
albius albissumum, in quo i^(em>* analogias non ser- 
vari apparet : nam cum sit simile salsum caldum et 
dicatur ab his salsius caldius, salsissimum caldis- 
simum, debuit dici, quoniam simile est bonum malum, 
ab his bonius et malius, bonissimum et malissimum. 
Nonne dicitur bonum melius optimum, (malum peius 
pessimum) ?* 

76. In aliis verbis nihil^ <de)est,* ut dulcis dulcior 
dulcissimus, in aliis primum, ut peium <a>* peius 
pessimum, in aliis medium, ut caesior {a.y caesius 
caesi(s)sumus, in aliis bina sunt quae (de>sint* ab 
eadem voce declinata, et ea ita ut alias desint secun- 
dum et tertium, ut in hoc mane manius manissime, 
alias ut duo prima absint, ut ab optimum optius 

* L. Sp., for propinquibus. ' L. Sp., for iouis. * L. 
Sp., for bus. * L. S]}., for struus. * L. Sp., for struis. 

§ 75. 1 RhoL, for albus. * Mue., for id. » Added 
by Aug., with B. 

§ 76. ^ For nichil. * Aldus, for est. * Added by 

A. Sp. * Mue., for sint, 

* The reasoning demands hjT>othetical nominatives bearing 
the same relation to the oblique forms, so that either loiis, 
bous, slrus or lovis, bovis, struis must be posited as the 
unused ' regular ' nominatives. 

§ 75. " Adjectives and adverbs. * Varro normally, but 
not always, quotes adjectives in the neuter form. " The 
syncopated form of caltdum, common in popular speech at 
the time of Varro ; cf. Quintilian, Inst. Orat. i. 6. 19. For 



like the genitive lovis bovis struts were the accusative 
lovem bovem struem and the dative lovi bovi strut ; and 
since these agreed in the obUque cases, they ought 
not to have varied in the nominative forms, in which 
it is now customary to use different formations, lupiter 
for lous,^ bos for bous,^ strues ' heap of offering-cakes ' 
for strus.^ 

XXXIX. 75. Next I shall speak of a second " class 
of words, in which degrees of comparison are made, 
like album * ' white,' albius ' whiter,' albissumum 
' whitest,' in which likewise it is clear that the Regu- 
larities are not preserved. For whereas salsum 'salty' 
and caldum * ' hot ' are alike, and from these are made 
the comparatives salsius and caldius, and the super- 
latives salsissimum and caldissimum, there should be 
made from boniim ' good ' and malum ' bad,' since 
these are ahke, the comparatives bonius and malius, 
the superlatives bonissimum and malissimum. But are 
not the actual forms in use botium melius optimum, and 
malum peius pessimum ? 

76. In some words no form is lacking ; for ex- 
ample, dulcis ' sweet,' dulcior, dulcissimus. In others 
the first or positive degree is lacking, as peium from 
peius ' -worse,' pessimum ' worst ' ; in others the second 
is lacking, as caesior from caesius ' blue-eyed,' super- 
lative caesissimus ° ; in still others two are lacking 
which are derived from the same word, and these in 
such a way that in some instances the second and the 
third are lacking, as manius and manissime in connexion 
■with the adverb mane ' early in the morning ' ; that 
in others the first two are wanting, as opium and optius 

metrical facility the poets normally used positive calidus, 
comparative (nom. sing.) caldior. 

§ 76. " This form is not otherwise attested. 



optum, alias ut primum et tertium desit, ut a melius 
melum^ melissumum. 

77. Praeterea si dicerentur similiter, cum similia 
assent <m>acer^ tener et macerrimus^ tenerrimus, non 
discreparet in his macrior tenerior,^ neque alia tri- 
syllaba (alia quadrisyllaba)* fierent ; et si in his 
dominaretur similitudo, diceremus ut candidissimus 
candidissima, pauperrumus pauperrima, sic candidus 
Candida, pauper paupera ; et ut dicimus doctus docta, 
doctissimus doctissima, sic diceremus frugalissumus 
frugalissima, frug<al)us et frug(al)a.^ 

78. Et si proportioned esse<nt> verba, «t^ uno 
vocabulo dicimus virum et mulierem sapientem et 
diligentem et sapientiorem et diligentiorem, sic dice- 
remus item, cum pervenissemus ad summum, quod 
nunc facimus aliter : nam virum dicimus sap(i)entis- 
simum et diligentissimum, feminam sapientissimam 
et diligentissimam. Quod ad vocabulorum huius 
generis exempla pertinet, multa sunt reliqua ; sed ea 

* L. Sp., for melummelius. 

§ 77. ^ Laetus, for acer ; L. Sp. deleted sacer after macer ; 
see note a. ^ L. Sp. deleted sacerrimus after macerrimus. 

* Ang., with B,for tenerrimus. * Added by Sciop. * L. 
Sp., for frugus et fruga. 

§78. 1 La^^MS, /or proportionem. ^ Aldus, for et. 

* The corresponding ideas were expressed by forms unrelated 
etymologicaily, cf. § 75. 

§ 77. "^The Mss. have sacer between macer and tener, and 
sacerrimus between macerrimus and tenerrimus ; but the 
word is out of place in this passage, as it has no comparative, 
for which sanctior is regularly substituted. * Pauper 


from optimum * ' best ' ; and that in others the first 
and the third are lacking, as melum and melissumum 
from melius ' better.' 

77. Besides, if they were spoken in like manner, 
then since macer ' lean ' and tener ' tender ' " are 
alike, and their superlatives macerrimus and tener- 
rimus, there would be no difference in their compara- 
tives macrior and tenerior, nor would some such words 
have three syllables and others four. And if Ukeness 
ruled in such words, then just as we say candidissimus 
' most shining ' and fem. candidissima, pauperrumus 
' poorest ' and fem. pauperrima, so we should say 
candidus ' shining ' and fem. Candida, pauper ' poor ' 
and fem. paupera.^ And as we say doctus ' learned ' 
and fem. docta, doctissimus ' most learned ' and fem. 
doctissima, so we should say frugaUssumus ' most 
thrifty ' and fem. frugalissima, frugalus ' thrifty ' and 
fem. Jrugala.'^ 

78. And if words were in regular relation to each 
other, as with one word ° we call a man and a woman 
sapiens ' wise ' and diligens ' diligent,' sapientior 
' wiser ' and diligentior ' more diligent,' so we should 
speak in the same way when we had come to the 
superlative — a thing which we now do quite other- 
wise * : for we call a man sapientissimus and diligentis- 
simus, a woman sapientissima and diligentissima. As 
for examples of words of this class, there are many 
still remaining ; but those which have been mentioned 

serves for all genders in the nominative, as it belongs to the 
third declension. ' The form in actual use for the positive 
is the dative noun f rug I : older Latin used frugal is. 

§ 78. " These third declension adjectives use the same 
forms for masc. and fem. * All superlatives are of the 
second and first declensions, distinguishing the fem. from 
the masc. forms. 

VOL. II F 433 


quae dicta, ad iudicandum satis sunt, quor' analogias 
in collatione verborum sequi non debeamus. 

XL. 79- Magnitudinis vocabula cum possint esse 
terna, ut cista cistula cistella, in (aliis) media^ non 
sunt, ut in his macer macricolus macellus, niger nigri- 
colus nigellus. Item minima in quibusdam non sunt, 
ut avis avicula av<i>cella,^ caput capitulum capitellum. 
In hoc genere vocabulorum quoniam multa desunt, 
dicendum est non esse in eo potius sequendam quam 
consuetudinem rationem. Quod ad vocabulorum 
genera quattuor pertinet, ut in hoc potius consue- 
tudinem quam analogias dominari facile animadverti 
possit, dictum est. 

XLI. 80. Sequitur de nominibus, quae difFerunt a 
vocabulis ideo quod sunt finita ac significant res pro- 
prias, ut Paris Helena, cum vocabula sint infinita ac 
res com<m>unis designent,^ ut vir mulier ; e quibus 
sunt alia nomina ab nominibus, ut Ihum ab Ilo et Iba 
ab Ik'o,^ alia a vocabulo, ut ab albo Albius, ab atro 
Atrius. In neutris servata est analogia : nam et cum 
sit a Romulo Roma, proportione non est quod debuit 
esse (Romula, non Roma).* 

' L. Sp., for quod F {corrected from quorum). 

§ 79. ^ Auff. {quoting a friend), for in mediis. ^ For 

§80. ^ Auff., with B, for designentur. ^ Aug. , with B, 
for ilium ab illo et ilia ab illo. ' Added by Stephanus, cf. 
ix. 50 ; but the lacuna is more serious, for it should show also 
irregularity in the derivation of proper names from common 

§ 79. " That is diminution in size. * The non-existent 


are enough for the formation of a judgement why in 
the comparison of words we do not have to follow 

XL. 79. Whereas there can be a set of three 
words to indicate size," Uke cista ' casket,' cistula, 
cistella, in some the middle terms do not exist, as in 
these : macer ' lean,' macricolus,^ macellus, and niger 
' black,' nigricolus,^ nigellus. Likewise in certain 
words the terms for least size do not exist, such as avis 
' bird,' avicula, avicella,^ and caput ' head,' capitulum, 
capitellum.^ Since in this class of words there are 
many forms lacking, we must say that in it theory 
must not be followed rather than usage. 

As to the four classes of common nouns, I have said 
enough ; and it can easily be observed that here 
usage governs rather than Regularities. 

XLL 80. Thematter of proper nouns now follows, 
which differ from common nouns in that they are 
definite and denote special things, like the names 
Paris and Helen, while common nouns are indefinite 
and indicate general ideas, like vir ' man ' and mulier 
' woman.' Among these there are some proper 
names from proper names, Uke Ilium from Ilus," and 
Ilia * from Ilium ; others are from a common noun, 
like Alhius '^ from album <* ' white,' Atrius from atrum 
' black.' In neither set is Regularity preserved : for 
inasmuch as from Romulus comes the name Roma, 
there is not the form which should have come into 
existence by regular relation, namely, Romula and 
not Roma. 

§ 80. " Grandfather of Priam. * Daughter of Numitor, 
and mother of Romulus and Remus. * Family name of 
Tibullus. '' The word vocabulum ' common noun ' in- 
cludes in \'arro's terminology both substantive and adjective. 



81. (Item Perpenna debuit esse)^ Perpenni filia, 
non Perpennae (filius. Nam)^ Perpenna mulieris 
nomen esse debuit et nata esse a Perpenno, quod est 
ut Art;ernus' Percelnus Perpennus, Arverna' Percelna 
Perpenna. Quod si Marcus Perpenna virile est 
nomen et analogia sequenda, Lucius ^elia et Quintus 
Mucia virilia nomina esse debebunt ; item quae 
dicunt ab Rhodo, Andro, Cyzico Rhodius, (Andrius),* 
Cyzicenus, similiter Cyzicius dici (debebat),* et civis 
unus quisque : now* ut Athenaeus dicitur rhetor 
nomine, etsi non sit Atheniensis. 

82. In hoc ipso analogia non est, quod alii nomina 
habent ab oppidis, alii aut non habent aut non ut de- 
bent habent. 

83. Habent plerique libertini a municipio manu- 
missi, in quo, ut societatum et fanorum servi, non 
servarunt proportioned rationem, et Romanorum 
liberti debuerunt dici ut a Faventia Faventinus, ab 
Reate Reatinus sic a Roma Romanus, ut nominentur^ 
libertini* orti <a>* publicis servis Romani, qui manu- 
missi ante quam sub magistratu(u)/«^ nomina, qui eos 
liberarunt, succedere c(o>eperunt. 

§ 81. ^ item added by Stephanus, Perpenna hy Kent, 
debuit esse by L. Sp. ^ Added by Kent. ^ Mue., for 
Arb-. * Added by Aldus. ^ Added by Mue. ^ Canal, 
for nam. 

§ 83. ^ L. Sp., for proportionem. * Vertranius, for 
nominantur. * Vertranius, for a libertinis. * Added 
by Mue. * Sciop., for magistratus. 

§81. "A well-known Roman family name of Etruscan 
origin; masculine, though of the first declension. "Instead 
of the actual Aelius and Mucins. ' Of the second century 



81 . Likewise, Perpenna " ought to be the daughter 
of Perpennus, not the son of Perpenna. For Perpenna 
ought to be the name of a woman, and to mean a child 
of Perpennus ; this is Uke mascuhne Arvernus, Per- 
celnus, feminine Arverna and Percelna, so also Perpennus 
and Perpenna. But if Marcus Perpenna is a man's 
name and Regularity is to be followed, then Lucius 
Aelia and Quintus Mucia * ^nll have to be men's names. 
Likewise the names which they use derived from 
Rhodus ' Rhodes,' Andros, and Cyzicus, are Rhodius 
' Rhodian,' Andrius ' Andrian,' and Cyzicenus ' Cyzi- 
cene ' ; but if made in like manner the last ought to 
be Cyzicius, and each name ought to denote a citizen 
of the place : not as a certain rhetorician is called 
Athenaeus," although he is not an Athenian by birth. 

82. In this very matter, then, there is no Regu- 
larity, because some have names from the towns, 
others either have names from other sources or have 
names from towns from which they ought not to get 

83. Most freedmen set free in a free to^vn get their 
names from the to\\Ti ; in which, as slaves of guilds 
and temples, they have not observed the theory with 
proper relation ; and the freedmen of the Romans 
ought to have got the name Romanus,'^ like Faventinus 
from Faventia and Reatinus from Reate. In this way 
the freedmen whose parents were state slaves would 
be named Romanus, who had been set free before 
they began to take the names of the magistrates 
who set them free. 

B.C. : not to be confused with the more celebrated Athenaeus 
of Xaucratis, of the second century a.d., who wrote the 
Deipnosoph Istae. 

§ 83. » C/. Livy, iv. 61. 10. 



84. Hinc quoque ilia nomina Lesas, Ufenas, 
Carrinas, Maecenas, quae cum essent ab loco ut 
Urbinas, et tamen Urbin(i>us,i ab his debuerunt 
dici ad nostrorum nominum (similitudinem* Lesius 
Ufenius Carrinius Maecenius)' ... * 

§ 84. ^ GS, ; Urbinus older editions ; for uerbinus. 
^ Added hy Laetus. ^ Added by GS. * Here the rest of 
the line, and all the reverse of the folio, are left vacant in F ; 
hut the remaining material xchich was contained in the book 
would have occupied mvch more space. Probably an entire 
quaternion had been lost from the archetype of F. 



SI. From this practice came also such names as 
Lesas, Ufenas, Carrinas, Maecenas " ; since these are 
from the place of origin, like Urbinas,^ alongside 
Urbinius, there should from them have been formed, 
after the likeness of our names, the names Lesius, 
Ufenius, Carrinius, Maece/iius.'^ . . . 

§ 84. " Regularly formed cognomina ; Lesas is not other- 
wise known, but the other three are. Maecenas was the 
friend of Augustus and the patron of literary men. * From 
Urbinum in Umbria. ' Inasmuch as Roman gentile 
names almost always ended in -ius. 




LIBER Villi) 

I. 1. ... (Insignis eorum est error qui malunt 
quae)* nesciunt docere quam discere quae ignorant : 
in quo fuit Crates, nobilis grammaticus, qui fretus 
Chr^sippo, homine acutissimo qui reliquit Trepl dvw- 
/xaAias III libro*,* contra analogian atque Aristar- 
cAum' est nixus, sed ita, ut scripta indicant eius, ut 
neutrius videatur pervidisse voluntatem, quod et 
Chrj/sippus de inaequabilitate cum scribit sermon«s,* 
propositum habet ostendere similes res dissimilibus 
verbis et dissimiles simil«6MS* esse vocabulis notatas, 
id quod est verum,* et quod'' Aristarchus, de aequa- 
bilitate cu7n scribit* e«(us)de(m),* verborum simili- 
tudinem quandam" (in) inclinatione** sequi iubet, 
quoad patiatur consuetudo. 

§ 1. * The folio contains hut 23 lines instead of the usual 
39, and as traces of the heading were formerly visible, the 
lost text was not very extensive. The subject-matter of the 
first extant sentence also indicates that not much has been 
lost ; the additions are by Boot. ^ L, Sp., for lei libri. 





I. 1. ... They are a prey to extraordinary error, 
who prefer to teach what they do not know, rather 
than to learn that of which they are ignorant. In 
this position was the famous grammarian Crates, 
who placed his reliance on Chrysippus, a man of 
great acumen who left three books On Anomaly, 
and contended against Regularity and Aristarchus, 
but in such a way — as his wTitings show — that he does 
not seem to have understood thoroughly the intent 
of either. For Chrysippus, when he \\Tites about the 
Inconsistency of speech, has as his object the showing 
that like things are denoted by unlike words and 
that unlike things are denoted by like words, as is true ; 
and Aristarchus, when he writes about the Consist- 
ency of the same, bids us follow a certain Ukeness of 
words in their derivation, as far as usage permits. 

' For Aristharcum. * Stephanas, with B, for sermones. 

* dissimilis similibus Wilmanns, for dissimilibus similes. 

* Aldus, for uerbum. ' Mue., for cum. * Mue., for 
conscribit. • GS., for et de. ^" Groth, for quarun- 
dam. " A. Sp. ; in declinatione L. Sp. ; for inclinationes. 



2. Sed ii qui in loquendo partim sequi iube(n>t^ 
nos consuetudinem partim rationem, non tarn dis- 
crepant, quod consuetude et analogia coniunctiores 
sunt inter se quam iei credunt, 

3. quod est nata ex quadam consuetudine ana- 
logia et ex hac (consuetudine item anomalia.^ Quare 
quod*) consuetudo ex dissimilibus et similibus verbis 
eorumque' declinationibus constat, neque anomalia 
neque analogia est repudianda, nisi si non est homo 
ex anima, quod est* ex corpore et anima. 

4«. Sed ea quae dicam quo facilius pervideri possint, 
prius de trinis copulis discernendum (nam^ confusim 
ex utraque parte pleraque dicuntur, quorum* alia ad 
aliam referri debent summam) : primum de copulis 
naturae et (u)suis' : haec enim duo sunt quo deri- 
gunt<ur)* diversa, quod aliud est dicere <esse>^ ver- 
borum analogias, aliud dicere uti oportere analogiis ; 
secundum de copulis multitudinis ac finis, utrum 
omnium verborum dicatur esse analogia <r)?^?«' usus 
an maioris partis ; tertium de copulis personarum, 
qui eis debe(a>nt' uti, quae sunt plures. 

5. Alia enim populi universi, alia singulorum, et de 
ieis non eadem oratoris et poetae, quod eorum non 

§ 2. ^ Victorius, for iubet. 

§ 3. 1 Added by Mue. * Added by L. Sp. ^ L. Sp., 
for eorum quod. * homo ex anima quod est is repeated in 
F, but was deleted by A. Sp., with V, p ; ex anima quod est 
was deleted by Aug., with B. 

§4. ^ Aug. deleted cum after nam. ^ Aldus, for 
quarum. * L. Sp.,for suis / cf. Gellius, iv.l6. 1. * GS. ; 
quod derigunt L. Sp, ; for quod erigunt. * Added by L. 
Sp. : cf. § 6. * Mue.. for analogia an. ' Kent, for 

§ 4. " Gellius, iv. 16 says that Varro always made the 


2. But those who give us adWce in the matter of 
^peaking, some saying to follow usage and others 
saying to follow theory, are not so much at variance, 
because usage and regularity are more closely con- 
nected with each other than those advisers think. 

3. For Regularity is sprung from a certain usage 
in speech, and from this usage likewise is sprung 
Anomaly. Therefore, since usage consists of unlike 
and like words and their derivative forms, neither 
Anomaly nor Regularity is to be cast aside, unless 
man is not of soul because he is of body and of soul. 

-i. But that what I am about to say may be more 
easily grasped, first there must be a clear distinction 
of three sets of relations ; for most things are said 
indiscriminately in two ways, and of them some 
ought to be referred to one principle and others to 
other principles. First, the distinction of the rela- 
tions of nature and use " ; for these are two factors 
which are diverse in the goals toward which they 
direct themselves, because it is one thing to say 
that Regularities exist in words, and another thing to 
say that we ought to follow the Regularities. Second, 
the distinction of the relations of extension and 
limitation, whether the use of the Regularities should 
be said to be proper in all words, or only in a majority 
of them. Third, the distinction in the relations of 
the speaking persons, how * the majority of persons 
ought to observe the Regularities. 

5. For some words and forms are the usage of 
the people as a whole, others belong to individual 
persons ; and of these, the words of the orator and 
those of the poet are not the same, because their 

genitive of the fourth declension in -UIS. * Qui is here 
the ablatival adverb. 



idem ius. Itaque populus universus debet in omni- 
bus verbis uti analogia et, si perperam est consuetus, 
eorrigere se ipsum, cum orator non debeat in omnibus 
uti, quod sine ofFensione non potest facere, cum poeta^ 
transilire lineas impune possit. 

6. Populus enim in sua potestate, singuli in illius : 
itaque ut suam quisque consuetudinem, si mala est, 
eorrigere debet, sic populus suam. Ego populi con- 
suetudinis non sum ut dominus, at ille meae est. Ut 
rationi optemperare debet gubernator, gubernatori 
unus quisque in navi, sic populus rationi, no*^ sin- 
guli populo. Quare ad quamcumque summam in 
dicendo referam si animadvertes, intelleges, utrum 
dicatur analogia esse an uti oportere (ea ; itemque 
intelleges si ad analogiam usum loquendi oportea>t 
redigere, tu??« dici id in populum aliter ac (in singulos 
nee) i(de);n de omnibus dici* in eum qui sit in 

II. 7. Nunc iam primum dicam pro universa ana- 
logia, cur non modo (non)^ videatur esse reprehen- 
denda, sed etiam cur in usu quodammodo sequenda ; 
secundo de singulis criminibus, quibus rebus possint 
quae dicta sunt contra solvi, dicam ita ut generatim 

§ 5. ^ L, Sp., for poetae. 

§ 6. ^ Laetus, B, for non. * F has here uti opor- 
teret redigeretur dici id in populum aliter ac inde omnibus 
dici / Aug., with B, read redigere for redigeretur / Mue. 
emended to uti oportere ea ; et quom poscitur ut usus ad id 
quod oporteret redigeretur dici, etc., deleting inde omnibus 
dici as a gloss ; Reiter proposed uti oportere et redigere, turn 
dici, tcith the same deletion ; GS. proposed that which is in the 
text, except that for their usus loquendi oporteret redigeretur, 
/ have adopted usum loquendi oporteat redigere turn, taking 
oporteat from Fay (ubi oporteat redigere tibi dici, with the 
rest like Mueller^ s version), and redigere tum from Reiter. 

§ 7. ^ Added by Stephanus. 


rights and limitations are not the same. Therefore 
the people as a whole ought in all words to use 
Regularity, and if it has a wrong practice, it ought 
to correct itself ; whereas the orator ought not to use 
Regularity in all words, because he cannot do so with- 
out gi\ing offence, and on the other hand the poet 
can ^yith impunity leap across all the bounds. 

6. For the people has power oyer itself, but the 
individuals are in its power ; therefore as each one 
ought to correct his own usage if it is bad, so should 
the people correct its usage. I am not the master — 
so to speak — of the people's usage, but it is of mine. 
As a helmsman ought to obey reason, and each one 
in the ship ought to obey the helmsman, so the people 
ought to obey reason, and we indi\iduals ought to 
obey the people. Therefore, if you vriW take notice of 
each principle on which I shall base my argument in 
the matter of speaking, you will appreciate whether 
Regularity is said merely to exist, or it is said that 
we ought to follow it ; and hkewise you ^^^I1 ap- 
preciate that if the practice of speech ought to be 
reduced to Regularity, then this is meant for the 
people in a different sense from that in which it is 
meapt for individuals, and that that which is taken 
from the entire body of speakers is not necessarily 
meant in the same form for him who is only an in- 
dividual in the people. 

II. 7. Now I shall speak first in support of Regu- 
larity as a whole, why, as it seems, it not only should 
not be censured, but even should in practice be 
followed in a certain measure ; and secondly, concern- 
ing the several charges against it, I shall give the 
arguments by which the objections can be refuted, 
arranging them in such a way that I shall include, 



comprehenda;»^ et ea quae in priore libro sunt dicta 
et ea quae possunt did atque* illic praeterii. 

III. 8. Primum quod aiunt, qui bene loqui velit 
consuetudinem sequi oportere, non rationem simili- 
tudinum, quod, alteram* si neglegat, sine offensione 
facere non possit, alteram* si sequatur, quod sine 
reprehensione non sit futurum, e<r)ra(n)t,^ quod qui 
in loquendo consuetudinem qua oportet uti sequitur, 
<eam sequitur)* non sine* ratione. 

IV. 9- Nam vocabula ac verba quae declinamus 
similiter, ea in consuetudine esse videmus et ad ea<m)* 
conferimus et, si quid est erratum, non sine ea cor- 
rigimus. Nam ut, qui triclinium constrarunt, si quem 
lectum de tribus unum imparem posuerunt aut de 
paribus nimium aut parum produxerunt, una cor- 
rigimus et ad consuetudinem co<m>munem et ad 
aliorum tricliniorum analogias, sic si quis in oratione 
in pronuntiando ita declinat verba ut dicat disparia, 
quod peccat redigere debemus ad ceterorum similium 
verborum rationem. 

V. 10. Cum duo peccati genera sint in declina- 
tione,* unum quod in consuetudinem perperam recep- 
tum est, alterum quod nondum est et perperam dicatur , 
unum dant non oportere dici, quod <non)^ sit in con- 
suetudine, alterum non conceditur quin ita dicatur, 

^ Aldus, for compraehendant. * For atquae. 

§8. ^ L. Sp., for alterum. ^ Aug., for erai. ^ Added 
by Mue., after L. Sp. * Mice, deleted ea after sine. 

§ 9. * Aug., icith B, for ea. 

§10, * X. 5/)., /or declinationum. ^ Added hy Aug. 

§ 9. " Or a set of dining-couches : the Romans placed 
three couches on three sides of a square in the centre of which 



item by item, those which have been narrated in the 
previous book and also those which can be presented 
but were passed over by me in that place. 

III. 8. First, as to their alleging that he who 
wishes to speak well ought to observe usage and not 
the theory of likenesses, because if he disregards 
the former he cannot do so without giving offence, and 
if he follows the latter it will not be without incurring 
rebuke : they are mistaken, because he who in 
speaking follows the usage which he ought to employ, 
is following it also without disregard of the theory. 

IV. 9^ For we see that nouns and verbs which 
we inflect in similar ways are in general usage, and 
we compare others with this usage, and if there is 
any error we make the correction with the help of 
usage. For if those who have arranged the dining- 
room " have among the three couches set one that in 
of a different size, or among couches that match 
have brought one too far forward, or not far enough, 
we join in making the correction according to common 
usage and to the analogies of other dining-rooms ; 
in the same way, if in speech any one in his utterance 
should so inflect the words as to speak irregular 
forms, we ought to revise his mistake according to 
the model of other similar words. 

V. 10. Now there are two kinds of wrong forms in 
inflection ; one, that which has been erroneously 
accepted into general usage ; the other, that which 
is not yet so accepted and may be called incorrect. 
The latter they grant ought not to be said, because 
it is not in usage, but as for the former they merely 
do not admit the propriety of saying it in this way ; 

stood the dining-table. The couches should be identical and 
symmetrically placed. 



ut si<t>' similiter, cum id faciant, ac, si quis puerorum 
per delicias pedes male ponere atque imitari vatias 
c(o>eperit, hos corrigi oportere si conceda(n>t,* contra 
si quis in consuetudine ambulandi iam factus sit vatia 
aut conpernis, si eum corrigi non conceda(n)t.* 

11. Non sequitur, ut stulte faciant qui pueris in 
geniculis alligent serperastra, ut eorum depravata 
corrigant crura ? Cum vetuperandus^ non sit medicus 
qui e longinqua mala consuetudine aegrum in meli- 
orem traducit, quare reprehendendus sit qui orationem 
minus valentem propter malam consuetudinem tradu- 
cat in meliorem ? 

VI. 12. Pictores Apelles/ Protogenes, sic alii 
artufices egregii non reprehendundi, quod consuetu- 
dinem Miconos, Dion's,^ Arimmae, etiam superiorum 
non sunt secuti : Aristophanes improbandus, qui 
potius in quibusdam veritatem' quam consuetudinem 
secutus ? 

VII. 13. Quod si viri sapientissimi, et in re 
militari et in aliis rebus multa contra veterem con- 
suetudinem cum essent (a)usi,^ laudati, despiciendi 
sunt qui potiorem dicunt oportere esse consuetudinem 

VIII. 14. An cum quis perperam consuerit quid 
facere in civitate, non modo (non>^ patiemur, sed 

' Laetus, for si. * Aldus, for concedat. 

§11. ^ G, H, Victor ius, for detuperandus. 

§ 12. ^ For Appelles. ^ Aug., with B, for Dioros. 
' J), Laetus, for ueteritatem. 

§ 13. ^ Canal, for usi. 

§ 14. ^ Added by Aug., with B. 

§11. " The interrogation-mark was placed here by 
Mueller ; the question is sarcastic. 



so that when they do this it is just as if they should 
grant that the boys ought to be corrected in case 
any .of them in wilfulness begins to manage his feet 
awkwardly and to imitate the bowlegged, but should 
refuse to grant that one should be corrected if he in 
his habit of walking has already become bowlegged 
or knock-kneed. 

1 1 . Does it not follow that they act foolishly who 
fasten splints on the knees of children, to straighten 
their crooked leg-bones ? " Since even that physician 
is not to be censured who makes a healthier man out 
of one who has been ill as a result of a long-continued 
bad habit, why should he be blamed who brings into 
better condition a way of speech which has been less 
eflFective on account of bad usage ? 

VI. 12. The painters Apelles " and Protogenes,^ 
and other famous artists are not to be blamed be- 
cause they did not follow the ways of Micon," Diores,** 
Arimmas,'' and even earlier craftsmen ; then must 
Aristophanes * be condemned because in some things 
he followed reality rather than usage ? 

Vn. 13. But if the wisest men have been praised 
because both in warfare and in other things they 
had dared do much that was against old usage, then 
they must be despised who say that usage ought to 
be considered as better than good theory. 

VTII. 14. Or when a person has been accustomed 
to do something wrong in civil life, shall we not only 

§ 12. " Distinguished Greek painter of the time of Alex- 
ander the Great. * Distinguished Greek painter, con- 
temporary of Apelles. « Sculptor and painter at Athens, 
middle of the fifth century b.c. ** Entirely unknown 
otherwise ; the names are perhaps corrupt, cf. Bergk in 
Philol. XXX. 682 (1870), and Georges in Fleckeisen^s Jahr- 
bucher, cxxxv. 768 (1887). « See v. 9 note a. 

VOL. II G 449 


etiam p<o)ena^ afficiemus, idem si quis perperam con- 
suerit dicere verbum, non corrigemus, cum id fiat 
sine p(o)ena ? 

IX. 15. Et hi qui pueros in ludum mittunt, ut 
discant quae nesciunt verba quemadmodum scribant, 
idem barbatos qui ignorabunt verba quemadmodum 
oporteat dici non docebimus, ut sciant qua ratione 
conveniat dici ? 

X. 16. Sed ut nutrix pueros a lacte non subito 
avellit a consuetudine, cum a cibo pristino in meliorem 
tradueit, sic maiores in^ loquendo a 7rti«us* commodis 
verbis ad ea quae sunt cum ratione modice traducere 
oportet. Cum sint <in>' consuetudine contra ratio- 
ne<m>* alia verba ita ut ea facile tolli possint, alia 
ut videantur esse fixa, quae leviter haerent ac sine 
ofFensione commutari posswnt^ statim^ ad rationem 
corrigi oportet, quae autem sunt ita ut in praesentia 
corrigere nequeas quin ita dicas, his oportet, si possis, 
non uti : sic enim obsolescent ac postea iam obliterata 
facilius corrigi poterunt. 

XI. 17. Quas novas verbi declinationes ratione^ 
introductas respuet forum, his boni poetae, maxime 

* G, a, Laetus, for penam. 

§ 16. ^ Mue., for in maioris. * ^ug., for animus. 
' Added by Ed. Veneta. * Laehts,for ratione. ' Aldus, 
for possint. * Mue., for si enim. 

§ 17. * Laetus, for rationes. 

§14. " Representing ic?«»«, nom. sing. The whole sentence 
is a double question, of which the first part is really a state- 
ment of fact as a basis for the real query, which comes at 
the end. 

§ 15. " ///, hanging nom., resumed by barbatos. * Varro 
refers to wrong forms and wrong pronunciations of the 


not tolerate him but even visit him ^^^th punishment 
— and yet " if a person has the habit of saying a 
word wrong, shall we not correct him, when this 
may be done without actual punishment ? 

IX. 15. And these men " who send their boys to 
school to learn how to wTite words which they don't 
know — shall we not likewise instruct these men, 
bewhiskered adults as they are, who du not know 
how the words ought to be spoken, that they may 
know by what logical theory they may properly be 
pronounced ? * 

X. 16. But as the nurse does not with sudden- 
ness tear her nurslings away from their wonted 
method of feeding, when she changes them from their 
first food to a better, so we ought to go gradually 
and judiciously in matters of speech, in changing 
older persons from less suitable words to those 
which accord with logical theory. Since among the 
illogical words which are in common usage there are 
some which can easily be eliminated, and others of 
such a sort that they seem firmly fixed," it is proper 
to correct at once in the direction of logic only those 
which are lightly attached and can be changed 
without giving offence ; but those which are such 
that for the present you cannot make the correction 
so as not to speak them thus, these you ought, if 
possible, to refrain from using. For thus they will 
become unwonted and afterward, when already 
blurred to the memory, they can be more easily 

XI. 17. Such new inflectional forms as are intro- 
duced by logical theory but are rejected by the 
speech of the forum, these the good poets, especially 

§ 16. " Cf. § 10. 



scaenici, consuetudine subigere aures populi debent, 
quod poetae multum possunt in hoc : propter eos 
quaedam verba in declinatione melius, quaedam 
deterius dicuntur. Consuetude loquendi est in 
motu : itaque sole(n>t* fieri et meliora' deteriora <et 
deteriora)* meliora ; verba perperam dicta^ apud 
antiquos aliquos propter poetas non modo nunc dicun- 
tur recte, sed etiam quae ratione dicta sunt turn, 
nu«(c>' perperam dicuntur. 

XII. 18. Quare qui ad consuetudinem nos vocant, 
si ad rectam, sequemur : in eo quoque enim est 
analogia ; si ad earn invitant quae est depravata, 
nihilo^ magis sequemur, nisi cum erit necesse, quam^ 
in ceteris rebus mala exempla : nam ea quoque, cum 
aliqua vis urget, inviti sequemur. XIII. Neque enim 
L^sippus artificum priorum potius (secutus)^ est 
vitiosa quam artem ; sic populus facere debet, etiam 
singuli, sine ofFensione quod fiat populi. 

19. Qui amissa <non)^ modo quaerant, sed etiam 
quod indicium dent, idem, ex sermone si quid 
deperiit, non modo nihil* impendunt ut requirant, sed 
etiam contra indices repugnant ne restituatur ?^ 

20. Verbum quod novum et ratione introductum 

* Canal, for solet. " Canal, for meliore. * Added by 
Canal. ' For dictam. * Aug., for num. 

§ 18. * For nichilo, * Canal, for sequar. * Added 
here by GS. ; after vitiosa by Laetus. 

§ 19. 1 Added by Aug. * For nichil. ^ jj^ Ed. 
Veneta, /or, restituantur. 

§ 18. "Of Sicyon, famous sculptor, contemporary of 
Alexander the Great. 


the dramatists, ought to force upon the ears of the 
people and accustom them to them. For the poets 
have great power in this sphere : they are responsible 
for the fact that certain words are now spoken \Wth 
improved inflections, and others vrith worse. The 
usage of speech is always shifting its position : this is 
why words of the better sort are wont to become 
worse, and worse words better ; words spoken wTongly 
by some of the old-timers are on account of the poets' 
influence now spoken correctly, and on the other 
hand some that were then spoken according to logical 
theory, are now spoken wTongly. 

XII. 18. Therefore those who summon us to obey 
usage, we shall follow, if it be to a correct usage. 
For in this also there is the principle of Regularity : 
if they in\ite us to that usage which is perverted 
and irregular, we shall not follow it unless it becomes 
necessary, any more than we follow bad examples in 
other things ; for we do follow them too, though 
against our inclinations, when some force bears down 
upon us. XIII. And in fact Lysippus " did not 
follow the defects of the artists who preceded him, 
but rather their artistry ; just so should the people 
do in their speech, and even the individuals, so far 
as it may be done ^^■ithout offence to the people as a 

19- There are some persons who not only hunt for 
lost articles, but even of their own initiative give 
any information which they may have : do the same 
persons, if something has been lost from speech, not 
only not exert themselves in hunting for it, but 
even fight against the informers, to keep it from 
being put back into its place ? 

20. As for a word that is new and has been intro- 



quo minus^ recipiamus, vitare non debemus. XIV. 
Nam ad usum in vestimentis aedificiis supellectili^ 
novitati non impedit vetus consuetudo : quem enim 
amor assuetudinis potius in pannis possessorem 
retinet, quem ad nova vestimenta traducit ? XV. An 
non saepe veteres leges abrogatae novis cedunt ? 

XVI. 21. Nonne inusitatis formis vasorum re- 
centibus e Graecia arflatis^ obliteratae antiquae 
consuetudinis smorum et capularum* species ? His 
formis vocabulorum incontaminati<s>' uti nolent 
qua** docu<e)rit ratio^ propter consuetudinem 
veterem ? Et tantum inter duos sensus interesse 
volunt, ut oculis semper aliquas figuras supel- 
lectilis novas conquirant, contra auris expertis 
velint esse ? 

XVII. 22. Quotus quisque iam servo*^ habet 
priscis nominibus .'' Quae mulier suum instrumentum 
vestis atque auri veteribus vocabulis appellat } Sed 
indoctis^ non tam irascendum quam huiusce pravitatis 

23. Si enim usquequaque non^ esset analogia, 
tum sequebatur, ut in verbis quoque non esset, non, 
cum esset usquequaque, ut est, non esse in verbis. 
XVIII. Quae enim est pars mundi quae non in- 
numerabiles habeat analogias ? Caelum an mare an 
terra, quae in his ? 

24. Nonne in caelo ut ab aequinoctiali circulo ad 

§ 20. ^ Vertranius deleted ut after minus. ^ Aug. ; 
suppelectili B ; supellectilis Rhol. ; for suppellectilis. 

§ 21. ^ Aug. ; allatis Laetus ; for ablatis. ^ For capul- 

larum. * L. Sp. ; ut contaminatis Mue. ; for incontami- 

nati. * Stephanus, for nollent quae. * Rhol., for 

§ 22. ^ Aldus, for seruor. * Aug., for inductis. 

§ 23. ^ Aug., with B, for nomen. 



duced according to logical theory, we ought not for 
this to shun giving it a hospitable welcome. XI\\ 
For long-standing custom is not a hindrance to 
novelty in garments, buildings, and utensils, when 
it is a question of use ; what victim of a habit does 
the love of that habit rather keep in rags, when the 
love of novelty " is leading him toward new gar- 
ments ? XV. Are not old laws often annulled and 
succeeded by new laws ? 

XVI. 21. Have not the forms of the old-fashioned 
pots and cups been swept into oblivion by the un- 
familiar shapes of the vessels recently brought from 
Greece ? Shall they then, on account of old-time 
habit, be un-vnlling to use these unsullied forms of 
words, which good reason has taught them ? And 
do they claim that there is such difference between 
the two senses, that for their eyes that are always 
seeking some new shapes of their furniture, but they 
wish their ears to have no share in similar novelties ? 

XVII. 22. Out of how many slave-owners is there 
now one who has slaves bearing the ancient names ? 
WTiat woman calls her outfit of clothing and jewelry 
by the old words ? But it is not so much at the un- 
learned that anger must be felt, as at the advocates 
of this perversity. 

23. For if there were Regularity in no place at all, 
then it follows that there would be none in words 
either ; not that when it is everywhere present (as 
it is in fact), there is none in words. XVIII. For 
what part of the world is there which does not 
have countless Regularities ? Sky or sea or land, 
what Regularities are there in these ? 

24. As in the sky there is a division from the 

§ 20. " Supply amor novitatis as subject of traducit. 



solstitialem et hinc ad septemtrionalem divisum, sic 
contra^ paribus partibus idem a bruma versum con- 
traria parte ? Non quantum polw^s)" superior abest' 
a septemtrionali cir(culo et is a solstitiali, quem sol 
cir>cumit cum it* ad solstitium/ tantundem abest 
inferior ab eo quem dvTa/jKTiKov* vocant astrologi et 
is a brumalt ?' Non, quemadmodum quodque sig- 
num exortum hoc anno,* quotquot annis eodem modo 
exoritur ? 

25. Num aliter sol a bruma venit ad aequinoctium, 
ac contra cum ad solstitium venit, ad aequinoctialem 
circulum et inde ad brumam ? Nonne luna, ut ab 
sole discedit ad aquilonem et inde redit in eandem 
viam, sin inde fertur ad austrum et regreditur inde ? 
Sed quid plura de astris, ubi difficilius reperitur quid 
sit aut fiat in motibus dissimiliter ? 

XIX. 26. At in mari, credo, motus non habent 
similitudines^ geminas, qui in XXIII<I>' horis luna- 
ribus cotidie quater se mutant, ac cum sex horis 
aestus creverunt, totidem decreverunt, rursus idem, 
itemque ab his. An hanc analogian ad diem servant, 
ad mensem non item, alios motus sic item cum 

§ 24. ^ For contra a. * Scaliger, for polo. ' Mue. 
deleted et abest et after abest. * Added and changed by 
GS. (a solstitiali Kent, for ad solstitialem GS.), for circumit 
cum his. ^ For solistitium. * B, for arti articon. 
''Kent, for ad brumalem. ^ Aid us deleted quod after 

§26. ^ J/wf .,/(5r dissimilitudines. ^ Aldus, for XXlll. 

§ 26. » Spoken in sarcasm. * Slightly longer than 
solar hours. ' In relation to the month ; non-existent, but 
assumed for purpose of argument. 



Equator to the Tropic of Cancer, and from there to 
the Arctic Circle, is not also its counterpart, extend- 
ing from the Tropic of Capricorn in the other direc- 
tion, likewise divided into equal sections ? Is it not 
a fact that as far as the North Pole is removed 
from the Arctic Circle and this from the Tropic 
of Cancer, around which the sun travels when it 
comes to the summer solstice, so far the South Pole 
is from that Circle which the astronomers call 
the Antarctic, and this from the Tropic of Capricorn ? 
Is it not true that in the fashion in which each con- 
stellation has risen in the sky this year, in just the 
same fashion it rises each and every year ? 

25. The sun does not come in one way from the 
Tropic of Capricorn to the Equator, does it, and on 
the other hand, when it comes to the Tropic of 
Cancer, return in a different way to the Equator and 
thence to Capricorn .'' The moon, when it goes 
away from the sun to the north and returns from there 
into the same path which the sun pursues, goes on 
from there to the south and comes back again in 
just the same way, does it not ? But why should I 
speak further of the stars, in the case of which there 
is unusual difficulty in finding any irregularity which 
exists or takes place in their motions ? 

XIX. 26. But in the sea, I suppose, the motions 
do not have the twofold likenesses " — the motions 
which in twenty -four lunar * hours change them- 
selves four times, and when the tides have risen for 
six hours, and have ebbed for just as many, they 
likewise rise again, and in the same fashion ebb 
after this time. Or do they keep this Regularity for 
a day's space, and not like-wise for a month, since 
similarly they have another set of motions " which 



habeant aliz's' inter se convenientes ? De quibus in 
libro quern de v4estuariis feci scripsi. 

XX. 27. Non in terra in sationibus servata ana- 
logia .'' Nee cuius modi in praeterito tempore fruc- 
tuum genera reddidit, similia in praesenti reddit, et 
cuius modi tritico iacto reddidit segetes, sic Aordeo 
sato proportione reddidit parilis ? Non, ut Europa 
habet flumina lacus, mentis campos, sic habet Asia ? 

XXI. 28. Non in volucribus generatim servatur 
analogia ? Non ex aquilis aquilae atque ut ex turdis 
qui procreantur turdi, sic ex reliquis sui^ cuiusque 
generis ? XXII. An aliter hoc fit quam in acre in 
aqua ? Non hie conchae inter se generatim in- 
numerabili numero similes ? Non pisces } An e^ 
muraena fit lupus aut merula? Non bos ad bovem 
collatus similis, et qui ex his progenerantur inter se 
vituli ? Etiam ubi dissimilis fetus,' ut ex (asino et)* 
equa mulus, tamen ibi analogia : quod ex quocumque 
asino et equa nascitur id est mulus aut mula, ut ex 
equo et asina hinnulei. 

XXIII. 29. Non sic ex viro et muliere omnis 
similis partus, quod pueri et puellae ? Non horum 
ita inter se^ omnia similia membra, ut separatim in 
suo utroque genere similitudine sint* paria ? Non, 
omnes cum sint ex anima et corpore, partes quoque' 
horum proportione similes ? 

' Reiter, for alios. 

§ 28. ^ Aug., tcith B, for suis. * an e Avg., for sane. 
' Aug., for faetus. * Added by L. Sp. ; Aug., with B, 
added et asino after equa. 

§ 29. ^ Sciop. deleted non after se. " Aug., for simili- 
tudines intra. ' M, p, Laetus, for quaque. 


agree with one another ? Of these I have "\ratten in 
the book which I composed On Tidal Inlets. 

XX. 27. On the earth, is not Regularity pre- 
served in the case of plantings ? Does it not give us 
to-day fruits of precisely the same kind as it has 
given us in the past } Does it not regularly return to 
us a crop of barley when barley has been sown, even 
as it returns a crop of wheat when wheat has been 
sown ? Does not Asia have rivers and lakes, moun- 
tains and plains, even as Europe has ? 

XXI. 28. Is not Regularity preserved among the 
birds, according to their kind ? As the progeny of 
eagles are eagles and the progeny of thrushes are 
thrushes, are not the progeny of the other birds all of 
their own proper and special kind ? XXII. Does 
the process go on in another way in the water, than 
in the air ? Are not the shell-fish here all like their 
own kind, despite their countless number ? Are 
not the fishes ? Is a pike or a sea-carp produced of 
a moray ? Is not one head of cattle like another, 
when compared, and so also the calves which are 
procreated by them ? Even where the offspring is 
unlike the parents, as the mule born of a he-ass and 
a mare, even there there is Regularity none the less : 
the offspring of any ass and mare whatsoever is a 
mule, male or female, as the offspring of a stallion 
and a she-ass is a hinny. 

XXIII. 29. Are not in this way all the offspring 
of man and woman alike, in that they are boys and 
girls ? Do these not have all their limbs mutually 
alike, in such a way that item by item they are pairs 
in likeness, in their own special kinds ? As all are 
made up of soul and body, are not also the parts of 
soul and body alike with the same regularity ? 



30. Quid ergo cum omnes animae hominum sint^ 
divisae in octonas partes, hae* inter se non proportione 
similes ? Quinque quibus sentimus, sexta qua cogi- 
tamus, septuma qua progeneramus, octava qua voces 
mittimus ? Igitur quoniam qua loquimur voce oratio 
est,^ banc quoque necesse est natura habere analogias: 
itaque habet. 

XXIV. 31. An non vides, ut Graeci habeant earn 
quadripertitam, unam in qua si(n>t^ casus, alteram 
in qua tempora, tertiam in qua neutrum, quartum 
in qua utrumque, sic nos habere .'' Ecquid'' verba 
nescis ut apud illos sint alia finita, alia now,' sic 
utra(que>* esse apud nos ? 

32. Equidem non dubito, qui(n) animadvertm*' 
item in ea* innumerabilem similitudin?<m' numerum, 
ut trium temporum verb<i) aut* trium personarum. 
XXV. Quis enim potest non una animadvertisse in 
omni oratione esse ut legebam lego* legam si(c)* lego 
legis legit, cum haec eadem dicantur alias ut singula, 
alias ut plura significentur ? Quis est tam tardus qui 
illas quoque non animadvert(er)it' similitudines, qui- 
bus utimur <in)" imperando, quibus in optando, quibus 

§ 30. 1 H, Laetus, for sunt. « G, Rhol., for heae. 
' L. Sp.,for orationem. 

§ 31. ^ Mue., for sit. * Sciop., for et quid. ' Aug., 
with B, for ne. * Aug., for utra. 

§ 32. ^ Sciop., for qui animaduertunt. * L. Sp., for 
earn. ' Sciop., for similitudinem. * L. Sp., for uerba 
ut. * lego is repeated in F. * Bentinus, for si. ^ L. 
Sp.,for animaduertit. * Added by Sciop. 

§ 30. " Sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch. 

§ 31. " Cf. viii. 44. * Cf. viii. 45. 

§ 32. " That is, the verb-forms used in commands (im- 



30. WTiat then of the fact that the souls of men 
are di\ided into eight parts — are these parts not 
mutually alike with regularity ? I'ive ^^-ith which 
we perceive," the sixth Anth which we think, the 
seventh with which we procreate, the eighth -«-ith 
which we utter articulate words ? Therefore since 
the Avord ^nth which we talk is speech, speech 
also must by nature have its Regulaiities ; and it 

XXIV. 31. Do you not see that the Greeks have 
divided speech into four parts, one in which the words 
have cases, a second in which they have indications 
of time, a third in which they have neither, a fourth 
in which they have both " — and that in the same 
way we have all these divisions ? Do you not know 
that among them some words are definite, others 
not * — and that both kinds are present in our 
language also ? 

32. For my part I have no doubt that you have 
observed the countless number of likenesses in speech, 
such as those of the three tenses of the verb, or its 
three persons. XXV. Who indeed can have failed 
to join vou in observing that in all speech there are 
the three tenses lego ' I read,' legebam ' I was 
reading,' kgam ' I shall read,' and similarly the 
three persons lego ' I read,' legts ' thou readest,* 
legit ' he reads,' though these same forms may be 
spoken in such a way that sometimes one only is 
meant, at other times more ? Who is so slow-vvitted 
that he has not observed also those hkenesses which 
we use in commands," those which we use in \^-ishes, 
those in questions, those in the case of matters not 

peratives and subjunctives) exhibit certain regular resem- 
blances ; and so do those used in wishes, etc. 



in interrogando, quibus in infectis rebus, quibus in 
perfectis, sic in aliis discriminibus ? 

XXVI. 33. Quare qui negant esse rationem^ 
analogiae, non vide(n>t'^ naturam non solum ora- 
tionis, sed etiam mundi ; qui autem vident et sequi 
negant oportere, pugnant contra naturam, non contra 
analogian, et pugnant volsillis, non gladio, cum pauca 
excepta verba ex pelago sermonis (po)puli^ minus 
(usu>* trita afferant, cum dicant propterea analogias 
non esse, similiter ut, si quis viderit mutilum bovem 
aut luscum hominem claudicantemque equum, neget 
in^ bovum hominum et equorum natura similitudines 
proportione constare. 

XXVII. 34-. Qui autem duo genera esse dicunt 
analogiae, unum naturale, quod ut ex *atis^ nascuntur 
(lentibus)^ lentes' sic ex (lupino)* lupinum, alterum 
voluntarium, ut in fabrica, cum vident sccenam ut 
in dexteriore parte sint ostia, sic esse in sinisteriore 
simili ratione factam, de his duobus generibus 
naturalem esse analogian, ut sit in motibus caeli, 
voluntariam non esse, quod ut quo<i)que' fabro 
lubitum sit possit facere partis scaenae : sic in homi- 
num partibus esse analogias, quod ea(s>* natura 
faciat, in verbis non esse, quod ea homines ad suam 
quisque voluntatem fingat, itaque de eisdem rebus 
alia verba habere Graecos, alia St/ros, alia Latinos : 
ego declinatus verborum et voluntarios et naturalis 

§ 33. ^ For orationem. ^ For uidet. ' Canal, for 
pull. * Transferred to this place by Fay ; added by GS. 
before populi. * Sciop. deleted cornibus after in. 

§ 34. ^ Vertranius, after Aug., for natis. ^ Added by 
L. Sp. ^ For lentis. * L. Sp. ; ex lupinis Aug., unth 
B ; for et. * B, for quoque. * Laetus, for ea. 

§ 34. " The expected continuation is, " They are in error." 


completed and those for matters completed, and 
similarly in other diiferentiations ? 

XXVI. 33. Therefore those who say that there is 
no logical system of Regularity, fail to see the nature 
not only of speech, but also of the world. Those 
who see it and say that it ought not to be followed, 
are fighting against nature, not against the principle 
of Regularity, and they are fighting with pincers, 
not with a sword, since out of the great sea of speech 
they select and offer in e\idence a few worck not 
very familiar in popular use, saying that for this 
reason the Regularities do not exist : just as if one 
should have seen a dehorned ox or a one-eyed man 
and a lame horse, and should say that the Ukenesses 
do not exist \\1th regularity in the nature of cattle, 
men, and horses. 

XX\ II. 34. Those moreover who say that there 
are two kinds of Regularity, one natural, namely 
that lentils grow from planted lentils, and so does 
lupine from lupine, and the other voluntary, as in the 
workshop, when they see the stage as having an 
entrance on the right and think that it has for a like 
reason been made with an entrance on the left ; and 
say further, that of these two kinds the natural 
Regularity really exists, as in the motions of the 
heavenly bodies, but the voluntary Regularity is not 
real, because each craftsman can make the parts of 
the stage as he pleases : that thus in the parts of 
men there are Regularities, because nature makes 
them, but there is none in words, because men shape 
them each as he wills, and therefore as names for the 
same things the Greeks have one set of words, the 
Syrians another, the Latins still another " — I firmly 
think that there are both voluntary and natural 



esse puto, voluntarios quibus homines vocabula 
imposwerint' rebus quaedam, ut ab Romulo Roma, 
ab Tihure^ Tiburtes, naturales ut ab impositis vo- 
eabulis quae inclinantur in tempora' aut in casus, 
ut ab Romulo Romuli Romulum et ab dico dicebam 

35. Itaque in voluntariis declinationibus incon- 
stantia est, in naturalibus constantia ; quae utrasque 
quoniam iei non debeant negare esse in oratione, 
quom^ in mundi partibus omnibus sint, et declina- 
tiones verborum innumerabiles, dicendum est esse 
in his analogias. Neque ideo statim ea in omnibus 
verbis est sequenda : nam si qua perperam declinavit 
verba consuetudo, ut ea aliter <non possint efFerri)* 
sine ofFensione multorum, hinc rationem* verborum 
praetermittendam ostendit loquendi ratio. 

XXVIII. 36. Quod ad universam pertinet cau- 
sam, cur similitudo et sit in oratione et debeat 
observari et quam ad finem quoque, satis dictum. 
Quare quod sequitur de partibus singuhs deinceps 
expediemus ac singula crimina quae dicunt (contra)^ 
analogias solvemus. 

37. In quo animadvertito natura quadruplicem 
esse formam, ad quam in declinando accommodari 
debeant verba : quod debeat subesse res quae* 

' For imposierint. * For tybere. • For tempore. 

§ 35. * Mue., with a, for quam. * Added by GS., after 
Aldus eiferri non possit {Aug., possint). ^ Sciop., a, for 

§ 36. » Added by L. Sp. ; cf ix. 7. 

§ 37. * Rhql., for resque. 

§ 35. " That is, a regular form must be discarded in 


derivations of words, voluntary for the things on 
which men have imposed certain names, as Rome 
from Romulus and the Tiburtes ' men of Tibur ' from 
Tibur, and natural as those which are inflected for 
tenses or for cases from the imposed names, as 
genitive Romuli and accusative Romulum from 
Romulus, and from dico ' I say ' the imperfect diceham 
and the pluperfect dixeram. 

S5. Therefore in the voluntary derivations there 
is inconsistency, and in the natural derivations there 
is consistency. Inasmuch as they ought not to deny 
the presence of both of these in speech, since they are 
in all parts of the world, and the derivative forms of 
words are countless, we must say that in words also 
the Regularities are present. And yet Regularity 
does not for this reason have to be followed in all 
words ; for if usage has inflected or derived any 
words wrongly, so that they cannot be uttered without 
giving offence to many persons, the logic of speaking 
shows us that because of this offence the logic of the 
words must be set aside." 

XXVIII. SQ. As far as concerns the general 
cause why likeness is present in speech and ought to 
be observed, and also to what extent this should be 
done, enough has now been said. Therefore in the 
following we shall set forth its several parts item by 
item, and refute the individual charges which they 
bring against the Regularities. 

37. In this matter, you should take notice that by 
nature there are four elements in the basic situation 
to which words must be adjusted in inflection : there 
must be an underlying object or idea to be de- 
favour of an irregular form if the feeling {Sprachgefiihl) of 
the speakers rebels against it. 

VOL. II H 465 


de.signetur,2 et lit sit ea res' in usii, et ut vocis natura 
ea sit quae significavit, ut declinari possit, et simili- 
tudo figura(e>'' verbi ut sit ea quae ex se declinat?*^ 
genus prodere certum posst't.* 

38. Quo neque a terra terrus ut dicatur postu- 
landum est, quod natura non subest, ut in hoc alterum 
maris, alterum feminae debeat esse ; sic neque 
propter usum, ut Terentius significat unum, plures 
Terentii, postulandum est, ut sic dicamus faba et 
fabae : non enim in simili us(u>^ utrumque ; neque 
ut dicimus ab Terentius Terentium, sic postulandum 
ut inclinemus ab A et B, quod non omnis vox natura 
habet declinatus. 

39. Neque in forma collata quaerendum solum, 
quid habeat in figura simile, sed etiam nonnunquam 
in eo quem habeat effectum. Sic enim lana Gallicana 
et Apula videtur imperito similis propter speciem, 
cum peritus Apulam emat pluris, quod in usu firmior 
sit. Haec nunc strictim dicta apertiora fient infra. 
Incipiam hinc. 

XXIX. 40. Quod rogant ex qua parte oporteat 
simile esse verbum, a voce an a^ significatione, re- 
spondemus a voce ; sed tamen nonnunquam quaerimus 
genere similiane sint quae significantur ac nomen 

* Laetus, for designentur. ' G, H, a, Laetus, for cares. 

* Mue.,for figura. * L. Sp.,for declinata. * Aug., for 

§ 38. ^ L. Sp., for similius. 

§ 40. ^ After Laetus, ab voce an, for aboceana. 

§ 38. " The singular /«ia was used also collectively for the 
plural or mass idea; cf. Priscian, ii. 176 Keil. * Names of 

§ 39. " Cf. § 92. 

§ 40. " (Jf. viii. 40. 



signaled ; this object or idea must be in use ; the 
nature of the utterance which has designated it, 
must be such that it can be inflected ; and the re- 
semblance of the word's form to other words must be 
such that of itself it can reveal a definite class in 
respect to inflection. 

38. Therefore it is not to be demanded that from 
terra ' earth ' there should be also a terms, because 
there is no natural basis that in this object there 
ought to be one word for the male and another for 
the female. Similarly, ^\ith respect to usage, while 
Terentius designates one person of the name and 
Terentii designates several, it is not to be demanded 
that in this way we should say J'aba ' bean ' and Jabae 
' beans,' for the two are not subject to the same 
use." Nor is it to be demanded that as we say 
ace. Terentium from nom. Terentius, we should make 
case-forms from xi and B,^ because not every utter- 
ance is naturally fitted for declensional forms. 

39. The likeness which the word has in its shape 
must be investigated not in the comparison of the 
basis merely, but also sometimes in the effect which it 
has. For thus the Gallic wool and the Apulian wool 
seem alike to the inexperienced on account of their 
appearance, though the expert buys the Apulian at a 
higher price because in use it lasts better. These 
matters, which have been touched upon hastily 
here, will become clearer in a later discussion." 
Now I shall start. 

XXIX. 40. To their question in what respect a 
word ought to be similar, sound or meaning," we 
answer that it should be so in sound. But yet some- 
times we ask whether the objects designated are 
like in kind, and compare a man's name with a man's, 



virile cum virili conferimus, feminae cum muliebri : 
non quod id quod significant vocem commoveat, sed 
quod nonnunquam in re dissim(ili par)ilis^ figurae 
formas in simih' imponunt dispariles,* ut calcei mulie- 
bres sint an viriles dicimus ad similitudinem figurae, 
cum tamen sciamus nonnunquam et mulierem habere 
calceos viriles et virum muliebris. 

41. Sic dici virum Perpennam ut AZ/enam^ 
muliebri forma^ et contra parietem ut abietem esse 
forma' similem, quo(m>'' alterum vocabulum dicatur 
virile, alterum muliebre et utrumque natura neutrum 
si<.* Itaque ea virilia dicimus non quae virum* 
significant, sed quibus proponimus hie et hi, et sic 
muliebria in quibus dicere possMmus' haec aut hae. 

XXX. 42. Quare nihil^ est, quod dicunt Theona 
et Diona non esse similis, si alter est y4ethiops, alter 
alfeus," si analogia rerum dissimilitudines adsumat ad 
discernendum vocis verbi figuras. 

XXXI. 43. Quod dicunt simile sit necne nomen 
nomini impudenter AristarcAum praecipere opor- 
tere spectare non solum ex recto, sed etiam ex 
eorum vocandi casu, esse^ enim deridiculum, si similes 

* GS. ; dissim<ili sim)ilis Mue. ; for dissimilis. ' GS. ; 
in <re) simili Mue. ; for indissimiles. * For disperiles. 

§41. ^ ut Alfenam Mue., for aut plenam ; cf. viii. 41. 

* Laetus, for formam. * Aldus, for formam. * Mue. ; 
cum Aug. ; for quo. * Ant. Miller and Better, for sic. 

* Aldus, for utrum. '' M, Laetus, for possimus. 

§ 42. ^ For nichil. * Mue., for gallus ; cf. viii. 41. 
§ 43. ^ L. Sp., C. F. W. Mueller, Madvig, for esset. 

§ 41. " Cf. viii. 41. "" The forms of hie haec hoc are 

regularly used by the grammarians to indicate the case, 
number, and gender of a word. 


a woman's name >\ith a woman's : not because that 
which they designate affects the word, but because 
sometimes in case of an unUke thing they set upon 
it forms of an equivalent appearance, and on a Uke 
thing they set unequal forms, as we call shoes women's 
shoes or men's shoes by the likeness of the shape, 
although we know that sometimes a woman wears 
men's shoes and a man wears women's shoes. 

41. In like fashion, we say, a man is called 
Perpenna, like Alfena, with a feminine form " ; and 
on the other hand paries ' house-wall ' is Uke abies 
' fir-tree ' in form, although the former word is used as 
a masculine, the latter as a feminine, and both are 
naturally neuter. Therefore those which we use 
as masculines are not those which denote a male 
being, but those before which we employ hie and hi, 
and those are feminines with reference to which we 
can say haec or hae.^ 

XXX. 42. P'or this reason it amounts to nothing, 
that on the premise that Regularity adopts the 
unUkenesses of the objects as a criterion for difference 
in the forms " of the spoken word,*' they say that 
Theon and Dion are not alike if the one is an Ethiopian 
and the other is a white man.<= 

XXXI. 43. As to what they say," that Aristarchus 
was shameless in his instructions that to see whether 
one name was like another you should view it not 
only from the nominative, but also from the vocative 
- — for the same persons say that it is absurd to judge 

§ 42. " One of the rare examples of the accusative of the 
gerund with an object. * The word as sound is vox, while 
the word as symbol of meaning is cerbum ; the vox verbi is 
therefore the sound, or series of sounds, which represent the 
symbol of meaning. Cf. viii. 40. ' Cf. viii. 41. 

§ 43. <• C/. viii. 42. 



inter se parentes sint, de filiis iudicare* : errant, quod 
non ab eo(rum>* obliquis casibus fit, ut recti simili* 
facie ostendantur, sed propter eos facilius perspici 
similitudo potest eorum quam vim habeat,* ut 
lucerna in tenebris allata non facit (ut)* quae ibi sunt 
posita similia sint, sed ut videantur, quae sunt 
quoius <mo>di sint.' 

44. Quid similius videtur quam in his est extrema 
littera crux Phryx^ ? Quas, qui audit voces, auribus 
discernere potest nemo, cum easdem non esse similes 
ex <declin>a<is* verbis intellegamus, quod cum sit 
cruces et Phryges^ et de his extremis syllabis exemp- 
tum* sit E, ex altero fit ut ex C et S crux, ex altero 
G et S Pkryx.^ Quod item apparet, cum est demp- 
tum S : nam fit unum cruce,^ alterum Phvyge^ 

XXXII. 45. Quod aiunt, cum in maiore parte 
orationis non sit simiUtudo, non esse analogian, 
duphciter stulte dicunt, quod et in maiore parte est 
et si in minore parte^ sit, tamen sit,^ nisi etiam nos 
calceos negabunt habere, quod in maiore parte 
corporis calceos non habeamus. 

^ L. Sp. deleted qui aftei' iudicare. ' L. Sp., for eo. 

* Laetus, for simile. * Laetus, for habeant. * Added 
hy L. Sp. ' L. Sp., for dissint. 

§ 44. ^ Aldus, for frix. ^ GS., for aliis. ^ Aldus, 
/or friges. * ^/df/*, /or exemplum. ^ L. Sp., for crncl. 

* Phruge L. Sp., Phrygi Aldus ; for frigi. 

§ 45. ^ Here L. Sp., following other slightly different 
deletions, deleted a repeated est et si in minore. ^ After 
sit, L. Sp. deleted in maiore. 

. § 44. " For Phryx and its forms, Augustinus (with B) read 
frux, etc. ; but nom. frux was no longer used in Varro's 


from the children whether the parents are aUke : 
those who say this are mistaken, for it does not come 
about from their oblique cases that the nominatives 
are shown to be of like appearance, but through the 
oblique cases can be more easily seen what evidential 
force hes in the Ukeness of the nominatives — even as 
a lamp in the dark, when brought, does not cause that 
the things which are there should be alike, but that 
they should be seen in their real character. 

44. What seems more closely alike than the last 
letter in the words crux ' cross ' and Phryx ' Phry- 
gian ' ? " No one who hears the spoken words can 
by his ears distinguish the letters,* although we 
know from the declined forms of the words that 
though alike they are not identical ; because when 
the plurals cruces and Phryges are taken and E is 
removed from the last syllables, from the one there 
results crux, with X from C and S, and from the other 
comes Phryx, from G and S. And the difference is 
likewise clear, when S is removed ; for the one be- 
comes cruce, the other Phryge^ 

XXXII. 45. As to what they say," that since 
likeness does not exist in the greater part of speech. 
Regularity does not exist, they speak foolishly in two 
ways, because Regularity is present in the greater 
part of speech, and even if it should exist only in the 
smaller part, still it is there : unless they will say that 
we do not wear any shoes, because on the greater 
part of our body we do not wear any. 

time, cf. ix. 75-76. ' The usual confusion of letters and 
sounds. ' Abl. sing. ; the manuscript has forms ending 
in -»', which are datives, but the removal of s from cruces and 
Phryges leaves forms ending in «, not in »'. 
§ 45. « C/ viii. 37. 



XXXIII. 46. Quod dicunt nos dissimilitudinem 
(potius gratam acceptamque habere quam simili- 
tudinem)^ : itaque in vestitu in supellectile delectari 
varietate, non paribus subuculis uxoris, respondeo, si 
varietas iucunditas, magis varium esse in quo alia 
sunt similia, alia non sunt : itaque sicut abacum 
argento ornari, ut alia (paria sint, alia)^ disparia, sic 

47. Rogant, si similitudo sit sequenda, cur malimus 
habere lectos alios ex ebore, alios ex testudine, sic 
item genere aliquo alio. Ad quae dico non dis(simili- 
tudines solum nos, sed)^ similitudines quoque sequi 
saepe. Itaque ex eadem supellectili licet videre : 
nam nemo facit triclinii lectos nisi paris et materia et 
altitudine et figura. Qui(s)* facit mappas triclinaris 
non similis inter se ? Quis pulvinos ? Quis denique 
cetera, quae unius generis sint plura ? 

48. Cum, inqui<un>t,* utilitatis causa introducta 
sit oratio, sequendum non quae habebit similitudinem, 
sed quae utilitatem. Ego utilitatis causa orationem 
factam concedo, sed ut vestimenta : quare ut hie 
similitudines sequimur,* ut virilis tunica sit virili 
similis, item toga togae, sic mulierum stola ut sit 
stola<e)' proportione et pallium pallio simile, sic 

§ 46. ^ Added by GS., foUmving other attempts {Aug., 
■with B, inserted sequi after nos ; biit cf. § 47, ichere sequi is 
actually found). ^ Added by Aug., with B. 

§ 47. ^ Added by Mue. " Aldus, for qui. 

§ 48. ^ Vertranius, for inquit. ^ Sciop., for sequere- 
mur. ' Aug., for stola. 



XXXIII. 46. As to what they say," that we find 
unlikeness pleasing and acceptable rather than 
likeness, and therefore in clothing and in furniture 
we take pleasure in variety, and not in having 
our wives' undertunics all identical : I answer, 
that if variety is pleasure, then there is greater 
variety in that in which some things are alike and 
others are not ; and just as a side-table is adorned 
\dth silver in such a way that some ornaments 
are alike and others are unlike, so also is speech 

47. They ask why, if likeness is to be followed, 
we prefer to have some couches inlaid with ivory, 
others with tortoise-shell, and so on with some other 
kind of material. To which I say that unlikenesses 
are not the only thing which we follow, but often we 
follow likenesses. And this may be seen from the 
same piece of furniture ; for no one makes the three 
couches of the dining-room other than alike in material 
and in height and in shape. WTio makes the table- 
napkins not like each other ? Or the cushions ? 
And finally the other things which are several in 
number but of one sort ? 

48. Since speech, they say," was introduced for the 
sake of utility, we should follow not that kind of 
speech which has likeness, but that which has utility. 
I grant that speech has been produced for utility's 
sake, but in the same way as garments have : there- 
fore as in the latter we follow the likenesses, so that 
a man's tunic is hke a man's, and a toga Uke a toga, 
and a woman's dress is like a dress regularly and a 
cloak like a cloak, so also, as words that are names 

§46. " C/. viii. 31-32. 
§ 48. « C/. viii. 28-29. 



cum sint nomina utilitatis causa, tamen virilia inter 
se similia, item muliebria inter se sequi debemus. 

XXXIV. 49. Quod aiunt ut persedit et perstitit 
sic (periacuit et>^ percubuit quoniam non si<n>t,^ 
non esse analogian, et^ in hoc e<r)rant* : quod duo 
posteriora ex prioribus declinata non sunt, cum 
analogia poUiceatur ex duobus similibus similiter 
declinatis similia fore. 

XXXV. 50. Qui dicunt quod sit ab Romulo Roma 
et non Romula neque ut ab ove ovilia.^ sic a bove 
bovih'a,'' (non)' esse analogias, errant, quod nemo 
pollicetur e vocabulo vocabulum declinari recto casu 
singulari in rectum singularem, sed ex duobus 
vocabulis similibus casus similiter declinatos similes 

XXXVI. 51. Dicunt, quod vocabula litterarum 
Latinarum non declinentur in casus, non esse analo- 
gias. Hi ea quae natura declinari non possunt, 
eorum declinatus requirunt,^ proinde et non eo<rum>2 
dicatur esse analogia quae ab similibus verbis simili- 
ter esse(nt>* declinata. Quare non solum in vocabu- 
lis litterarum haec non requirenda analogia, sed (ne)* 
in syllaba quidem ulla, quod dicimus hoc BA, huius 
BA, sic alia. 

§ 49. ^ Added by Canal. * Kent, for sit. ' Aug., 
for ut. * B, Rhol., for erant. 

§50. ^ Aug., for OYiWa.. ^ A%ig.,forho\\\\a.. ^ Added 
by Stephanas. 

§ 51. ^ B, G, H, a, Aug., for sequirunt. ^ L. Sp., for 
eo F^, ea F^. ' L. Sp. ; esset M, a, Aug. ; for esse. 
* Added by Aldus. 

§ 49. " Referring to a passage now lost. * The two 
verbs are not attested in any form. 
§ 50. « Cf. viii. 54 and 80. 



of persons exist for the purpose of utility, we ought 
still to employ men's names that are like one another, 
and women's names that also have mutual resem- 

XXXI\'. 49. As to the fact that they say " that 
Regularity does not exist because there are no 
perfects periacuit ' remained lying ' and percuhuit 
' remained lying,' like persedit ' remained sitting ' 
and perstitit ' remained standing,' in this also they 
are mistaken : for the two perfects have no presents * 
from which to be inflected, whereas Regularity 
promises only that from two like words inflected in 
like manner there \\ill be like forms. 

XXXV. 50. Those who say " that there are no 
Regularities because from Romulus there is Roma 
and not Romula and there is no hovilia ' cow-stables ' 
from bos ' cow ' as there is ovilia ' sheepfolds ' from 
avis ' sheep,' are in error ; because nobody professes 
that one word is derived from another word, from 
nominative singular to nominative singular, but only 
that from two like words like case-forms develop 
when they are inflected in like manner. 

XXXVI. 51. They say " that because the words 
denoting the Latin letters are not inflected into 
case-forms the Regularities do not exist. Such 
persons are demanding the declension of those words 
which by nature cannot be inflected ; just as if 
Regularity were not said ^ to belong merely to those 
forms which had already been inflected in like fashion 
from like words. Therefore not only in the names of 
the letters must this kind of Regularity not be sought, 
but not even in any syllable, because we say nomina- 
tive ba, genitive ba, and so on. 

§ 51. " C/. viii. 64. " Cf. viii. 23. 



52. Quod si quis in hoc quoque velit dicere esse 
analogias rerum, tenere potest : ut eni(m>^ dicunt 
ipsi alia nomina, quod quinque habeant figuras, 
habere quinque casus, aha quattuor, sic minus alia, 
dicere poterunt esse litteras ac syllabas in voce quae 
singulos habeant casus, in rebus pluris* ; quemad- 
modum inter se conferent ea quae quaternos habe- 
bunt vocabulis casus, item ea inter se qua(e> ternos,^ 
sic quae* singulos habebunt, ut conferant inter se 
dicentes, ut sit hoc A, huic A, esse hoc E,* huie E. 

XXXVII. 53. Quod dicunt esse quaedam verba 
quae habeant declinatus, ut caput (capitis, nihil 
nihili),^ quorum par reperiri quod non possit, non esse 
analogias, respondendum sine dubio, si quod est 
singulare verbum, id non habere analogias : minimum 
duo esse debent verba, in quibus sit similitudo. 
Quare in hoc tollunt esse analogias. 

54'. Sed mkilum^ vocabulum recto casu apparet in 
hoc : 

Quae dedit ipsa.^ cap/t' neque dispendi facit hilum, 

§ 52. ^ For eni. * GS, ; plureis Canal ; for plurimis. 
^ Koeler, for quaternos. * For sicque. * After hoc E, 
L. Sp. deleted huiusce E. 

§ 53. ^ Added by Reitzenstein. 

§ 54. ^ Lachmann ; in nihil Sciop. ; for initium. 
^ Sciop., for ira. ^ Seal iger, for caput. 

§ 52. o Cf. viii. 63. ^ That is, words indeclinable in 

form have only one case-form, but still have all the case-uses. 

§ 53. " There is no corresponding passage in Book VIII. 
* That is, when they select a unique word as basis for argu- 



52. But if any one should wish to say that in this 
also there are Regularities in the things, he can 
maintain it. For as they themselves say <* that some 
nouns, because they have five forms, have five cases, 
and others have four, and others fewer in like manner, 
they will be able to s&y that the letters and syllables 
which have one case-form apiece in sound, have 
several in connexion with the things * ; as they will 
compare only with each other those which have 
four case-forms for the words, and likewise those 
which have three apiece, so let them compare with 
each other those which have only one form each, 
saying that nominative E, dative E is like nomiinative 
A, dative A. 

XXXVII. 53. As to the fact that they say « that 
there are certain words which have declensional forms, 
like caput ' head,' genitive capitis, and nihil ' nothing,' 
genitive nihili, a match for which cannot be found, 
and therefore the Regularities do not exist, answer 
must be made that unquestionably any word which 
is the only one of its kind is outside the systems of 
Regularity ; there must be at least two words for a 
likeness to be existent therein. Therefore, in this 
case,** they eliminate the possible existence of the 

54. But the word nihilum ' nothing ' is found in 
the nominative in the following <* : 

The body she's given 
Earth doth herself take back, and of loss not a whit 
does she suffer, 

§54. "Ennius, Ann. 14 Vahlen* ; R.O.L. 1. 6-7 War- 
mlngton ; r/. v. 60 and 111. The neuter accusative, having 
the same form as the nominative, is used as a proof of the 
nominative form. 



quod valet nee dispendii facit quicquam. Idem hoc 
obliquo apud Plautum : 

Video enim* te nihili* pendere prae Philolacho* omnis 

quod est ex ne et hili : quare dictus est nihili* qui non 
hili erat. Casus tantum'' commutantur de quo dici- 
tur, <ut>* de homine : dicimus enim hie homo 
nihili' et huius hominis nihili et hunc hominem 
nihili. Si in illo commutaremus, diceremus ut hoc 
linum et Uium,^" sic nihilum, non hie nihiU, et <ut>" 
huic hno et ]ibo^^, sic nihilo, non huic nihiU. Potest 
dici patricus casus, ut ei praeponantur*' nomina" 
plura, ut hie casus Terentii, hunc casum Terentii, 
hie miles legionis, huius militis legionis, hunc militem 

XXXVIII. 55. Negant, cum omnis natura sit aut 
mas aut femina aut neutrum, (non>i debuisse ex 
singulis vocibus ternas figuras vocabulorum fieri, 
ut albus alba album ; nunc fieri in multis rebus 
binas, ut Metellus Metella,* Aemi{\i}us Aemi(\i}a,^ 
nonnulla singula, ut tragoed?<^, com<o>edM** ; sic 
esse Marcum, Numerium, at Marcam, at Numeriam 

* Enim is Varro's addition ; it is not found in the manu- 
scripts of Plantus. * For nichili. * The manuscripts 
of Plavtus hare Philolache. ' Fay, for turn cum. 
8 Added by GS. » After nihili, L. Sp. deleted est. 
1» Mue., for Hmum. " et ut 3Iue. ; ut L. Sp. ; for et. 
^^ Mue., for limo. " 3/^^ y^,- praeponuntur. ^'^ Kent, 
for praenomina. 

§ 35. 1 Added by Mue. " Ijaettis, for metelle. 

3 Wackernagel ; Ennius Ennia Laetus ; for enuus enua. 

* Christ, for tragoedia comedia. 


which is the same as ' nor of loss does she suffer 
anything.' This same word is found in an oblique 
case in Plautus * : 

I see, beside Philolaches you count all men as nothing. 

The word is from ne ' not ' and genitive hilt ' whit ' ; 
therefore he has been called nihili ' of naught ' who 
was not hili ' of a whit ' in value. Change is made 
only in the case-forms of that about which the speak- 
ing is done, as about a man ; for we say a man nihili 
' of no account ' in nominative, in genitive, in accusa- 
tive, changing the forms of homo but not changing 
the form nihili. If we were to make changes in it, 
then we should say not hie nihili " but nihilum as the 
nominative, like linum ' flax ' and libum ' cake,' and 
dative not huic nihili ** but nihilo like lino and libo. 
The genitive case * can however be said with various 
nouns set before it, like nominative casus ' mishap ' 
Terentii ' of Terence,' accusative casum Terentii, and 
nominative miles ' soldier ' legionis ' of the legion,' 
genitive militis legionis, accusative miliiem legionis. 

XXXVIII. 55. They say " that since every 
nature is either male or female or neuter, from the 
individual spoken words there should not fail to be 
forms of the words in sets of three, like albus, alba, 
album ' white ' ; that now in many things there are 
only two, like Metellus and Metella, Aemilius and 
Aemilia, and some with only one, like tragoedus 
' tragic actor ' and comoedus ' comic actor ' ; that 
there are the names Marcus and Numerius, but no 

" Plautus, Most. 245. « The genitive nihili depending on 
a nominative. ■* The genitive nihili depending on a 
dative. « Such as the form nihili. 
§ 55, ' C/. viii. 47. 



non esse ; dici con;um,^ turdum, non* dici corwam,* 
turdam ; contra dici pantheram, merulam, non dici 
panther um, merulum ; nullius no*tn</n' filium et 
filiam non apte* discerni marem ac feminam, ut 
Terentium* et Terentiam, contra deorum liberos et 
servorum non ibidem, ^" ut lovis filium et filiam, 
loveni** et lovam ; item magnum numerum vocabu- 
lorum in hoc genere non servare analogias. 

56. Ad haec dicimus, omnis orationis quamvis res 
naturae subsit, tamen si ea in usu(m)i non pervenerit, 
eo non pervenire verba : ideo equus dicitur et equa : 
in usu enim horum discrimina* ; corvus et corva non, 
quod sine usu id, quod dissimilis natura(e>.' Itaque 
quaedam al<i>ter olim ac nunc : nam et tum omnes 
mares et feminae dicebantur columbae, quod non 
erant in eo usu domestico quo nunc, (et nunc)* 
contra, propter domesticos usus quod internovimus, 
appellatur mas columbus, femina columba. 

57. Natura cum tria genera transit et id est in usu 
discriminat?<(m), tum^ denique apparet, ut est in 
doctw*^ et docta et doctum : doctrina enim per tria 
haec transire potest et usus docuit discriminare 
doctam rem ab hominibus et in his marem ac feminam. 
In mare et femina et neutro neque natura man's* 

^ Aldus, for corhum and covhsun. ^ Aldus, for non non. 
' Aug., for neutros. * Aug., with B, for apta. ^ For 
terentium et terentium. *" Ed. Veneta, for ididem. 
^^ For iouem iouem. 

§ 56. ^ Aug., with B, for usu. ^ Aug., for discrimine. 

* Vertranius, for natura. * kidded by L. Sp. 

§ 57. * Reiter, for discrimina totum. * Aug., with B, 
for docto. ' L. Sp.,for mares. 

* Numeria is in fact found, but as a divine name. " Cf. 

§ 56. " For the expression, cf. ix. 37. 



Marca and Xumeria * ; that corviis ' raven ' and 
turdus ' thrush ' are said, but the feminines corva and 
turda are not said : that on the other hand panthera 
' panther ' and merula ' blackbird ' are used, but the 
masculines pantherus and merulus are not ; that there 
is no one of us whose son and daughter are not suit- 
ably distinguished as male and female, as Terentius 
and Terentia ; that on the other hand the children 
of gods and slaves are not distinguished in the same 
way,'^ as by lovis and lova for the son and the daughter 
of Jupiter ; that likewise a great number of common 
nouns do not in this respect preserve the Regularities. 

5Q. To this we say that although the object is 
basic " for the character of all speech, the words do 
not succeed in reaching the object if it has not come 
into our use ; therefore equus ' stallion ' and equa 
■ mare ' are said, but not corva beside corvus, because 
in that case the factor of unlike nature is without use 
to us. But for this reason some things were for- 
merly named otherwise than they are now : for then 
all doves, male and female, were called columhae, 
because they were not in that domestic use in which 
they are now, and now, on the other hand, because we 
have come to make a distinction on account of their 
uses as domestic fowl, the male is called columhus 
and the female columba. 

57. When the nature goes through the three 
genders and this distinction is made in use, then finally 
it is seen, as it is in doctus ' learned man ' and docta 
' learned woman ' and docium ' learned thing ' ; for 
learning can go across through these three, and use 
has taught us to differentiate a learned thing from 
human beings, and among the latter to distinguish 
the male and the female. But in a male or a female 
VOL. II I 481 


transit neque feminae neque neutra, et ideo non 
dicitur feminus femina feminum, sic reliqua : itaque 
singularibus ac secretis vocabulis appellati sunt. 

58. Quare in quibus rebus non subest similis 
natura aut usus, in his vocabulis huiusce modi ratio 
quaeri non debet : ergo dicitur ut surdus vir, surda 
mulier, sic surdum theatrum, quod onmes tres <res)^ 
ad auditum sunt comparatae ; contra nemo dicit 
cubiculum surdum, <quod>^ ad silentium, non ad 
auditum ; at si fenestram non habet, dicitur caecum, 
ut caecus et ccreca, quod omnia <non>^ habent (quod)* 
lumen habere debent. 

59. Mas et femina habent inter se natura quandam 
societatem, (nullam societatem)^ neutra cum his, 
quod sunt diversa ; inter se' quoque de his perpauca 
sunt quae habeant quandam co(m)munitatem. Dei 
et servi nomina quod non item ut libera nostra trans- 
eunt, eadem e<s>t' causa, quod ad usum attinet <et)* 
institui opus fuit de liberis, de reliquis nihil attinuit, 
quod in servis gentilicia natura non subest in usu, in 
nostri(s) nominibus qui sumus in Latio et liberi, 
necessaria. Itaque ibi apparet analogia ac dicitur 
Terentius vir, Terentia femina, Terentium genus. 

§ 58. ^ tres res Mve. ; res Bentinus ; for tres. * Added 
by Canal ; quod id Mue. ; quod sit Sciop. ' Added by 

§ 59. 1 Added by A. Sp., after L. Sp. and Mue. « B, 
G, H, Aug., for interest. * L. Sp., for et. * Added by 
L. Sp. 

§ 58. ° Varro means a theatre in which it is difficult to 
hear ; but the term is applicable also to an audience which 
is inattentive. *" Rather, things are called ' blind ' because 

they hinder vision by darkness or by walls without openings, 
such as windows and doors. 



or what is neither, the nature of the male does not 
shift, nor that of the female, nor the neuter nature, 
and for this reason there is no saying of feminns, 
femina, femimim, and so with the rest. Therefore 
they are called by special and separate words. 

58. Wherefore in the names of those things in 
which there is no likeness of nature or of use as the 
basis, a relation of this sort ought not to be sought. 
Accordingly, as a surdus ' deaf ' man is a current 
term, and a surda woman, so also is a surdum theatre," 
because all three things are equally intended for the 
act of hearing. On the other hand, nobody says a 
surdum sleeping-room, because it is intended for 
silence and not for hearing ; but if it has no window, 
it is called caecum ' blind,' as a man is called caecus 
and a woman caeca, because not all sleeping-rooms 
have the light which they ought to have.'' 

59. The male and the female have by nature a 
certain association with each other ; but the neuters 
have no association with them, because they are 
different from them in kind, and even of these neuters 
there are very few which have any elements in 
common with other neuters. As for the fact that the 
names of a god and of a slave do not vary like our 
free names, there is the same reason, namely that 
the variation is connected with use, and had to be 
established with reference to free persons, but as to 
the rest had no consequence, because among slaves 
the clan quality has no foundation in practice, but 
it is necessary in the names of us who are in Latium 
and are free. Therefore in that class Regularity 
makes its appearance, and we say Terentius for a 
man, Terentia for a woman, and Terentium for the 
genus ' stock.' 



60. In praenominibus ideo non fit item, quod haec 
instituta ad usum singularia, quibus discernerentur 
nomina gentilicia, ut ab numero Secunda, Tertia, 
Quarta (in mulieribus),^ in viris ut Quintus, Sextus, 
Decimus, sic ab aliis rebus. Cum essent duo 
Terentii aut plures, discernendi causa, ut aliquid 
singulare haberent, notabant, forsitan ab eo, qui 
mane natus diceretur, ut is Manius esset, qui luci, 
Lucius,* qui post patris mortem, Postumus. 

61 . E quibus <ae)que^ cum item accidisset feminis, 
proportione ita appellata declinarant praenomina 
mulierum antiqua. Mania, Lucia, Postuma : videmus 
enim Maniam matrem Larum dici, Luciam \'^olw- 
mniam* Saliorum Carminibus appellari, Postumam a 
multis post patris mortem etiam nunc appellari. 

62. Quare quocumque progressa est natura cum 
usu vocabukV similiter proportione propagata est 
analogia, cum in quibus declinatus voluntarii* maris 
et feminae et neutri, quae voluntaria, non debeant 
similiter declinari, sed in quibus naturales, sint de- 

§ 60. ^ Placed here by GS. ; added before Secunda by L. 
Sp. ^ p, Aldus, for lucilius. 

§ 61. ^ A. Sp., for que. * Aug., for Volaminiam. 

§ 62. ^ Aug., with B, for vocabula. * L. Sp., for 
declinationibus voluntariis. 

§ 60. " Seemingly a contamination of ab eo quod with 
sic . . . ut. * Properly, as the ' last ' child ; but not to 
be associated with post huinum ' after (burial in the) earth,' 
though this popular etymology gave a later spelling post- 
humns and the English posthumous. 

§61. " Mania is perhaps not related etymologically to 
Manius ; see Marbach in Pauly-Wissowa's Encyc. d. cl. Alt.- 
wiss. xjv. 1110. * More probable than the Volaminia of F, 



60. In first names the situation is not the same, 
because these were in practice estabhshed as in- 
dividual names, by which the clan names might be 
differentiated ; from the numerals came Secunda, 
Tertia, Quarta for women, Quintus, Sextus, Decimus 
for men, and similarly other names from other things. 
When there were two or more persons of the name 
Terentius, then that they might have something 
individual to distinguish them they marked them 
perhaps in this way," that he should be Manius who 
was said to have been born mane ' in the morning,' 
and he who has been born luci ' at dawn ' should be 
Lucius, and he who was born post ' after ' his father's 
death should be Postumus.* 

61. When any of these things happened to 
females as well, they derived the first names of 
women regularly in this manner — that is, in former 
times — and called them by them, for example. 
Mania, Lucia, Postuma : for we see that the mother 
of the Lares is called Mania,^ that Lucia Volumnia * 
is addressed in the Hymns of the Salians,' and that 
even now many give the name Postuma to a daughter 
born after the death of her father. 

62. Therefore as far as the nature and the use of 
a word have jointly advanced, so far has Regularity 
been extended in like manner by a corresponding 
relationship, since of the words in which there are 
voluntary- inflections of male and female and neuter, 
those which are voluntary in inflection ought not to be 
inflected in similar manner, but in those in which 
there are natural inflections there are those regular 

not found elsewhere ; several members of the gens Volumnia 
are mentioned at Rome during Varro's time. « Frag. 5, 
page 336 Maurenbrecher ; page 4 Morel. 



clinatus hi qui esse reperiuntur. Quocirca in tribus 
generibus nominum in(i>que' tollunt analogias. 

XXXIX. 63. Qui autem eas reprehendunt, quod 
alia vocabula singularia sint solum, ut eicer, alia multi- 
tudinis solum, ut scalae, cum debuerint omnia esse 
duplicia, ut equus equi, analogiae fundamentum esse 
obliviscuntur naturam et usu(m).i Singulare est 
quod natura unum significat, ut equus, aut quod 
coniuncta quodammodo ad unum usu,'' ut bigae : 
itaque <ut>' dicimus una Musa, sic dicimus unae 

64. Multitudinis vocabula sunt unum infinitum, 
ut Musae, alterum finitum, ut duae, tres, quattuor : 
dicimus enim ut hae Musae sic unae bigae et binae 
et trinae bigae, sic deinceps. Quare tam unae et uni 
et una quodammodo singularia sunt quam unus et una 
et unum ; hoc modo mutat, quod altera in singu- 
laribus, altera in coniunctis rebus ; et ut duo tria sunt 
multitudinis, sic bina trina. 

65. Est tertium quoque genus singulare ut in 
multitudine, uter, in quo multitudinis ut utrei^ ; uter 

^ Aldus, for inquae. 

§63. ^p, Mue., for usu. ^ A. Sp., for usum. 

3 Added by L. Sp. 

§65. ^ A. Sp., for utre l-. 

§ 62. " Crates and his followers, who uphold Anomaly. 

§ 63. " Cf. viii. 48. " Cf. x. 54. 

§ 64. " The first is the generic or collective, without speci- 
fication of the number or of the individuals ; the second is 
numerical, in which the number of the individuals is given or 
their identity is clearly implied. "" A word like bigae, 



inflections which are actually found to exist. There- 
fore in the matter of the three genders they " are 
unfair in setting aside the Regularities. 

XXXIX. 63. Moreover those who find fault " 
with the Regularities, because some words are 
singulars only, like deer ' chickpea,' and others are 
plural only, like scalae ' stairs,' * although all ought 
to have the two forms, like equus ' horse ' and equi 
' horses,' forget that the foundation of Regularity 
is nature and use taken in combination. That is 
singular which by nature denotes one thing, like 
equus ' horse,' or which denotes things that by use 
are joined together in some way, like bigae ' two-horse 
team.' Therefore just as we say una Musa ' one 
Muse,' we say unae bigae ' one two-horse team.' 

64. Plural words are of two sorts," the one in- 
definite, like Musae ' Muses,' the other definite, like 
duae ' two,' tres ' three,' quattuor ' four ' ; for as we 
say Musae in the plural, so also we say unae bigae ' one 
two-horse team,' and binae ' two ' and trinae * bigae 
' three two-horse teams,' and so on. Wherefore 
unae and the masc. uni and the neut. una are in 
a certain manner as much singulars as unus and una 
and unutn : the word changes in this way because 
the one set of forms is said of individual things, the 
other of things joined together in sets ; and just as 
duo and iria are plurals, so also are bina and trina. 

65. There is also a third class which is singular 
though expressed by a plural form, namely uter 
' which of two,' in which the plural form is for ex- 

already plural in form, can be pluralized in meaning only by 
the use of a numerical modifier ; for this purpose, distribu- 
tive numerals such as bini are used. For the singular idea, 
the plural form of unus is used. 



poeta singulari, utri poetae multitudinis est. Qua 
explicata natura apparet non debere omnia vocabula 
multitudinis habere par singulare : omnes enim 
numeri ab duobus susum versus multitudinis sunt 
neque eorum quisquam habere potest singulare 
compar. Iniuria igitur postulant, si qua sint singu- 
laria, oportere habere multitudinis. 

XL. 66. Item qui reprehendunt, quod non dicatur 
ut unguentum unguenta vinum vina sic acetum aceta 
garum gara, faciunt imperite : qui ibi desiderant 
multitudinis vocabulum, quae sub mensuram ae pon- 
dera potius quam sub numerum succedunt : nam in 
plumbo,^ a<r)ge<n>to,* cum incrementum accessit, 
dicimus^ multum,* sic multum plumbum, argentum ; 
non* plumba, argenta, cum quae ex hisce fiant, dica- 
mus plumbea et argentea (aliud enim cum argenteum : 
nam id turn cum iam vas : argent(e)um* enim, si 
pocillum aut quid item) : quod pocilla argentea 
multa, non quod argentum multum. 

67. Ea, natura in quibus est mensura, non 
numerus, si genera in se habe(n>t^ plura et ea in 
usum venerunt, a genere multo, sic vina et unguenta, 
dicta : alii generis enim vinum quod Chio, aliurf^ 

§ 66. ^ After pliimbo, L. Sp. deleted oleo. * Aug., for 
aceto. ^ After dicimus, Aldus deleted enim. * After 
multum, L. Sp. deleted oleum. * After non, L. Sp. deleted 
multa olea. * Aug., with B,for argentum. 

§ 67. ^ Laetus, for habet. ^ For aliut. 

§ 65. " The old spelling of the nominative plural, still 
more or less in use in Varro's time, though rarely attested in 
the manuscripts. 

§ 66. ° Cf § 67. * Derivative adjectives, ' made of 
lead ' and ' made of silver ' ; supply vasa ' utensils.' 



ample vtrei " : titer poeta ' which of two poets ' in the 
singular, utri poefae ' which of two sets of poets ' in 
the plural. Now that the nature of this has been 
explained it is clear that plural nouns are not all 
under obligations to have a like singular form ; for 
all the numerals from two upwards are plural, and 
no one of them can have a singular to match it. 
Therefore it is quite wrongly that they demand that 
all singulars that there are, must have a correspond- 
ing plural form. 

XL. 66. LikeA\ise those who find fault because 
there are no plurals aceta and gara to acetum ' vinegar ' 
and garum ' fish-sauce ' like unguenia to unguentum 
' perfume ' and vina to vinum ' wine,' " act ignorantly ; 
they are looking for a plural name in connexion 
with things which come under the categories of 
quantity and weight rather than under that of 
number. For in plumbum ' lead ' and argentum ' sil- 
ver,' when there has been added an increase, we say 
multum ' much ' : thus multum plumbum or argentum, 
not plumba ' leads ' and argenta ' silvers,' since articles 
made of these we call plumbea and argentea * (silver 
is something else when it is argenteum, for that is 
what it is when it has now become a utensil ; thus 
argenteum if it is a small cup or the like), because in 
this case we speak of many argentea ' silver ' cups, 
and not of much argentum ' silver.' 

67. But if those things which have by nature the 
idea of quantity rather than that of number, exist in 
several kinds and these kinds have come into use, 
then from the plurality of kinds they are spoken of 
in the plural, as for example vina ' \\ines ' and un- 
guenta ' perfumes.' For there is wine of one kind, 
which comes from Chios, another wine which is from 



quod Lesbo,' sic ex regionibus aliis. (Ae>que* ipsa 
dicuntur nunc melius unguenta/ cui nunc genera 
aliquot. Si item discrimina magna essent olei et 
aceti et sic ceterarum rerum eiusmodi in usu co(m>- 
muni, dicerentur sic olea et (aceta ut>* vina. Quare 
in utraque re <i>nique' rescindere conantur analogias, 
et' cum in dissimili usu similia vocabula quaeront* et 
cum item ea quae metimur atque ea quae numeramus 
dici putent oportere. 

XLI. 68. Item reprehendunt analogias, quod 
dicantur multitudinis nomine publicae balneae, non 
balnea, contra quod privati dicant unum balneum, 
quo/7«^ plura balnea <non>* dicant. Quibus respon- 
dert' potest non esse reprehendendum, quod scalae 
et aquae caldae, pleraque* cum causa, multitudinis 
vocabulis sint appellata neque eorum singularia in 
usum venerint ; idemque item contra. Primum 
balneum (nomen e(s)t* Graecum), (cum)* introiit in 
urbem, publice ibi consedit, ubi bina essent con- 
iuncta aedificia lavandi causa, unum ubi viri, alterum 
ubi mulieres lavarentur ; ab eadem ratione domi 
suae quisque ubi lavatur balneum dixerunt et, quod 
non erant duo, balnea dicere non consuerunt, cum 

^ T^, p, Aldus, for Lesbio. * A. Sp., for quae. * For 
unguentia. * Added by L. Sp. '' Canal, for denique. 
* Aug., for analogiam set. * L. Sp., for querunt. 

§68. ^ Cana/, /or quod. ^ Added by Popma. ^ Al- 
dus, for respondere, * After pleraque, L. Sp. deleted quae. 
« GS., for et. * Added by GS. 

§ 68. " The word is a heteroclite in form, with a different 


Lesbos, and so on from other localities. Likewise 
unguenta ' perfumes ' themselves are now properly 
spoken of in the plural, for of perfume there are now 
a number of kinds. If in like fashion there were great 
differences in olive-oil and vinegar and the other 
articles of this sort, in common use, then we should 
employ the plurals olea and aceta, like vina. There- 
fore in both these matters their attempt to destroy 
the Regularities is unfair, since they expect that the 
words will be alike though their uses are different, 
and since they think that articles which we measure 
and objects which we count should be spoken of in the 
same way. 

XLI. 68. Likewise they find fault with the Regu- 
larities, because public baths are spoken of as balneae, 
with the form in the plural, and not as balnea, in the 
singular ; and on the other hand they speak of one bal- 
neum of a private individual, though they do not use 
the plural balnea.'^ To them answer can be made, that 
fault ought not to be found because scalae ' stairs ' 
and aquae caldae ' hot springs,' mostly with good 
reason, have been called by plural names and the 
corresponding singulars have not come into use : and 
vice versa.'' The first balneum ' bath-room ' (the 
name is Greek), when it was brought into the city of 
Rome, was as a public establishment set in a place 
where two connected buildings might be used for 
the bathing, in one of which the men should bathe 
and in the other the women. From the same logical 
reasoning each person called the place in his own 
house where baths were taken, a balneum ; and they 
were not accustomed to speak of balnea in the plural, 

meaning in the two numbers. But the plural balnea began to 
be used in the time of Augustus. * Cf. § 69. 



hoc antiqui non balneum, sed lavatrinam' appellare 

69- Sic aquae caldae ab loco et aqua, quae ibi 
scateret, cum ut colerentur venissent in usum nostris, 
cum aliae ad alium morbum idoneae essent, eae cum 
plures essent, ut Puteolis et in Tuscis, quibus uteban- 
tur, multitudinis potius quam singular! vocabulo 
appellarunt. Sic scalas, quod ab scandendo dicuntur 
et singulos gradus scanderent, magis erat quaeren- 
dum, si appellassent singular! vocabulo scalam, cum 
origo nominatus ostenderet contra. 

XLII. 70. Item reprehendunt de casibus, quod 
quidam nominatus habent rectos, quidam obliquos, 
quod dicunt utrosque in vocibus oportere. Quibus 
idem responderi potest, in quibus usus aut natura 
non subsit, ibi non esse analogiam. . . . 

71. Sed ne in his (quidem)^ vocabulis quae 
declinantur, si transeunt e recto casu in rectum 
casum : quae tamen fere non discedunt ab ratione 
sine iusta causa, ut hi qui gladiatores Faustinj^ : 
nam quod plerique dicuntur, ut tris extremas syllabas 

' Aug., with B, for lauiatrinam. * B, Ed. Veneta, for 


§ 71. ^ Added here by L. Sp. ; added after vocabulis by 
Madvig. ^ Mue., for faustinos. 

" More commonly in the contracted form latrina, and in 
Varro's time meaning ' water-closet, privy.' 

§ 69. " At least nine places in Etruria bore the name 

§ 70. " Cf. viii. 49. * There seems to be a lacuna here, 
as examples -illustrating this point of the refutation are lack- 

§71. ° That is, by derivation with suffixes, not merely by 



because they did not have two in one house — though 
our forbears were accustomed to call this not a 
balneum, but a lavatrina '^ ' wash-room.' 

69. So also, the hot springs, on account of the 
locality and the water which gushed out there, came 
to be frequented for our use, since some of the 
springs were beneficial to one disease and others to 
another ; and because those which they used were 
several in number, as at Puteoli and in Etruria," 
they called them by a plural word rather than by a 
singular. So also with the scalae ' stairs ' ; because 
they are named from scandere ' to mount ' and there 
were separate steps to be mounted, it would be a 
more difficult problem to answer if they had called 
them scala, in the singular, inasmuch as the origin of 
the name shows their plural nature. 

XLII. 70. Likewise they find fault " about the 
cases, because some nouns have nominative forms 
only, and others have only oblique forms : whereupon 
they say that all words ought to have both the 
nominative and the oblique forms. To them the 
same answer can be given, that there is no Regularity 
in those instances which lack a relationship in use 
or in nature. . . .'' 

71. But they should not look for complete Regu- 
larity even in these names which are derived by 
passage from one nominative form to another." 
Still, such words do not in general depart from the 
path of logic without valid reason, such as there is for 
those gladiators who are called Faustini * ; for though 
most gladiators are spoken of in such a way that they 

case-inflection. * The troops of gladiators were designated 
by adjectives of this sort which were derived from the names 
of the owners. 



habeant easdem, Cascelliani, (Caeciliani),^ Aquiliani, 
animadvertant,* unde oriuntur, nomina dissimilia 
Cascellius,^ Caecilius, Aquilius, (Faustus : quod si 
esset)' Faustius, recte dicerent Faustianos ; si(c>' 
a Scipione quidam male dicunt Scipioninos : nam est 
Scipionarios. Sed, ut dixi, quod ab huiuscemodi 
cognominibus raro declinantur cognomina neque in 
usum etiam perducta, natant quaedam. 

XLIII. 72. Item dicunt, cum sit simile stultus 
luscus et dicatur stultus stultior stultissimus, non 
dici luscus luscior luscissimus, sic in hoc genere 
multa. Ad quae dico ideo fieri, quod natura nemo 
lusco magis sit luscus, cum stultior fieri videatur. 

XLI V, 73. Quod rogant, cur <non)^ dicamus mane 
manius manissime, item de vespen' : in* tempore vere 
magis et minus esse non potest, ante et post potest. 
Itaque prius est hora prima quam secunda, non 
magis hora. Sed magis mane surgere tamen dicitur : 
qui primo mane surgit, <magis mane surgit)* quam 
qui non pri<m>o* : ut enim dies non potest esse 
magis quam (dies, sic mane non magis quam>* mane ; 

' Placed here by L. Sp. ; added after Aquiliani by Aug. 
* Aug., for animaduertunt. ^ Cascelius Aug., for Cas- 
sellius F. * Added by Mue. ' M, Laetus,for si. 

§ 73. ^ Added by Aug. * Popma, for uespertino. 
' Added by GS. * Stephanus, for prior. ^ Added by 
L. Sp. 

§ 72. " Cf. viii. 75. 

§ 73, " Cf. viii. 76. * The usual phrase is 7mtUo mane ; 

evidently, to the Romans, mane was not completely an adverb 
like English early. ' The Latin corresponding to this 

(English) sentence should perhaps, as GS. suggest, be placed 
before the sentence beginning Itaque prius ; the argument 
then develops more logically. 


have the last three syllables alike, CascelUani, Cae- 
ciliani, Aquiliani,^ let them take note that the names 
from which these come, Cascellius, Caecilius, Aquilius 
on the one hand, and Faustus on the other, are unhke : 
if the name were Faustius, they would be right in 
saying Faustiani. In the same way, from Scipio 
some make the bad formation Scipionini ; it is prop- 
erly Scipionarii. But, as I have said, since appella- 
tions are rarely derived from surnames of this kind 
and they are not fully at home in use, some such 
formations fluctuate in form. 

XLIII. 72. Likewise they say," that although 
stultus ' stupid ' and luscus ' one-eyed ' are like words, 
and stultus is compared with stitliior and stultissimus, 
the forms luscior and luscissimus are not used with 
Ittsais, and similarly with many words of this class. 
To which I say that this happens for the reason 
that by nature no one is more one-eyed than a one- 
eyed man, whereas he may seem to become more 

XLH'. 73. To their question ** why we do not say 
mane ' in the morning,* comparative manius, super- 
lative manissime, with a similar question about 
vesperi ' in the evening,' I reply that in matters of 
time there is properly no ' more ' and ' less,' but 
there can be before and after. Therefore the first 
hour is earUer than the second, but not ' more hour.' 
But nevertheless to rise magis mane ' more in the 
morning ' is an expression in use ; he who rises in 
the first part of the morning rises magis mane * 
' more in the morning ' than he who does not rise 
in that first part. For as the day cannot be said 
to be more than day, so mane cannot be said to be 
more than mane.'^ Therefore that very magis ' more ' 



itaque ipsum hoc quod dicitur magis sibi non constat, 
quod magis mane significat primum mane, magis 
vespere novissimum vesper. 

XLV. 74. Item ab huiuseemodi <dis>similitu- 
dinibus^ reprehenditur analogia, quod cum sit anus 
cadus simile et sit ab anu anicula anicilla, a cado duo 
reliqua quod non sint propagata, sic non dicatur a 
piscina piscinula piscinilla. Ad (haec respondeo)* 
huiuseemodi vocabulu* analogias esse, ut dixi, ubi 
magnitudo animadvertenda sit in unoquoque gradu 
eaque* sit in usu co<m>muni, ut est cista cistula 
cistella et canis catulus catellus, quod in pecoris usu 
non est. Itaque consuetude frequentius res in binas 
dividi partis ut maius et minus, ut lectus et lectulus, 
area et arcula, sic aha. 

XLVI. 75. Quod dicunt casus alia non habere 
rectos, alia obliquos et ideo non esse analogias, falsum 
est. Negant habere rectos ut in hoc frugis frugi 
frugem, item cole<m) colis cole,^ obliquos non habere 
ut in hoc Diespiter Diespitri Diespitrem, Maspiter 
Maspitri Maspitrem. 

§ 74. ^ L. Sp., for similitudinibus. ^ Added by L. Sp. 
' L. Sp.ffor vocabula. * Mue., for ea quae. 

§ 75. ^ A. Sp. ; colis coli colem Mue. ; for role rolls role. 

§ 74. " Cf. viii. 79. '' The diminutives are not ety- 
mological derivatives o( canis, but are of quite distinct origin. 
" Curiously, none of the Latin words denoting sheep and 
goats, cattle and horses, had a diminutive in regular use in 
Varro's time or earlier, except that Varro himself used equulus 
and equula. Plautus, Asin. 667, coined the words agneUus 
' little lamb,' haedilbts ' little kid,' vitellvs ' little calf,' as 
terms of endearment, but they do not appear again. "* The 
normal, undiminished object. 

§ 75, " Cf. viii. 49 ; the subject-matter of § 75 seems to 
come closely after that of § 70, but there seems to be no sure 



which is commonly said is not consistent \^ith itself, 
because magis mane means the first part of the mane, 
and magis vespere the last part of the evening. 

XLV. 74. Similarly, Regularity is found fault 
with on account of unhkenesses of this sort," that 
although anus ' old M'oman ' and cadus ' cask ' are 
like words, and from anus there are the diminutives 
anicula and anicilla, the other two are not formed 
from cadus, nor from piscina ' fish-pond ' are piscinula 
and piscinilla made. To this I answer that words of 
this kind have the Regularities, as I have said, only 
when the size must be noted in each separate stage, 
and this is in common use, as is cista ' box,' cistula, 
cistella, and canis * ' dog,' catulus ' puppy,' catellus 
' little puppy ' ; this is not indicated in the usage 
connected ■^^ith flocks.*^ Therefore the usage is more 
often that things be dixided into two sets, as larger ^ 
and smaller, like lectus ' couch ' and lectulus, area 
' strong-box ' and arcula, and other such words. 

XL\T. 75. As to their saying " that some words 
lack the nominative and others lack the oblique 
cases, and that therefore the Regularities do not 
exist, this is an error. For they say that the nomina- 
tive is lacking in such words as, frugis frugi frugem * 
' fruit of the earth ' and colem colis cole '^ ' plant- 
stalk,' and the oblique cases are lacking in such as 
Diespiter ' Jupiter,' dat. Diespitri, ace. Diespitrem, and 
Master ' Mars,' Maspitri, Maspitrem.^ 

way of rearranging the order of the text. * Gen., dat., ace. 
' Ace, gen,, abl., unless the manuscript readings are to be 
more seriously altered ; the word is more properly caul-, but 
Cato and Varro prefer the country forms, with o from au. 
* For Dies pater and Mars pater ; the addition of pater is 
found only in nom. and voc. {luppiter, older lupiter, is a 
voc. form). 

VOL. II K 4-97 


76. Ad haec respondeo et priora habere nominandi 
et posteriora obliques. Nam et frugi rectus est 
natura frux, at secundum consuetudinem dicimus ut 
haec avis, haec ovis, sic haec frugis ; sic secundum 
naturam nominandi est casus coZs,^ secundum con- 
suetudinem colis,* cum utrumque conveniat ad analo- 
gian, quod et id quod in consuetudine non est cuius 
modi debeat esse apparet, et quod est in consuetu- 
dine nunc in recto casu, eadem est analogia ac plera- 
que, quae ex multitudine cum transeunt in singulare, 
difficulter efFeruntur ore. Sic cum transiretur ex eo 
quod dicebatur haec oves, una non est dicta ovs sine 
/,' sed additum I ac factum ambiguum verbum 
nominandi an patrici esse<t>* casus. Ut ovis, et avis. 

77. Sic in obliquis casibus cur negent esse 
Diespitri Diespitrem non video, nisi quod minus est 
tritum in consuetudine quam Diespiter ; quod in 
nihil argumentum est : nam tam casus qui non tritus 
est quam qui est. Sed est(o)^ in casuum serie alia 
vocabula non habere nominandi, alia de obliquis 
aliquem: nihil enim ideo quo minus siet* ratio per- 
cellere poterit hoc crimen. 

§ 76. ^ Mue.y for rois. * Mue., for rolis. ' L. Sp., 
for una. * L. Sp.,for esse. 

§ 77. 1 L. Sp., for est. * Mue., for si et ; on the possi- 
bility of the use of siet in Varro's tirne, cf. Cicero, Orator 
47. 157. 

§ 76. " Frux is found in Ennius, Ann. 314 (' honest man ') 
and 431 Yahlen^ = R.O.L. i. 116-117 and 150-151 Warming- 
ton ; but nom. frugis is not quotable from a text. * Colis 
may be cited from Lucilius, 135 Marx, and Varro, R. R. 
i. 41. 6. ''Varro is speaking on the basis that the 
relation is nom. sing, ending in -s, nom. pi. in -es, as in 
dux, pi. duces. •* Haec before oves is the sign of the nom. 
pi. fem. ; Varro appears to use hae before consonants, haec 



76. To this I answer that the former have nomina- 
tives and the latter have oblique case-forms. For 
the nominative oifrugi is by natxirefrux, but by usage 
we say J'ntgis," like avis ' bird ' and ovis ' sheep ' ; so 
also, the nominative of the other word is by nature 
cols and by usage colis.^ Both of these agree AWth the 
principle of Regularity, because it is perfectly clear 
of what sort that form ought to be which is not in use, 
and in that which is now in use in the nominative 
there is the same kind of Regularity as most words 
have that are hard to pronounce when they pass 
from the plural to the singular.*^ So when the 
passage was made from the spoken plural otes,^ the 
form which was pronounced was not ovs \\ithout I, 
but an I was added and the word became ambiguous 
as to whether the case was nominative or genitive.* 
Like the nominative oris is also the nominative avis. 

77. Thus I do not see why they say that in the 
oblique cases Diespitn and Diespitrem are lacking, 
except because they are less common in use than 
Diespiter. But the argument amounts to nothing ; 
for the case-form which is uncommon is just as much 
a case-form as that which is common. But let us 
grant that in the list of case-forms some words lack 
the nominative and others lack some one of the 
oblique cases ; for this charge \^-ill not for that reason 
be able in any way to destroy the existence of a logical 
relationship " among the forms. 

before vowels as here (and at the sentence-end, as at v. 75). 
' Varro is of course unaware of the fact that some nouns of 
the third declension had stems ending in i and therefore had 
a right to nominatives in /*, while others had stems ending in 
consonants and could have the ending w only by analogy 
with the i-stems. 

§ 77. • That is. Regularity. 



78. Nam ut signa quae non habent caput^ aut 
aliquam aliam partem, nihilo minus* in reliquis mem- 
bris eorum esse possunt analogiae, sic in vocabulis 
casuum possunt item fieri (iacturae. Potest etiam 
refingi)' ac reponi quod aberit, ubi patietur natura 
et consuetudo : quod nonnunquam apud poetas 
invenimus factum, ut in hoc apud Naevium in Clas- 
tidio : 

Vita insepulta laetus in patriam redux. 

XLVII. 79. Item reprehendunt, quod dicaturhaec 
strues, hie Hercules,^ hie homo : debuisset enim dici, 
si esset analogia, hie Hercul, haec strus, hie hom<en. 
N>on* haec ostendunt no(mi)wa' non analogian esse, 
sed obliquos casus non habere caput ex sua analogia. 
Non, ut si in Alexandri statua imposueris caput 
Philippi, membra conveniant ad rationem, sic* et 
Alexandri membrorum simulacro* caput quod re- 
spondeat item sit ? Non, si quis tunicam in usu ita 
consuit, ut altera plagula* sit angustis clavis, altera 
latis, utraque pars in suo genere caret analogia. 

XLVIII. 80. Item negant esse analogias, quod 

§ 78. ^ After caput, M and Laetus deleted et. ^ For 
nihil hominus. * Added by GS. ; but the lost part may be 
somewhat longer. 

§79. ^ p,Ijaetus, for Herculis. ^ GS. ; homen Canal ; 
for homon. ' Kent, for noua. * G, H, Aug., for sit. 

* A. Sp., for simulacrum. • Aldus, for placula. 

§ 78. " By regular formation. ^ Trag. Rom. Frag., 
Praet. II Ribbeck^. " Redux, not elsewhere found in the 
nom. sing. 

§ 79. " If the nominatives were of the usual types, which 
replace the genitive ending -IS by -S or by nothing at all, 
like sus, animal, nomen, genitives suls, animalis, nom,inis. 

* That is, the nominatives are not formed ' regularly ' from 
the oblique cases, but from these nominatives of variant types 



78. For as some statues lack the head or some 
other part without destroying the Regularities in 
their other limbs, so in words certain losses of cases 
can take place, with as Uttle result. Besides, what is 
lacking can be remade " and put back into its place, 
where nature and usage permit ; which we sometimes 
find done by the poets, as in this verse of Naevius, in 
the Clastidium * : 

With life unburied, glad, to fatherland restored.* 

XL^'II. 79. Likewise they find fault with the 
nominatives strues ' heap,' Hercules, homo ' man ' ; 
for if Regularity actually existed, they say, these 
forms should have been strus, Hercul, hotnen.^ These 
nouns do not show that Regularity is non-existent, 
but that the oblique cases do not have a head or 
starting-point according to their type of Regularity.'' 
Is it not a fact that, if you should put a head of 
Philip on a statue of Alexander and the limbs should 
be proportionately symmetrical, then the head 
which does correspond to the statue of Alexander's 
limbs " would likewise be symmetrical ? And it is 
not a fact that if one should in practice sew together 
a tunic in such a way that one breadth of the cloth 
has narrow border-stripes and the other has broad 
stripes, each part lacks regular conformity within its 
own class. ** 

XLVIII. 80. Likewise they say that the Regu- 

the oblique cases are formed regularly. " That is, the 
heads or nominatives may be varied, but the limbs or oblique 
cases are of uniform type. ** For there are tunics with the 
broad stripe, worn by senators, and tunics with the narrow 
stripe, worn by knights ; therefore, though the two halves in 
the example do not belong together, each has its regular 



alii dicunt cupressus, alii cupressi, item de ficis 
platanis et plerisque arboribus, de quibus alii ex- 
tremum US, alii EI faciunt. Id est falsum : nam 
debent dici E et I, fici ut nummi, quod est ut num- 
mi(s> fici(s>,^ ut nummorum ficorum. Si essent 
plures ficus, essent ut manus ; diceremus ut manibus, 
sic ficibus, et ut manuum, sic ficuum, neque has ficos 
diceremus, sed ficus, ut non manos appellamus, sed 
(manus, nee)* consuetude diceret singularis obliquos 
casus huius fici neque hac fico, ut non dici<t>' huius 
mani,* sed huius manus, <n>ec^ hac mano, sed hac 

XLIX. 81. Etiam illud putant esse causae, cur 
non sit^ analogia, quod Lucilius scribit : 

Sive decusibus est. 

Qui errant, quod Lucilius non debuit dubitare, quod 
utrumque : nam in acre usque ab asse ad centussis 
numerus aes significat, et eius numero finiti casus 
omnes' ab dupondio sunt, quod dicitur a multis 
duobus modis hie dupondius et hoc dupondium, ut 

§ 80. ^ L. Sp., for nummi fici. * Added by Mue. ; 
manus neque L. Sp. ' Aug., for dici. * M, Laetus, for 
manui. ^ Jj. Sp., for et. 

§81. ^ After sit, Aldus deleted in. * Lachmann ; 
decussi Mue. ; for decuis. ' For omnis. 

§ 80. " As belonging to the fourth and the second de- 
clensions respectively. * This shows that Varro wrote the 
nominative plural of the second declension with EI, and not 
with I ; but it would be pedantic to substitute such spellings 
throughout his worlcs, or even merely in this section. 
" As type of the second declension. ** As type of the 
fourth declension. 



larities do not exist, because some say cupressus 
' cypress-trees ' in the plural and others say cupressi," 
and similarly with fig-trees, plane-trees, and most 
other trees, to which some give the ending US and 
others give EI. This is wrong ; for the tree-names 
ought to be spoken with E and \,^ Jici like nummi " 
' sesterces,' because the ablative hjicis like nuinmis, 
and the genitive is jicorum like mimmorum. If the 
plural were jicus, then it would be like manus ^ 
' hand ' ; we should say ablative ^«6«* like manibus, 
and genitive ^CMM/« like manmim, and we should not 
say accusative ^co*, but^cw*, just as we do not say 
accusative manos but manus ; nor would usage speak 
the oblique cases of the singular genitive Jici and 
ablative^co, just as it does not say genitive mani but 
manus, nor ablative mano but manu. 

XLIX. 81. Moreover, they think that there is 
proof of the non-existence of Regularity, in the fact 
that Lucilius writes " : 

Priced a ten-<w, or else we may say at ien-asses.'' 

They are in error, because Lucilius should not have 
been uncertain as to the form, since both are right. 
For in copper money, from the as to the hundred-a^, 
the number adds to itself the meaning of the copper 
coin, and all its case-forms are limited by its numerical 
value,'' starting from the dupondius ' two-o* piece,' 
which is used by many in two ways, masculine 
dupondius and neuter dupondium, like gladitis and 

§81. "Lucilius, 1153-4 Marx. * Or decussis, decus- 

sibus ; but the single S is elsewhere attested in these words, 
and Lucilius may well have followed the older orthography, 
which doubled no consonants. On the as, c/. v. 169» ' As 

first element in the compound. 



hoc gladium et hie gladius ; ab tressibus viriUa multi- 
tudinis hi tresses et " his tressibus confido," singulare 
" hoc tressis habeo " et " hoc tres(s>is* confido," sic 
deinceps a<d)* centussis. Deinde numerus aes non 

82. Numeri qui aes non significant, usque a quat- 
tuor ad centum, triplicis habent formas, quod dicun- 
tur hi quattuor, hae quattuor, haec quattuor ; cum 
perventum est ad mille, quartum assumit singulare 
neutrum, quod dicitur hoc mille denarium, a quo 
multitudinis fit milia denarium.^ 

83. Quare qtio{nia)ni^ ad analogias quod pertineat 
non (opus)* est ut omnia similia dicantur, sed ut 
in suo quaeque genere similiter declinentur, stulte 
quaerunt, cur as et dupondius et tressis non dicantur 
proportione, cum a** sit simple^:,* dMpondiiis* fictus, 
quod duo asses pendebat,* tressis ex tribus aeris quod 
sit. Pro assibus nonnunquam aes dicebant antiqui, a 

* For tresis. * Aug., for a. * Aug., for significans. 

§ 82. ^ Aug., for denaria. 

§83. ^ Mue., for cum. "^ Added by GS. » as sit 
Aldus, for adsit. * For simples. * For dipondius. 

* Aug., for pendebant. 

** Cf. V. 116 and viii. 45. * The value-names tressis to 
centussis were invariable in the singular, but had a full set 
of cases in the plural, without multiplying the value of the 
term ; thus tresses in the plural still means ' three asses ' 
precisely like the singular. 

§ 82. " One invariable form serves for three genders. 

* Mille is not only an indeclinable plural adjective, of three 
genders, but also a neuter noun in the singular, upon which 
a genitive depends ; and in this last capacity it has a plural, 
which is declinable. ' The denarius was a Roman silver 
coin, equivalent to the Greek drachma, and in modern times 



gladium.^ From tressis ' three-a* ' there is a mascu- 
line plural, tresses in the nominative and tressibus in 
the ablative, as in " I trust in these three asses," 
singular tressis as in " I have this three-a* " and " I 
trust in this three-o^y." The same usage is followed 
all the way to centussis ' hundred-o*.' * From here on, 
the numeral does not denote money any more than 
other things. 

82. The numerals which do not signify money, 
from quattuor ' four ' to centum ' hundred,' have forms 
of triple function," because quattuor is masculine, 
feminine, and neuter. \\Tien mille ' thousand ' is 
reached, it takes on a fourth function,* that of a 
singular neuter, because the expression in use is 
tnille ' thousand ' of denarii, '^ from which is made a 
plural, tytilia ' thousands ' of denarii. 

83. Since therefore so far as concerns the Regu- 
larities it is not essential that all words that are 
spoken should be alike in their systems, but only that 
they should be inflected alike each in its own class, 
those persons are stupid who ask why as and dupondius 
and tressis are not spoken according to a regular 
scheme ; for the as is a single unit, the dupondius is a 
compound term indicating that it pendebat ' weighed ' 
duo ' two ' asses, and the tressis is so called " because 
it is composed of tres ' three ' units of aes ' copper.' 
Instead of asses, the ancients used sometimes to say 
aes * ; a usage which survives when we hold an as in 

to the Swiss franc (about Is. 4d. English, or 32 cents U.S.A., 
in 1936). 

§ 83. " From tres and as, not from tres and ass. ' But 
in the genitive, if with a numeral ; just as we say " four 
o'clock," = " four (hours) of the clock " ; in the singular, 
aes might mean ' money ' collectively, like the French argent, 
and sometimes even a ' copper piece.' 



quo dicimus assem tenentes " hoc^ aere aeneaque 
libra " et " mille aeris legasse." 

84. Quare quod ab tressis usque ad centussis^ 
numeri ex (partibus)* eiusdem modi sunt compositi, 
eiusdem modi habent similitudinem : dupondius, 
quod dissimilis est, ut debuit, dissimilem habet 
rationem. Sic as, quoniam simplex est ac principium, 
et unum significat et multitudinis habet suum in- 
finitum : dicimus enim asses, quos cum finimus, 
dicimus dupondius et tressis et sic porro. 

85. Sic videtur mihi, quoniam finitum et infinitum 
habeat dissimilitudinem, non debere utrumque item 
dici, eo magis quod in ipsis vocabulis' ubi additur 
certus numerus miliar<i)is* aliter atque in reliquis 
dicitur : nam sic loquontur, hoc mille denarium, non 
hoc mille denari(orum),' et haec duo milia denari?</«,* 
non duo milia denari<orum).^ Si esset denarii in 
recto casu atque infinitam multitudinem significaret, 
tunc in patrico denariorum dici oportebat ; et non 
solum in denariis, victoriatis, rfrachmis,* nummis, sed 
etiam in viris idem servari oportere, cum dicimus 

' After hoc, Brissonms deleted ab. 

§84. ^ .4?/^.,/or ducentussis. ^ Added hi/ GS. 

§ 85. ^ M, Laetus, for vocalibiis. * Mue. ; milliariis 
L. Sp. ; for militaris. ^ L. Sp.,for denarii. * Aug., for 
denaria. * Christ, for denarii. * RfioL, for et rachmis. 

" A legal survival used in symbolic sales, r/. v. 163; for the 
ancient as Ubralis {cf. v. 169) had long since been decreased 
in weight and was not coined after 74 b.c. 

§ 84. " Even as dies and annus were not modified by the 
lower numerals ; for such phrases the Romans substituted 
biduum, triduum, biennium, triennium, etc. So for sums 



the hand and say " with this aes ' copper piece ' and 
aenea libra ' pound of copper,' " '^ and also in the legal 
formula " to have bequeathed a thousand (asses) of 
aes ' copper.' " 

84-. Therefore, because the numerals from tressis 
to centussis are compounded of parts of the same 
kind, they have a likeness of the same kind ; but the 
word dupondkis, because it is different in formation, 
lias a different system of declension, as it should 
have. So also the as, because it is a single unit and 
is the beginning, means one and has its own in- 
definite plural, for we say asses ; but when we limit 
them numericallv, we say dupondius and tressis and 
so on." 

, 85. Thus it seems to me that since the definite and 
the indefinite have an inherent difference, the two 
ought not to be spoken in the same fashion, the 
more so because in the words themselves, when they 
are attached to a definite number in the thousands, 
a form is used which is not the same as that used in 
other expressions. For they speak thus : mille dena- 
rium " ' thousand of denarii,' not denariorum, and two 
milia denarium ' thousands of denarii,' not denariorum. 
If it were denarii in the nominative and it denoted an 
indefinite quantity, then it ought to be denariorum in 
the genitive ; and the same distinction must be pre- 
served, it seems to me, not only in denarii, victoriati,^ 
drachmae, and nummi, but also in viri, when we say 

from 2 to 100 asses, the compound words were used, and not 
asses with the numeral. 

§ 85. " For names of weights and measures, and for some 
other words, the old genitive in -um continued in use long 
after the new form in -orum had been generalized. * The 

rictoriatus wa» a silver coin stamped with a figure of Victory, 
and worth half a denarius. 



iudicium fuisse triumvirum, decern (virum, centum)- 
virum,^ non <triuinvirorum, decern virorum),* centum- 

86. Numeri antiqui habent analogias, quod omni- 
bus est una^ regula, duo actus, tres gradus, sex de- 
curiae, qua(e)* omnia similiter inter se respondent. 
Regula' est numerus novenarius, quod, ab uno ad 
novem cum pervenimus, rursus redimus ad unum et 
V<IIII>« ; hinc et LX<XXX)* et nongenta» ab una 
sunt natura novenaria ; sic ab octonaria, et deo<r>sum 
versus ad singularia perveniunt. 

87. Actus primus est ab uno <ad)^ DCCCC, se- 
cundus a mille ad nongenta* milia ; quod idem valebat 
unum et mille, utrumque singular! nomine appellatur : 
nam ut dicitur hoc unum, haec duo, (sic hoc mille, 
haec duo)' milia et sic deinceps multitudinis in duobus 
actibus reliqui omnes item numeri. Gradus singu- 
laris est in utroque actu ab uno ad novem, denariMs* 
gradus (a>^ decem ad LX<XXX),* centenarius a cen- 
tum (ad)' DCCCC. Ita tribus gradibus sex decuriae 
fiunt, tres miliariae, tres^ minores. Antiqui his 
numeris fuerunt contenti. 

' Added by L. Sp. ^ Added by A, Sp., after Aldus. 

§ 86. ^ After una, L. Sp. deleted non novenaria {Aug. 
deleted non). ^ Rhol., for qua. ' Sciop., for regulae. 

* novem L. Sp., for V, * nonaginta Aldus, for LX. 

* L. Sp. ; nongenti G, H ; for nungenti. 

§ 87. ^ Added by Aug. ^ For nungenta. ' Added 

by Gronov. * Aug., for denarios. * Added by Aug. 

* nonaginta Aug., for LX. ' Added by Aug. * L. Sp., 
for miliaria etres. 

' The tresviri or triumviri capitales, in charge of prisons and 


that there has been a decision of the triumvirs,'^ the 
decemvirs,'' the centum virs,* all of which have the 
genitive virum and not virorum. 

86. The old numbers have their Regularities, 
because they all have one rule, two acts, three grades, 
and six decades, all of which show regular internal 
correspondences. The rule is the number nine, 
because, when we have gone from one to nine, we 
return again to one and nine " ; hence both ninety and 
nine hundred are of that one and the same nine- 
containing nature. So there are numbers of eight- 
containing nature,* and going downwards they arrive 
at those which are merely ones. 

87. The first act " is from one to nine hundred, 
the second from one thousand to nine hundred 
thousand. Because one and thousand are alike 
unities, both are called by a name in the singular ; 
for as we say ' this one ' and ' these two,' so we say 
' this thousand ' and ' these two thousands,' and 
after that all the other numbers in the two acts are 
likewise plural. The unitary grade is found in both 
acts, from one to nine ; the denary grade extends 
from ten to ninety ; the centenary grade from 
hundred to nine hundred. Thus from the three 
grades, six decades are made, three in the thousands, 
and three in the smaller numbers. The ancients were 
satisfied with these numerals. 

executions, ** The decemviri stlitibus rudicandis, a per- 
manent board with jurisdiction over cases involving liberty 
or citizenship. * The centumviri or board of judges with 
jurisdiction over civil suits, especially those involving in- 

§ 86. " As multiples of ten ; and then as multiples of one 
hundred. * But these do not constitute the ' rule.' 

§ 87. ° Technical term, taken from the drama. 



88. Ad^ hos tertium et quartum actum (addentes)^ 
ab decie(n>s <et ab deciens miliens)^ minores im- 
posuerunt vocabula, neque ratione, sed tamen non 
contra est earn de qua scribimus analogiam. Nam' 
deciens* cum dicatur hoc deciens ut mille hoc mille, 
ut sit utrumque sine casibus vocis, dicemus ut hoc 
mille, huius mille, sic hoc deciens, huius deciens, 
neque eo minus in altero, quod est mille, praeponemus 
hi mille, horum mille, (sic hi deciens, horum deciens). ^ 

L. 89. Quoniam in eo est nomen co<m)mune, 
quam vocant o/xcovv/iiav,^ obliqui casus ab eodem 
capite, ubi erit o/iwvv/xta,^ quo minus dissimiles fiant, 
analogia non prohibet. Itaque dicimus hie Argus, 
cum hominem dicimus, cum oppidum, Graec(e 
Graec>an(i>cet;e' hoc Argos, cum Latine <hi>* Argi. 
Item faciemus, si eadem vox nomen et* verbum 
significafeit,* ut et in casus et in tempora dispariliter 
declinetur, ut faciemus a Meto quod nomen est 
Metonis Metonem, quod verbum est metam metebam. 

§ 88. ^ For ab. ^ Added by Kent, after Miie. (actum 
ab deciens minorem, <a deciens miliens maiorem addentes), 
imposuerunt). * Ajfter nam, L. Sp. deleted ut. * Aug., 
for decienis. * Added by L. Sp. ; there may have been 
other text also in the lacuna, 

§ 89. ^ For omonimyan. ^ For omonimya ; after which 
Aug. deleted obliqui casus. * Fay, cf. x. 71 ; graecanice 
Pius ; for graecancaene. * Added by Vertranius ; (hei) 
Aug. * Pius, for nominet. * Pius, for significavit. 

§ 88. " Elliptic for decies centena milia ' ten times a 
hundred thousands.' * Similarly elliptic for decies milies 

centena milia. " Varro seems not to know the abl. sing. 

milli, foutid in Plautus, Bac. 928 (assured by the metre), 
and in Lucilius, 327 and 506 Marx (assured by Gellius, i. 16. 


88. To these, their descendants added a third and 
a fourth act, imposing names which started from 
deciens " ' million ' and deciens miliens * ' thousand 
million ' ; and though the names were not formed by 
logical relation with the lower numerals, still their for- 
mation is not in conflict with the Regularity about 
which we are writing. For inasmuch as deciens is used 
as a neuter singular like iiiille, so that both words are 
without change of form for the various cases, "^ we 
shall use deciens unchanged as nominative and as 
genitive, even as we do mille ; and none the less 
shall we set before viille the signs of nominative and 
of genitive plural, because mille is also in the other 
number — and so also shall we speak of ' these deciens ' 
in the same cases. 

L. 89. When a noun is the same in the nomina- 
tive though it has more than one meaning, in which 
instance they call it a homonymy, Regularity does 
not prevent the oblique cases from the same starting 
form in which the homonymy is, from being dis- 
similar. Therefore we say Argus in the masculine, 
when we mean the man, but when we mean the 
town we say, in Greek or in the Greek fashion, 
Argos " in the neuter, though in Latin it is Argi, 
masculine plural. Like>\ise, if the same word de- 
notes both a noun and a verb, we shall cause it to 
be inflected both for cases and for tenses, with 
different inflection for noun and verb, so that from 
Meto as a noun, a man's name, we form gen. Metonis, 
ace. Metonem, but from meto as a verb, ' I reap,' we 
form the future vietani and the imperfect metebam. 

§ 89. " The homonymy is not perfect, since the forms are 
Argus and Argos ; the neuter Argos is found in Latin only 
in nom. and ace. 



LI. 90. Reprehendunt, cum ab eadem voce plura 
sunt vocabula declinata, quas awtDw/xia^^ appellant, 
ut^ Alc(m>aeus' et Alc<m>aeo,' sic Ger?/on, Gen/o- 
n(e>us,* Geryones. In hoc genere quod casus per- 
peram permutant quidam, non reprehendunt ana- 
logiam, sed qui eis utuntur imperite ; quod quisque 
caput prenderit, sequi debet eius consequenti(s)* 
casus in declinando ac non facere, cum dixerit recto 
casu Alc(m>fleus,* in obliquis' Alc(m>aeoni* et 
Alc(m)fleonem* ; quod si miscuerit et non secutus 
erit analogias, reprehendendum. 

LII. 91- (Reprehendunt)^ Aristarchum, quod 
haec nomina Melicertes et Philomedes similia neget 
esse, quod vocandi casus habet alter Melicerta, alter 
Philomede<s>,* sic qui dicat lepus et lupus non esse 
simile, quod alterius vocandi casus sit lupe, alterius 
lepus, sic socer, macer, quod in transitu fiat ab 
altero trisi/Uabum soceri, ab altero bisyllabum macri. 

92. De hoc etsi supra responsum est, cum dixi 
de lana, hie quoque^ amplius adiciam similia non solum 

§90. ^ For synonimyas. ^ After ut, Aug. deleted 
sapho et. ' Kent, for alceus and alceo, usually corrected 
to Alcaeus, Alcaeo, though a variant nominative Alcaeo is 
unknown ; whereas Alcumeus occurs in Plautus, Capt. 6G2, 
and Alcmaeo in Cicero, Acad. Priora ii. 28. 89, and else- 
where. * Mue., for gerionus. ^ L. Sp., for consequent!. 
• Kent, for alceus, alceoni, alceonem ; cf. crit. note 3. 
' After obliquis, Mue. deleted dicere. 

§91. ^ Added by L. Sp., after Atig. ^ Mue., for 

§ 92. ^ For hie hie quoque. 

§ 90. " Son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle, who killed his 
mother at the command of his father, because she tricked him 
into going to a war in which he was destined to die ; cf. also 
the critical note. * The three-bodied giant whom Hercules 



LI. 90. They find fault when from the same 
utterance two or more word-forms are derived, which 
they call synonymns, such as Alcmaeus and Alcmaeo,'' 
and also Geryon, Geryoneus, Geryonesy As to the fact 
that in this class certain speakers interchange the 
case-forms \<Tongly — they are not finding fault ^^■ith 
Regularity, but with the speakers who use those case- 
forms unskillfully : each speaker ought to follow, 
in his inflection, the case-forms which attend upon 
the nominative which he has taken as his start, and 
he ought not to make a dative Alcmaeoni and an 
accusative Alcmaeonem when he has said Alcmaeus in 
the nominative ; if he has mixed his declensions and 
has not followed the Regularities, blame must be laid 
upon him. 

LII. 91- They find fault" with Aristarchus for 
saying that the names yielicertes and Philomedes are 
not alike, because one has as its vocative Meliceria, 
and the other has Philomedes * ; and Ukewise with 
those who say that lepus ' hare ' and lupus ' wolf ' 
are not aUke, because the vocative case of one is 
lupe and of the other is lepus, and ^^ith those who say 
the same of socer ' father-in-law ' and macer ' lean,' 
because in the declensional change there comes 
fifom the one the three-syllabled genitive soceri and 
from the other the two-syllabled genitive macri. 

92. Although the answer to this was given above " 
when I spoke about the kinds of wool, I shall make 
here some further statements : the likenesses of 

overpowered and robbed of his cattle ; all three forms are 
known in Greek, but only Geryon and Geryones in Latin. 

§91. " Cf. viii. 68. "The Greek nominatives end in 
-»js, but the vocatives end in -a and -€? respectively. 

§ 92. " Cf. L\. 39. 
VOL. II L 513 


a facie dici, sed etiam ab aliqua coniuncta vi et 
potestate, quae et oculis et auribus latere soleant : 
itaque saepe gemina facie mala negamus esse 
similia, si sapore sunt alio ; sic equos eadem facie 
nonnullos negamus esse similis, (s>i* natione s(unt>' 
ex procreante dissimiles.* 

93. Itaque in hominibus emendis, si natione alter 
est melior, emimus pluris. Atque in hisce omnibus 
similitudines non sumimus tantum a figura, sed 
etiam aliu(n>de, ut in equis aetas, ut in <asin>is^ 
cuius modi faciant pullos, ut in pomis quo sint suco. 
Si igitur idem sequitur in similitudine verborum quis, 
reprehendundus non est. 

94. Quare similitudinwrn^ discernendarum causa 
nonnunquam ut pronomen assumitur, sic casum 
aliquem assumi<mus>,^ ut in his nemus, lepus, hie 
lepus, hoc nemus : itaque discedunt ac dicuntur hi 
lepores, haec nemora. Sic aliud si quid assumptum 
erit extrinsecus, quo similitudo penitus perspici 
possit, non nim(is>* erit remotum ab natura : neque 
enim magnetas lapides duo inter se similes sint 
necne, perspicere possis, nisi minutum extrinsecus 
prope apposueris ferrum, quod similes lapides 
similiter ducunt, dissimiliter dissimiles. 

* Sciop., for in. ' L. Sp. ; natione Vertranius ; for 
nationes. * For dissimilis. 

§ 93. ^ Lachmann, for ut inis. 

§ 94. ^ L. Sp.,for similitudinem. ^ L. Sp.,for assumi. 
' A. Sp.,for enim. 

§ 93. " For example, Cappadocians were notoriously 
worthless as slaves. 


spoken words rest not only upon their form, but also 
upon some attached strength and power which is 
usually hidden from our eyes and ears. Therefore 
we often say that two apples that are identical in 
appearance are not alike, if they are of different 
flavour ; and we say that some horses of the same 
appearance are not alike, if by breed they are different 
on the sire's side. 

93. Therefore in buying human beings as slaves, 
we pay a higher price for one that is better by nation- 
ality.'' And in all these matters we take the points 
of likeness not merely from the appearance, but also 
from other factors, as in horses their age, in asses 
the kind of colts that they beget, in fruits the flavour 
of their juice. If therefore one proceeds in the same 
way in deciding whether words are alike, he is not to 
be found fault with. 

94^. Wherefore as the pronoun ° is sometimes 
taken as an aid to distinguish the resemblances, so 
we take some case-form, as in nemus ' grove ' and lepus 
' hare,' lepus being shown by it to be masculine and 
nemus neuter : therefore they go in different direc- 
tions and the plurals are lepores and nemora. So also, 
if anything else whatsoever is taken from outside to 
enable a thorough examination of the problem of like- 
ness to be made, it will not be too far from the natural 
qualities : for vou cannot even see whether two 
magnetic stones are aUke or not, unless you have 
brought close to them from outside a particle of 
steel, which like magnets attract to a like degree, 
and magnets different in strength attract with 
different powers. 

§ 94. " Specifically, the demonstrative hie and its forms, 
used as indicative of gender and of case. 



95. Quod ad nominatuom^ analogia(m)* pertinet, 
ita deli<q>Matum^ arbitror, ut omnia quae dicuntur 
contra ad respondendum ab his fontibus sumi possit. 
LIII. Quod ad verborum temporalium rationem 
attinet, cum partes sint quattuor, tempora, personae, 
genera, division^*,* ex omni parte quoniam reprehen- 
dunt, ad singula i*espondebo. 

LI V. 96. Primum quod aiunt analogias non servari 
in temporibus, cum dicant legi lego legam et sic 
simih'(ter>^ alia : nam quae sint ut legi rem^ per- 
fectam significare, duo reliqua lego et legam' in- 
choatam, iniuria reprehendunt : nam ex eodem 
genere et ex divisione idem verbum, quod sumptum 
est, per tempora traduci (infecti)* potest, ut discebam 
disco discam, et eadem perfecti, ut didiceram didici 
didicero. LV. Ex quo licet scire verborum 
ratione<m)' constare, sed eos, qui trium temporum 
verba pronuntiare velint, <in>scienter* id facere ; 

97. i^em^ illos qui reprehendunt, quod dicamus 
amor amabor amatus sum : non enim debuisse in una 
serie unum verbum esse duplex, cum duo simplicia 
essent. Neque ex divisione si unius modi ponas 

§ 95. ^ L. Sp.,for nominatiuom. * Aug., for analogia. 
' GS.,for declinatum. * L. Sp.,for personarum generum 

§ 96. 1 L. Sp., with II, for simile. " C. F. W. Mueller 
(legi Aug.), for legerem. ^ After legam, L. Sp. deleted et 
lego {Aug. deleted lego et before legam). * Added here by 
G8. ; after ut, by L. Sp. ; after tempora, by Christ. * Aug., 
for ratione. * L. Sp., for scienter. 

§ 97. ^ Aug., for idem. 

§ 95. " Apparently a genus of verbs is a group of verbs 
which make their forms similarly, a conjugation or a group 
belonging to one conjugation ; but it may also be a set 
of forms having one function, and hence equal to ' mood,' 



95. That which concerns the Regularity of 
nouns has, I think been so cleared up that material 
for answering all objections can be drawn from these 
sources. LIII. We now come to the logical system 
of verbs ; this has four parts : tenses, persons, 
kinds," and divisions.^ As they find fault with 
respect to each and every part, I shall make answer 
to the objections one by one. 

LIV. 96- First as to their saying that the Regu- 
larities are not preserved in the tenses, when they 
give perfect legi ' I have read,' present lego ' I read,' 
future legam ' I shall read,' and others in just the 
same way : they are wTong in finding fault ^\ith 
those forms like legi as denoting completed actions 
and the other two, lego and legam, as denoting action 
only begun ; for the same verb which has been taken 
from the same kind and the same division, can be 
paraded through the tenses of non-completion, like 
disceham ' I was learning,' disco ' I learn,' discam ' I 
shall learn,' and the same of completion, thus didi- 
ceram ' I had learned,' didici' I have learned,' didicero 
' I shall have learned.' LV. From this one may know 
that the logical system of verbs is consistent with 
itself, but that those who try to speak the verbs in 
their three tenses, do this in an ignorant way ; 

97. that likewise those do so ignorantly who find 
fault because we say amor ' I am loved,' amahor ' I 
shall be loved,' amatus sum ' I have been loved '; for, 
they say, in one and the same series there ought not 
to be one verb made up of two words while the other 
two verbs are each of one word. Yet if you would 

cf. § 102. * There were two divisions, one comprising the 
tenses of incomplete action, and the other the tenses of com- 
pleted action. 



verba, discrepant inter se : nam infeeta omnia sim- 
plicia similia sunt, et perfecta duplicia inter se paria 
in omnibus verbis, ut haec amabar amor amabor, 
amatus (eram amatus sum amatus)* ero. 

98. Quare item male dicunt ferio feriam percussi, 
quod est ordo (ferio)^ feriam feriebam, percussi 
percu**ero percusseram.'^ Sic deinceps in reliquis 
temporibus reprehendenti responderi potest. 

LVI. 99- Similiter errant qui dicunt ex utraque 
parte verba omnia commutare syllabas oportere aut 
nullum, in his pungo pungam pupugi, tundo tundam 
tutudi : dissimilia enim conferunt, verba infecti cum 
perfectis. Quod si infeeta modo conferrent, omnia 
verbi principia incommutabilia viderentur, ut in his 
pungebam pungo pungam et contra ex utraque parte 
commutabilia, si perfecta ponerent, ut pupugeram 
pupugi pupugero. 

L\'II. 100. Item male conferunt fui sum ero, quod 
fui est perfectum, cuius series sibi, ut debet, in omni- 
bus partibus^ constat, quod est fueram fui fuero ; de 
infectis sum quod nunc dicitur olim dicebatur esum 
et in omnibus personis constabat, quod dicebatur 

* Added by L. Sp. 

§ 98. ^ Added here by Miie. ; added after feriam by G, H, 
Aldus. ^ Mue., for percutio percutiam / see note b. 

§ 100. ^ A. Sp.,for personis. 

§ 98. " In this section Varro changes the order in which 
he cites the tenses. * Ferio is found only in the present 

tense-system ; in the perfect tense-system it is replaced by 
percvssi, the present tense-system of which is relatively little 
used. This justifies the emendation of the text. 



put down verb-forms from a dixision of one kind, 
they would not differ from one another ; for all the 
forms denoting incomplete action are alike single, 
and the forms of completed action are in all verbs 
double, quite like one another : such as amabar, amor, 
amabor, and amatits eram, amatus sum, amatus ero. 
98. Wherefore likewise they do ill to cite ferio 

I strike,' future feriam, perfect percussi ; because 
the proper order isJ'erio,J'eriam,Jeriebani,'* and percussi, 
percussero, percusseram.^ And in this fashion answer 
can be made to the one who finds fault in the matter 
of the other tenses. 

L\T. 99- They make a similar mistake who say 
that all verbs ought to change the radical syllables 
in both di\isions, or no verb should — as in pungo 
' I prick,' future pungam, perfect pupugi, and tundo 

I pound,' tundam, tutudi ; for they are comparing 
unlikes, namely verbs of the incomplete phase x^-ith 
the completed. But if they were comparing only 
the incomplete, then all the stems of the verb would 
be seen to be unchangeable, as in pungebam, pungo, 
pungam, and on the other hand changeable, if thev 
instanced the completed, as in pupugeram, pupugi, 

LVII. 100. Likewise they do ill to compare Jut 
' I was,' sum ' I am,' ero ' I shall be ' ; for Jtii is a form 
of completed time, whose series is consistent with 
itself in all its parts, as it should be, namely Jver am, 
fui, fuero. Of the incomplete, that which is now 
pronounced sum used to be spoken esum,° and the 
series is consistent in all its persons, because they 

§ 100. " This form seems to have been invented by Varro 
to suit his argument ; all the evidence is against its ever 
having existed. 



esum es est, eram eras erat, ero eris erit ; sic huiusce 
modi cetera servare analogiam videbis. 

LVIII. 101. Etiam in hoc reprehendunt, quod 
quaedam verba neque personas habent ternas neque 
tempora terna : id imperite reprehendunt, ut si quis 
reprehendat naturam, quod non unius modi finxerit 
animalis omnis. Si^ enim natura non omnes formae 
verborum terna habent* tempora, ternas personas, 
non habent totidem verborum divisiones. Quare 
cum imperamus, natura quod infecta (ver>ba' solum 
habe<n)t,* cum aut^ praesenti aut absenti imperamus, 
fiunt terna, ut lege legito legat : perfectum enim 
imperat nemo. Contra quae sunt indicandi,^ ut lego 
legis legit, novena fiunt verba infecti, novena perfecti. 

LIX. 102. Quocirca non si genus cum genere 
discrepat,^ sed in suo quique* genere si quid deest, 
requirendum. Ad haec addita si erunt ea quae de 
nominati6?^s^ supra sunt dicta, facilius omnia sol- 
ventur. Nam ut illic externi(s>* caput rectus casus, 
sic hie in forma est persona eius qui loquitur ettempus 
praesens, ut scribo lego. 

§ 101. ^ Avff., for sic. * G, H, a, for habeant. 
' Mue., with G,for infectaba. * Christ, with G, for habet. 
* L. Sp., for et. * L. Sp., for imperandi. 

§ 102. ^ Laetus, for discrepant. * Abl. quique Lach- 
mann, for quisque. ' L. Sp., for nominatiuis. * Fay, 
for externi. 

§ 101. " Present imperative, future imperative, present 
subjunctive. *" The indicative mood. "^ Varro dis- 

regards the, phiral forms in this calculation. 

§ 102. ° Meaning ' mood ' ; c/. § 95, note a. * Cf. 

ix. 75-79. 



used to say present esum es est, imperfect eram eras 
erat, future ero eris erit. In this same fashion you 
will see that the other verbs of this kind preserve the 
principle of Regularity. 

LVIII. 101. Besid'es, they find fault \^ith Regu- 
larity in this matter, that certain verbs have not the 
three persons, nor the three tenses ; but it is with lack 
of insight that they find this fault, as if one should 
blame Nature because she has not shaped all li\'ing 
creatures after the same mould. For if by nature not 
all forms of the verbs have three tenses and three 
persons, then the di\isions of the verbs do not all have 
this same number. Therefore when we give a com- 
mand, a form which only the verbs of uncompleted 
time have — when we give a command to a person 
present or not actually present, three verb-forms " are 
made, like lege ' read (thou),' tegito ' read (thou) ' or 
' let him read,' legal ' let him read ' : for nobody 
gives a command with a form denoting action already 
completed. On the other hand, in the forms which 
denote declaration,* like lego ' I read,' legis ' thou 
readest,' legit ' he reads,' there are nine verb-forms 
of uncompleted action and nine of completed 

LIX. 102. For this and similar reasons the 
question that should be asked is not whether one 
kind " disagrees with another kind, but whether there 
is anything lacking in each kind. If to these 
there is added what I said above * about nouns, all 
difficulties -snll be easily resolved. For as the nomina- 
tive case-form is in them the source for the derivative 
cases, so in verbs the source for other forms is in the 
form which expresses the person of the speaker and 
the present tense : like scribo ' I write,' lego ' I read.' 



103. Quare ut illic fit, si^ hie item aeeiderit, in 
formula ut aut caput non sit aut ex alieno genere sit, 
proportione eadem quae illic dicimus, cur nihilominus* 
servetur analogia. Item, sicut illic caput suum 
habebit et in obliquis casibus transitio erit in ali<am> 
quam' formulam, qua assumpta reliqua facilius 
possint videri verba, unde sint declinata (fit enim, ut 
rectus casus nonnunquam sit ambiguus), ut in hoc 
verbo volo, quod id duo significat, unum a voluntate, 
alterum a volando ; itaque a volo intellegimus et 
volare et velle. 

LX. 104. Quidam reprehendunt, quod pluit et 
luit dicamus in praeterito et praesenti tempore, cum 
analogiae sui cuiusque temporis verba debeant dis- 
criminare. Falluntur : nam est ac putant aliter, 
quod in praeteritis U dicimus longum pluit (luit),^ 
in praesenti breve pluit luit : ideoque in lege vendi- 
tionis fundi " ruta caesa " ita dicimus, ut U produ- 

LXI. 105. Item reprehendunt quidam, quod 
putant idem esse sacrifico^ et sacrificor, lavat" et 
lavatur ; quod sit an non, nihil commovet analogian, 
dum sacrifice' qui dicat servet sacrificabo et sic per 

§ 103. ^ Mue.,for sic. ^ For nichilominus. ' 3fue., 
for aliquam. 

§ 104. 1 Added by Aug. 

§ 105. ^ Aug., for sacrificio. * L. Sp. ; sacrificor et 
lavat Aug. ; for sacrifice relauat. ' Aug., for sacrifici. 

§ 103. « Cf. ix. 76. 

§ 104. " Found in older Latin, but seemingly shortened 
by about Varro's time. * One might exempt from inclu- 
sion in the sale of a property all things dug up (sand, chalk, 
ete.) and ail things cut down (timber, etc.), even though they 
were still unwrought materials. " The u is short in the 
compounds erutus, obrutus, etc. 



103. Wherefore, if it has happened in verbs as it 
does happen in nouns, that in the pattern the starting- 
point is lacking or belongs to a different kind, we give 
the same arguments here which we gave there," with 
suitable changes in application, as to why and how 
Regularity is none the less preserved. And as in 
nouns the word will have its ovm peculiar starting- 
point and in the oblique cases there will be a change 
to some other pattern, on the assumption of which it 
can be more easily seen from what the word-forms are 
derived (for it happens that the nominative case-form 
is sometimes ambiguous), so it is in verbs, as in this 
verb volo, because it has two meanings, one from 
wishing and the other from flying ; therefore from 
volo we appreciate that there are both volare ' to fly ' 
and velle ' to wish.' 

LX. 104. Certain critics find fault, because we 
say pltiit ' rains ' and luit ' looses ' both in the past 
tense and in the present, although the Regularities 
ought to make a distinction between the verb-forms 
of the two tenses. But they are mistaken ; for it is 
other^vise than they think, because in the past tense 
we say pluit and luit with a long U," and in the present 
with a short U ; and therefore in the law about the 
sale of farms we say rtda caesa ' things dug up and 
things cut,'* with a lengthened m." 

LXI. 105. Likewise certain persons find fault, 
because they think that active sacrijico ' I sacrifice ' 
and passive sacrificor, active lavat ' he bathes ' and 
passive lavatur, are the same " : but whether this is 
so or not, has no effect on the principle of Regularity, 
provided that he Avho says sacrijico sticks to the future 

§ 105. <» With the same meaning ; but the passive of 
these verbs sometimes has true passive meaning. 




totam formam, ne dicat sacrificatur* aut sacrificatus 
sum : haec enim inter se non conveniunt. 

106. Apud Plautum, cum dicit : 

Piscis ego credo qui usque dum vivunt lavant 
Diu minus lavari^ quam haec lavat Phronesium, 

ad lavant lavari non convenit, ut /* sit postremum, 
sed E ; ad lavantur analogia lavari reddit : quod 
Plauti aut librarii mendum si est, non ideo analogia, 
sed qui scripsit est reprehendendus. Omnino et 
lavat' et lavatur dicitur separatimrecte in rebus certis, 
quod puerum nutrix lava(t),* puer a nutrice lavatur, 
nos in fealneis et lavamus et lavamur. 

107. Sed consuetude alterum utrum cum satis 
haberet, in toto corpore potius utitur lavamur, in 
partibus lavamus, quod dicimus lavo manus, sic pedes 
et cetera. Quare e balneis non recte dicunt lavi, lavi 
manus recte. Sed quoniam in balneis lavor lautus 
sum, sequitur,ut contra, quoniam est soleo, oporte<a)ti 
dici solui, ut Cato et Ennius scribit, non ut dicit 
volgus, solitus sum, debere dici ; neque propter haec, 
quod discrepant in sermone pauca, minus est analogia, 
ut supra dictum est. 

* L. Sp., for sacrificaturus. 

§ 106. ^ Plautus has minus diu lavare. * //, /or T. 
' H, for lauant. * For laua. 

§ 107. ^ Mue.,for oportet. 

§ 106. " True. 322-323. 

§ 107. "The passive form as a middle or reflexive, but the 
active form as a transitive requiring an object. * Frag, 

inc. 34 Jordan. ' Frag. inc. 26 Vahlen^* <* Cf. ix. 33. 



sacrijicabo and so on in the active, through the whole 
paradigm, avoiding the passive sacrijicatur and 
sacrificatus sum : for these two sets do not harmonize 
with each other. 

106. In Plautus, when he says " : 

The fish, I really think, that bathe through all their life. 
Are in the bath less time than this Phronesium, 

lavari ' are in the bath,' with final I instead of E, does 
not attach to lavant ' bathe ' : Regularity refers lavari 
to lavantur, and whether the error belongs to Plautus 
or to the copyist, it is not Regularity, but the writer 
that is to be blamed. At any rate, lavat and lavatur 
are used with a difference of meaning in certain 
matters, because a nurse lavat ' bathes ' a child, the 
child lavatur ' is bathed ' by the nurse, and in the 
bathing establishments we both lavamus ' bathe ' and 
lavamur ' are bathed.' 

107. But since usage approves both, in the case 
of the whole body one uses rather lavamur ' we bathe 
ourselves,' and in the case of portions of the body 
lavamus ' we wash,' in that we say lavo ' I wash ' my 
hands, my feet, and so on." Therefore vriih reference 
to the bathing establishments they are WTong in 
saying lavi ' I have bathed,' but right in saying lavi 
' I have washed ' my hands. But since in the bathing 
establishments lavor ' I bathe ' and lautus sum ' I 
have bathed,' it follows that on the other hand from 
soleo ' I am wont,' which is in the active, one ought 
to say solui ' I have been wont,' as Cato * and Ennius " 
write, and that solitus sum, as the people in general 
say, ought not to be used. But as I have said above,"* 
Regularity exists none the less for these few in- 
consistencies which occur in speech. 



LXII. 108. Item cur non sit analogia, a^erunt,^ 
quod ab similibus similia non declinentur, ut ab dolo 
et colo : ab altero enim dicitur dolavi, ab altero colui ; 
in quibus assumi solet aliquid, quo facilius reliqua 
dicantur, ut i(ny Mj/rmecidis' operibus minutis solet 
fieri : igitur in verbis temporalibus, quo<m>* simili- 
tudo saepe sit confusa, ut diseerni nequeat, nisi trans- 
ieris in aliam personam aut in tempus, quae pro- 
posita sunt no<n e>sse* similia intellegitur, cum trans- 
itum est in secundam personam, quod alterum est 
dolas, alterum colis. 

109. Itaque in reliqua forma verborum suam 
utr(um>que^ sequitur formam. Utrum in secunda 
(persona)'^ forma verborum temporal«<um>' habeat 
in extrema syllaba AS <an ES) an IS a<u>t IS,* ad 
discernendas similitudines interest : quocirca ibi 
potius index analogiae quam in prima, quod ibi 
abstrusa est dissimilitudo, ut apparet in his meo, neo, 
ruo : ab his enim dissimilia fiunt transitu, quod sic 
dicuntur meo meas, neo nes, ruo ruis, quorum 
unumquodque suam conservat similitudinis formam. 

LXIII. 110. Analogiam item de his quae appel- 
lantur participia reprehendunt mult«^ ; iniuria : nam 
non debent dici terna ab singulis verbis amaturus 
amans amatus, quod est ab amo amans et amaturus, 

§ 108. ^ adferunt Aug., for asserunt. ^ Au(/., for uti. 
* PiMS, /or murmecidis. * Aug., for quo. ^ Vertranius, 
for nosse. 

§109. 1 iSc«op., /or uterque. ^ Added by L. Sp. ^ L. 
Sp., for temporale. * L. Sp. (aut ES Canal), for as anis 
at si. 

§110. 1 G'S., /or multa. 

§ 108. "Just as we nowadays take the infinitive to show 
the conjugation, adding the perfect active and the passive 



LXII. 108. Likewise, they present as an argument 
against the existence of Regularity the fact that like 
forms are not derived from likes, as from dolo ' I chop ' 
and colo ' I till ' ; for one forms the perfect dolavi 
and the other forms colui. In such instances some- 
thing additional is wont to be taken to aid in the 
making of the other forms,'' just as we do in the tiny 
art-works of Myrmecides ^ : therefore in verbs, since 
the likeness is often so confusing that the distinction 
cannot be made unless you pass to another person or 
tense, you become aware that the words before you 
are not alike when passage is made to the second 
person, which is dolas in the one verb and colis in the 

109. Thus in the rest of the paradigm of the 
verbs each follows its own special type. Whether 
in the second person the paradigm of verbs has in the 
final syllable AS or ES or IS or JS, is of importance 
for distinguishing the likenesses. Wherefore the mark 
of Regularity is in the second person rather than in the 
first, because in the first the unlikeness is concealed, 
as appears in meo ' I go,' neo ' I sew,' ruo ' I fall ' ; for 
from these there develop unlike forms by the change 
from first to second person, because they are spoken 
thus : meo meas, neo nes, ruo mis, each one of which 
preserves its own type of likeness. 

LXIII. 110. Likewise, many find fault with 
Regularity in connexion with the so-called parti- 
ciples ; wrongly : for it should not be said that the 
set of three participles comes from each individual 
verb, like amaturus ' about to love,' amans ' loving,' 
amatus ' loved,' because amans and amaturus are from 

participle to make up the " principal parts " which are our 
guide. * Cf. vii. 1, 



ab amor* amatus. Illud analogia quod praestare 
debet, in suo quieque genere habet, casus, ut amatus 
amato et amati amatis ; et sic in muliebribus amata 
et amatae ; item amaturus eiusdem modi habet 
declinationes, amans paulo aliter ; quod hoc genus 
omnia sunt in suo genere similia proportione, sic 
virilia et muliebria sunt eadem. 

LXI V. 111. De eo quod in priore libro extremum 
est, ideo non es(se> analogia(m),^ quod qui de ea 
scripserint aut inter se non conveniant aut in quibus 
conveniant ea cum consuetudinis discrepent^ verbis, 
utrumque (est leve)^ : sic enim omnis repudiandum 
erit artis, quod et in medicina et in musica et in 
aliis multis discrepant scriptores ; item in quibus 
conveniunt in* scriptis, si e<a) tam(en)* repudiat* 
natura : quod ita ut dicitur non sit ars, sed artifex 
reprehendendus, qui <dici)' debet in scribendo non 
vidisse verum, non ideo non posse scribi verum. 

112. Qui dicit hoc monti et hoc fonti, cum alii 
dicant hoc monte et hoc fonte, sic alia quae duobus 
modis dicuntur, cum alterum sit verum, alterum 
falsum, non uter peccat toUit analogias, sed uter 
recte dicit confirmat ; et quemadmodum is qui^ 
peccat in his verbis, ubi duobus modis dicuntur, non 

* Aug. ; amaturus ab amabar Bhol. ; for ab amaturus 

§111. ^ Mue., for est analogia. ^ Mue., for dis- 
crepant. * Added by GS. ; falsum A. Sp. ; falsum est 
Popnia. * A. Sp., for ut. * GS., for etiam. « For 
repudiant. ' Added by GS. 

§ 112. ^ L. Sp.,for quicum. 

§112. <• C/. viii. 66. 


the active amo, and amatus is from the passive amor. 
But that which Regularity can offer, which the parti- 
ciples have, each in its own class, is case-forms, as 
amatus, dative amato, and plural amati, dative amatis ; 
and so in the feminine, amata and plural amatae. 
Likewise amaturus has a declension of the same kind. 
A mans has a somewhat different declension ; because 
all words of this kind have a regular likeness in their 
own class, amans, like others of its class, uses the 
same forms for masculine and for feminine. 

LXIV. 111. About the last argument in the pre- 
ceding book, that Regularity does not exist for the 
reason that those who have MTitten about it do not 
agree with one another, or else the points on which 
they agree are at variance with the words of actual 
usage, both reasons are of little weight. For in this 
fashion you Mill have to reject all the arts, because 
in medicine and in music and in many other arts the 
«Titers do not agree ; you must take the same attitude 
in the matters in which they agree in their WTitings, 
if none the less nature rejects their conclusions. For 
in this way, as is often said, it is not the art but the 
artist that is to be found fault with, who, it must be 
said, has in his ^\Titing failed to see the correct view ; 
we should not for this reason say that the correct 
view cannot be formulated in wTiting. 

112. As to the man who uses as ablatives monti 
' hill ' and Jbnti ' spring ' while others say vionte and 
fonte,^ along with other words which are used in 
two forms, one form is correct and the other is wrong, 
yet the person who errs is not destroying the Regu- 
larities, but the one who speaks correctly is strength- 
ening it ; and as he who errs in these words where 
they are used in two forms is not destroying logical 
VOL. II M 529 


toUit rationem cum sequitur falsum, sic etiam in his 
(quae)* non* duobus dicuntur, si quis aliter putat 
dici oportere atque oportet, non scientiam tollit 
orationis, sed suam inscientiam denudat. 

LXV. 113. Quibus rebus solvi arbitraremur posse 
quae dicta sunt priori libro contra analogian, ut potui 
brevi percucurri. Ex quibus si id confecissent^ quod 
volunt, ut in lingua Latina esset anomalia, tamen 
nihil egissent* ideo, quod in omnibus partibus mundi 
utraque natura inest, quod alia inter se (similia),' 
alia (dissimilia)* sunt, sicut in animalibus dissimilia 
sunt, ut equus bos ovis homo, item alia, et in uno 
quoque horum genere inter se similia innumerabilia. 
Item in piscibus dissimilis murcena lupo, is* soleae, 
haec TWMraenae^ et mustelae, sic aliis, ut maior ille 
numerus sit similitudinum earum quae sunt separatim 
in muraenis, separatim in asellis, sic in generibus 

114. Quare cum in inclinationibus verborum 
numerus sit magnus a dissimilibus verbis ortus, quod 
etiam vel maior est in quibus similitudines reperiun- 
tur, conftVendum^ est esse analogias. Itemque^ cum 
ea non multo minus quam in omnibus verbis patiatur 
uti consuetudo co<m>munis, fatendum illud quoquo 

* Added by Aug. ' After non, Auff. deleted in. 

§113. ^ For conficissent. ^ Aug., for legissent. 

' Added by Mue. * L. Sp.,for his. ^ G, H, Aldus, for 

§114. ^ Aug., for conferendum. ^ Aug., for item 

* That is, wrong forms not recognized as having a Hmited 
currency, but practically individual with the speaker. 

§ 113. " The identification of the various kinds of fish is 



system when he follows the wTong form, so even in 
those words which are not spoken in two ways, a 
person who thinks they ought to be spoken otherwise 
than they ought,* is not destroying the science of 
speech, but exposing his o>\ti lack of knowledge. 

LX^^ 113. The considerations by which we might 
think that the arguments could be refuted which 
were presented against Regularity in the preceding 
book, I have touched uf>on briefly, as best I could. 
Even if by their arguments they had achieved what 
they wish, namely that in the Latin language there 
should be Anomaly, still they would have accom- 
pUshed nothing, for the reason that in all parts of 
the world both natures are present : because some 
things are like, and others are unlike, just as in 
animals there are unlikes such as horse, ox, sheep, 
man, and others, and yet in each kind there are 
countless indi\iduals that are like one another. In 
the same way, among fishes, the moray is unhke the 
wolf-fish, the wolf-fish is unlike the sole, and this is 
unlike the moray and the lamprey, and others also ; 
though the number of those resemblances is still 
greater, which exist separately among morays, 
among codfish, and in other kinds of fish, class by 

114. Now although in the derivations of words 
a great number develop from unlike words, still the 
number of those in which likenesses are found is even 
greater, and therefore it must be admitted that the 
Regularities do exist. And likewise, since general 
usage permits us to follow the principle of Regularity 
in almost all words, it must be admitted that we ought 

in some instances uncertain, but is not important for Varro's 



m{o)do^ analogian sequi nos debere universos, 
singulos autem praeterquam in quibus verbis ofFen- 
sura sit consuetude co(m>munis, quod ut dixi aliud 
debet praestare populus, aliud e populo singuli 

115. Neque id mirum est, cum singuli quoque non 
sint eodem iure : nam liberius potest poeta quam 
orator sequi analogias. Quare cum hie liber id 
quod pollicitus est demonstraturum absolveri^,^ 
faciam finem ; proxumo deinceps de declinatorum 
verborum forma* scribam. 

' Canal ; quoque modo Mue. ; quodammodo Aug. ; for 
quo quando. 

§ 11 5. ^ Aldus, for absoluerim. * Pius, for firma. 



as a body to follow Regularity in every way, and 
individually also except in words the general use of 
which will give offence ; because, as I have said," 
the people ought to follow one standard, the in- 
dividual persons ought to follow another. 

115. And this is not astonishing, since not all 
individuals have the same privileges and rights ; 
for the poet can follow the Regularities more freely 
than can the orator. Therefore, since this book has 
completed the exposition of what it promised to set 
forth, I shall bring it to a close ; and then in the next 
book I shall write about the form of inflected words. 

§114, « C/. ix. 5. 





I. 1 . In verborum declinationibus disciplina loquendi 
dissimilitudinem an similitudinem sequi deberet, 
multi quaesierunt. Cum ab his ratio quae ab simili- 
tudine oriretur vocaretur analogia, reliqua pars 
appellaretur anomalia : de qua re primo libro quae 
dieerentur cur dissimilitudinem ducem haberi opor- 
teret, dixi, secundo contra quae dic(er)entur,^ cur 
potius similitudinem^ conveniret praeponi : quarum 
rerum quod nee fundamenta, ut deb(u>it,' posita ab 
ullo neque ordo ac natura, ut res postulat, explicita, 
ipse eius rei formam exponam. 

2. Dicam de quattuor rebus, quae continent 
declinationes^ verborum : quid sit simile ac dissimile, 
quid ratio quam appellant Aoyov, quid pro portioned 

§1. ^ Aldus, for dicentur. ^ Aldus, for dissimili- 

tudinem. * ^M^.,/or debita. 

§ 2. ^ L. Sp., for declinationibus. ^ Plasberg, for pro- 


§ 1. " Book VIII., which begins a fresh section of the 
entire work. ^" Book IX. 



Addressed to Cicero 
book ix ends, and here begins 


I. 1 . Many have raised the question whether in the 
inflections of words the art of speaking ought to 
follow the principle of unlikeness or that of likeness. 
This is important, since from these develop the two 
systems of relationship : that which develops from 
likeness is called Regularity, and its counterpart is 
called Anomaly. Of this, in the first book," I gave 
the arguments which are advanced in favour of con- 
sidering unlikeness as the proper guide ; in the 
second,* those advanced to show that it is proper 
rather to prefer likeness. Therefore, as their founda- 
tions have not been laid by anyone, as should have 
been done, nor have their order and nature been set 
forth as the matter demands, I shall myself sketch an 
outline of the subject. 

2. I shall speak of four factors which limit the 
inflections of words : what likeness and unlikeness 
are ; what the relationship is which they call logos ; 
what " by comparative likeness "is, which they call 



quod^ dicunt dva Aoyov,* quid consuetude ; quae 
explicatae declarabunt analogiam et anomalia<ni),* 
unde sit, quid sit, cuius modi sit. 

II. 3. De similitudine et dissimilitudine ideo 
primum dicendum, quod ea res est fundamentum 
omnium declinationum ac continet rationem ver- 
borum. Simile est quod res plerasque habere videtur 
easdem quas illud cuiusque simile : dissimile est 
quod videtur esse contrarium huius. Minimum ex 
duobus constat omne simile, item dissimile, quod 
nihil potest esse simile, quin alicuius sit simile, item 
nihil dicitur dissimile, quin addatur quoius sit dis- 

4. Sic dicitur similis homo homini, equus equo, 
et dissimilis homo equo : nam similis est homo homini 
ideo, quod easdem figuras membrorum habent, quae 
eos dividunt ab reliquorum animalium specie. In 
ipsis hominibus simili de causa vir viro similior quam 
vir mulieri, quod plures habent easdem partis ; et 
sic senior seni similior quam puero. Eo porro 
similiores sunt qui facie quoque paene eadem, habitu 
corporis, filo : itaque qui plura habent eadem, 
dicuntur similiores ; qui proxume accedunt ad id, 
ut omnia habeant eadem, vocantur gemini, simillimi. 

5. Sunt qui tris naturas rerum putent esse, simile, 
dissimile, neutrum, quod alias vocant non simile, aUas 

^ Aug., for quid. * Plasberp, for analogon. ^ Pius, 
for anomalia. 

§ 2. • Cf. X. 37. 


" according to /ogoj " " ; what usage is. The explana- 
tion of these matters ^^■ill make clear the problems 
connected with Regularity and Anomaly : whence 
they come, what they are, of what sort they are. 

IL 3. The first topic to be discussed must be Uke- 
ness and unlikeness, because this matter is the 
foundation of all inflections and set Umits to the 
relationship of words. That is like which is seen 
to have several features identical \\'ith those of that 
which is like it, in each case : that is unhke, which is 
seen to be the opposite of what has just been said. 
Every like or unUke consists of two units at least, 
because nothing can be like \\ithout being like some- 
thing else, and nothing can be unlike without associa- 
tion with something to which it is unUke. 

4. Thus a human being is said to be like a human 
being, and a horse to be like a horse, and a human 
being to be unlike a horse ; for a human being is like 
a human being because they have limbs of the same 
shape, which separate human beings from the cate- 
gory of the other animals. Among human beings 
themselves, for a like reason a man is more like a man 
than a man is like a woman, because men have more 
physical parts the same ; and so an elderly man is 
more like an old man than he is like a boy. Further, 
they are more like who are of almost the same 
features, the same bearing of person, the same shape 
of body ; therefore those who have more points of 
identity, are said to be more like ; and those who 
come nearest to having them all alike, are called 
most like, as it were, twins. 

5. There are those who think that things have 
three natures, hke, unUke, and neutral, which last 
they sometimes call the not like, and sometimes the 



non dissimile (sed quamvis tria sint simile dissimile 
neutrum, tamen potest dividi etiam in duas partes 
sic, quodcumque eonferas aut simile esse aut non esse) ; 
simile esse et dissimile, si videatur esse ut dixi, neu- 
trum, si in neutram partem praeponderet, ut si duae 
res quae conferuntur vicenas habent partes et in his 
denas habeant easdem, denas alias ad similitudinem 
et dissimilitudinem aeque animadvertendas : banc 
naturam plerique subiciunt sub dissimilitudinis 

6. Quare quoniam fit^ ut potius de vocabulo quam 
de re controversia esse videatur, illud est potius 
advertendum, quom simile quid esse dicitur, cui^ parti 
simile dicatur esse (in hoc enim solet esse error), quod 
potest fieri ut homo homini simih's' non sit,* ut multas 
partis habeat similis et ideo dici possit similis habere 
oculos, manus, pedes, sic alias res separatim et una 

7. Itaque quod diligenter videndum est in verbis, 
quas partis et quot modis oporteat similis habere 
(quae similitudinem habere)^ dicuntur, ut infra 
apparebit, is locus maxime lubricus est. Quid enim 
similius potest videri indiligenti quam duo verba haec 
suis et suis ? Quae non sunt, quod alterum* sig- 
nificat suere, alterum suem. Itaque similia vocibus 

§ 6. ^ Aug., for fuit. ^ quoi L. 8p., for quin cui. 
3 V, p, C. F. W. Mueller, for simile. * non sit Bhol.,for 
sit non sit. 

§ 7. ^ Added by GS., cf. § 12 end ; quae similia esse, 
added by L. Sp. ; ut similia, by Canal. ^ After alterum, 
p and Aug. deleted non. 



not unlike ; but although there are the three, Uke, 
unlike, neutral, there can also be a division into two 
parts only, in such a way that whatever you compare 
with something else either is like or is not. They 
think that a thing is like and is unlike if it is seen to 
be of such a kind as I have described, and neutral, if 
it does not have greater weight on one side than on 
the other ; as if the two things which are being com- 
pared have twenty parts each, and among these should 
have ten to be noted as identical and ten likewise to 
be noted as different, in respect to likeness and 
unlikeness. This nature most scholars include under 
the name of unlikeness. 

6. Therefore since it happens that the question in 
dispute seems rather to be about the name than 
about the thing, attention must rather be directed, 
when something is said to be like, to the problem to 
what part it is said to be like ; for it is in this that any 
mistake ordinarily rests. This must be noted, I say, 
because it can happen that a man may not be like 
another man even though he has many parts like the 
other's, and can be said therefore to have like eyes, 
hands, feet, and other physical features in consider- 
able number, separately and taken together, like the 
other man's. 

7. Therefore because careful watch must be kept 
in words to see what parts those words which are said 
to show likeness ought to have alike, and in what ways, 
the inquirer is on this topic especially likely to slip 
into error, as will appear below. For to the careless 
person what can seem more alike than the two words 
suis and suis ? But they are not alike, because one is 
from suere ' to sew ' and means ' thou sewest,' and 
the other is from sus and means ' of a swine.' There- 



esse ac syllabis confitemur, dissimilia esse partibus 
orationis videmus, quod alterum habet tempora, 
alterum casus, quae duae res vel maxime discernunt 

8. Item propinquiora genere inter se verba 
similem saepe pariunt errorem, ut in hoc, quod nemus^ 
et lepus videtur esse simile, quom** utrumque habeat 
eundem casum rectum ; sed non est simile, quod eis^ 
certae similitudines opus sunt, in quo est ut in genere 
nominum sint eodem, quod in his non est : nam in 
virili genere* est lepus, ex neutro nemus ; dicitur enim 
hie lepus et hoc nemus. Si eiusdem generis esse(n)t,* 
utrique praeponeretur idem ac diceretur aut hie lepus 
et hie nemus aut hoc nemus, hoc lepus. 

9. Quare quae et cuius modi sunt genera simili- 
tudinum ad hanc rem, perspiciendum ei qui declina- 
tiones verborum proportione sintne quaeret. Quem^ 
locum, quod est difficilis, qui de his rebus scripserunt 
aut vitaverunt aut inceperunt neque adsequi potu- 

10. Itaque in eo dissensio neque ea unius modi 
apparet : nam alii de omnibus universis discriminibus 
posuerunt numerum, ut D/on^sius S?donius, qui 
scripsit ea^ esse septuaginta un^m,^ alii parti's' eius 
quae habet* casus, cuius eidem hie cum dicat esse 

§ 8. ^ H, RhoL, for numerus. ^ Mue., for quod cum. 
' Aug., for eas. * After genere, A^lg. deleted nominum 
sint eodem, repeated from the previous line. ^ Aug., for 

§ 9. ^ Mue., for quod. 

§ 10. ^ L. Sp.,for eas. ^ L. Sp.,for unam. ' Mtie., 
for partes. * Mue., for habent. 

§ 8. " That is, so far as the termination is concerned. 

§ 10. " That is, schemes of inflection. * A pupil of 


fore we admit that they are alike as spoken words 
and in their separate syllables, but we see that 
they are unlike in their parts of speech, because 
one has tenses and the other has cases ; and tenses 
and cases are the two features which in the highest 
degree serve to distinguish the different systems of 

8. Likewise, words that are even nearer alike in 
kind often cause a similar mistake, as in the fact that 
nemus ' grove ' and lepus ' hare ' seem to be alike since 
both have the same nominative " ; but it is not an 
instance of likeness, because they stand in need of 
certain factors of likeness, among which is that they 
should be in the same noun-gender. But these two 
words are not, for lepus is masculine and nemus is 
neuter ; for we say hie ' this ' with lepus and hoc with 
nemus. If they were of the same gender, the same 
form would be set before both, and we should say 
either kic lepus and hie nemus, or hoc nemus and hoc 

9. Therefore he who asks whether the inflections 
of words stand in a regular relation, must examine 
to see what kinds of likenesses there are and of what 
sort they are, which pertain to this matter. And just 
because this topic is difficult, those who have written 
of these subjects either have avoided it or have begun 
it without being able to complete their treatment of it. 

10. Therefore in this there is seen a lack of agree- 
ment, and not merely of one kind. For some have 
fixed the number of all the distinctions " as a whole, 
as did Dionysius of Sidon,* who wrote that there were 
seventy-one of them ; and others set the number of 
those distinctions which apply to the words which have 
cases : the same wTiter says that of these there are 



discrimina quadragmta^ septem, Aristocles rertulit* 
in litteras XIIII, Parmeniscus VIII, sic alii pauciora 
aut plura. 

11. Quarum similitudinum si esset origo recte 
capta et inde orsa ratio, minus erraret(ur>' in de- 
clinationibus v(er>borum.* Quarum ego principia 
prima duum generum sola arbitror esse, ad quae' 
similitudines exjgi* oporteat : e quis unum positum 
in verborum materia, alterum ut in materiae figura, 
quae ex declinatione fit. 

12. Nam debet esse unum, ut verbum verbo, unde 
declinetur, sit simile ; alterum, ut e verbo in verbum 
declinatio, ad quam conferetur, eiusdem modi sit : 
alias enim ab similibus verbis similiter declinantur, 
ut ab erus^ ferus, ero^ fero, alias dissimiliter erus^ 
ferus, eri^ ferum. Cum utrumque et verbum verbo 
erit simile et declinatio declinationi, turn denique 
dicam esse simile* ac duplicem et perfectam simili- 
tudinem habere, id quod postulat analogia.* 

13. Sed ne astutius videar posuisse duo genera 
esse similitudinum sola, cum utriusque inferiores 
species sint plures, si de his reticuero, ut mihi relin- 

* M, Laetus, for quadringenta. * Mue. ; retulit Laetus ; 
for rutulit. 

§11. ^ VertraniuSffor &cra.rei. ^ For uborum. ^Al- 
dus, for atque. * For exegi. 

§ 12. 1 For herus. " For hero. ' For heri. * L. 
Sp., for similem. * For analogiam. 

" Probably Aristocles of Rhodes, a contemporary of Varro. 
■^ A pupil of Aristarchus. 



forty-seven, Aristocles " reduced them to fourteen 
headings, Parmeniscus ** to eight, and others made the 
number smaller or larger. 

11. If the origin of these likenesses had been 
correctly grasped and their logical explanation had 
proceeded from that as a beginning, there would be 
less error in regard to the inflections of words. Of 
these likenesses there are, I think, first principles of 
two kinds only, by which the likenesses ought to be 
tested ; of which one lies in the substance of the 
words," the other lies, so to speak, in the form * of 
that substance, which comes from inflection. 

12. For there must be one, that the word be like 
the word from which it is inflected, and two, that in 
comparison from word to word the inflectional form 
with which the comparison is made should be of the 
same kind. * For sometimes there are like forms 
reached by inflection from like words, such as datives 
ero a.nd fero from erus ' master ' and Jerus ' wild,' and 
sometimes unlike forms, such as genitive eri and 
accusative y^rMw, from eras and Jerus. When both 
principles are fulfilled and word is like word and 
inflectional form like inflectional form, then and not 
before will I pronounce that the word is like, and has 
a twofold and perfect likeness to the other — which is 
what Regularity demands. 

13. But I wish to avoid the appearance of tricki- 
ness in having declared that there are only two kinds 
of likenesses when both have a number of sub-forms 
— if I say nothing about these, you may think that I 
am intentionally leaving myself a place of refuge ; I 

§ 11. " That is, its form and ending, in the form which is 
the starting point for inflection. * The inflectional form ; 

c/. § 12. 



quam latebras, repetam ab origine similitudinum quae 
in conferendis verbis et inclinandis sequendae aut 
vitandae sint. 

14. Prima divisio in oratione, quod alia verba 
nusquam decliwantur,^ ut haec vix mox, alia decli- 
nantur, ut ab lima limae,^ a fero ferebam, et cum nisi 
in his verbis quae declinantur non possit esse analogia, 
qui dicit simile esse mox et nox errat, quod non est 
eiusdem generis utrumque verbum, cum nox suc- 
cedere debeat sub casuum ratione(m>,* mox neque 
debeat neque possit. 

15. Secunda divisio est de his verbis quae de- 
clinari possunt, quod alia sunt a voluntate, alia a 
natura. Voluntatem appello, cum unus quivis a 
nomine aliae (rei)^ imponit nomen, ut Romulus 
Romae ; naturam dico, cum universi acceptum nomen 
ab eo qui imposuit non requirimus quemadmodum 
is velit declinari, sed ipsi declinamus, ut huius Romae, 
hanc Romam, hac Roma. De his duabus partibus 
voluntaria declinatio refertur ad consuetudinem, 
naturalis ad rationem.* 

16. Quare proinde ac simile conferred non oportet 
ac dicere, ut sit ab Roma Romanus, sic ex Capua dici 
oportere Capuanus, quod in consuetudine vehementer 
natat, quod declinantes imperite rebus nomina im- 
ponunt, a quibus cum accepit consuetudo, turbulenta 

§ 14. ^ For declimantur. ^ OS., for limabo. ' Lach- 
mann, for ratione. 

§ 15. ^ Added by GS. ^ Aug., for orationem. 

§ 16. ^ StepJianus,for conferri. 


shall therefore go back and start from the origin of 
the likenesses which must be followed or avoided in 
the comparison of words and in their inflections. 

14. The first division in speech is that some words 
are not changed into any other form whatsoever, 
like vix ' hardly ' and )7iox ' soon,' and others are in- 
flected, like genitive limae from /n«a * file,' imperfect 
fereham from fero ' I bear ' ; and since Regularity 

cannot be present except in words which are inflected, 
he who says that mox and nox ' night ' are ahke, is 
mistaken, because the two words are not of the same 
kind, since fiox must come under the system of case- 
forms, but mox must not and cannot. 

15. The second division is that, of the words which 
can be changed by derivation and inflection, some 
are changed in accordance with will, and others in 
accordance with nature. I call it will, when from a 
name a person sets a name on something else, as 
Romulus gave a name to Roma ; I call it nature, 
when we all accept a name but do not ask of the one 
who set it how he wishes it to be inflected, but our- 
selves inflect it, as genitive Romae, accusative Romam, 
ablative Roma. Of these two parts, voluntary deriva- 
tion goes back to usage, and natural goes back to 
logical system. 

16. For this reason we ought not to compare 
Romanus ' Roman ' and Capuanus ' Capuan ' as aUke, 
and to say that Capuanus ought to be said from 
Capua just as Romanus is from Roma ; for in such 
there is in actual usage an extreme fluctuation, since 
those who derive the words set the names on the 
things with utter lack of skill, and when usage has 
accepted the words from them, it must of necessity 
speak confused names variously derived. Therefore 

VOL. II N 545 


necesse est dicere. Itaque neque Aristarchei* neque 
alii in analogiis defendendam eius susceperunt cau- 
sam, sed, ut dixi, hoc genere declinatio in co<m)- 
muni consuetudine verborum aegrotat, quod oritur 
e populo multiplici (et>* imperito : itaque in hoc 
genere in loquendo* magis anomaUa quam analogia. 

17. Tertia divisio est : quae verba decUnata 
natura ; ea dividwwtur^ in partis quattuor : in unam 
quae habet casus neque tempora, ut docilis et facihs ; 
in alteram quae tempora neque casus, ut docet facit ; 
in tertiam quae utraque, ut docens faciens ; in 
quartam quae neutra, ut docte et facete. Ex hac 
divisione singulis partibus tres reliquae* dissimiles. 
Quare nisi in sua parte inter se collata erunt verba, 
si^ conveniunt, non erit ita simile, ut debeat facere 

18. Unius cuiusque part?s^ quoniam species plures, 
de singulis dicam. Prima pars casualis dividitur in 
partis duas, in nominatus scilicet'^ (et articulos),* 
quod aeque* finitum (et infinitum)^ est ut hie et quis ; 
de his generibus duobus utrum sumpseris, cum 

2 Kent, for Aristarchii / c/. viii. 63. * Added by Groth. 
* For ioquenda. 

§17. ^ L. Sp., for dividitur. ^ Mue., for reliquere. 
' After si. Canal deleted non. 

§ 18. The text of this % stands in the manuscripts between 
§ 20 and § i?l ; the shift of position teas made by Mueller, who 
left unius cuiusque partis at the end of § 20 ; A. Spengel 
transferred these words also. ^ Sciop., for partes. 

^ Laetus,for s ( =sunt). * Added by Ahie. * L. Sp., for 
neque. * Added by L. Sp. ; cf. viii. 45. 

§ 16. "This is shown even to-day in the new technical 
terminology of some near-sciences. * Varro is somewhat 



neither the followers of Aristarchus nor any others 
have undertaken to defend the cause of voluntary 
derivation as among the Regularities ; but, as I have 
said, this kind of derivation of words in common 
usage is an ill thing, because it springs from the 
people, which is without uniformity and without 
skill." Therefore, in speaking, there is in this kind of 
derivation rather Anomaly than Regularity.'' 

17. There is a third division, the words which 
are by their nature inflected. These are divided 
into four subdi\isions : one which has cases but not 
tenses," like docilis ' docile ' and facilis ' easy ' ; a 
second, which has tenses but not cases,* like docet 
' teaches,' J'acit ' makes ' ; a third which has both,*' 
like docens ' teaching,' faciens ' making ' ; a fourth 
which has neither,** like docte ' learnedly ' and J'acete 
' wittily.' The individual parts of this division are 
each unlike the three remaining parts. Therefore, 
unless the words are compared with one another in 
their own subdivision, even if they do agree the one 
word will not be so like the other that it ought to 
make the same inflectional scheme. 

18. Since there are several species in each part, I 
shall speak of them one by one. The first sub- 
division, characterized by the possession of cases, is 
divided into two parts, namely into nouns and 
articles, which latter class is both definite and in- 
definite, as for example hie ' this ' and quis ' who.' 
Whichever of these two kinds you have taken, it must 
not be compared with the other, because they belong 

unfair here, since derivation by suflBxes, though varied, is not 
without its regular principles. 

§ 17. " Nouns, pronouns, adjectives (except participles). 
' Finite verbs. ' Participles. "* Adverbs. 



reliquo non conferendum, quod inter se dissimiles 
habent analogias. 

19. In articulis vix adumbrata est analogia et 
magis rerum quam voeum ; in nomin(at>ibus^ magis 
expressa ac plus etiam in vocibus ac (syllabarum)" 
similitudinibus quam in rebus suam optinet rationem. 
Etiam illud accedit ut in articulis habere analogias 
ostendere sit difficile, quod singula sint verba, hie 
contra facile, quod magna sit copia similium nomina- 
tuum. Quare non tam banc partem ab ilia' dividen- 
dum quam illud videndum, ut satis sit verecundi<ae>* 
etiam illam in eandem arenam vocare pugnatum. 

20. Ut in articulis duae partes, finitae et infinitae, 
sic in nominatibus^ duae, vocabulum et nomen : 
non enim idem oppidum et Roma, cum oppidum sit 
vocabulum, Roma nomen, quorum discrimen in his 
reddendis rationibus alii discernunt, alii non ; nos 
sicubi opus fuerit, quid sit et cur, ascribemus.* 

21. Nominatui^ ut similis sit nominatus, habere 
debet ut sit eodem genere, specie eadem, sic casu, 
exitu eodem' : specie," ut si nomen est quod conferas, 
cum quo conferas sit nomen ; genere,* ut non solum 
(unurn sed>* utrumque sit virile ; casu,* ut si alterum 
sit dandi, item alterum sit dandi ; exitu, ut quas 

§ 19. ^ L. Sp., for nominibus. ^ Added by GS. 

^ After ilia, Aug. deleted ab. * Kent, for uerecundi. 

§ 20. ^ L. Sp., for uocabulis. * Sciop., for ascribimus. 

§21. ^ Mtie., for nominatus {Sciop. changed the second 
nominatus to -tui). * Mue., for eius. * Liibbert, for 
genere, transposing with specie (note 4). * Liibbert, for 
specie (c/. preceding note) ; after this, L. Sp. deleted simile. 
* Added by Mve. ; sed added by Aug. * After casu, L. 
Sp. deleted simile. 

§ 21. " Here, as often in Varro, including adjective as well 
as substantive. 


to schemes of Regularity which are different from 
each other. 

19. In the articles, Regularity is hardly even a 
shadow, and more a Regularity of things than of 
spoken words ; in nouns, it comes out better, and 
consummates itself rather in the spoken words and 
the likeness of the syllables than in the things 
named. There is also the additional fact that it 
is difficult to show that Regularities reside in the 
articles, because they are single words ; but in nouns 
it is easy, because there is a great abundance of like 
name-words. Therefore it is not so much a matter 
of di\-iding this part from that other part, as of see- 
ing to it that the investigator should be too much 
ashamed even to call that other part into the same 
arena to do battle. 

20. As there are two groups in the articles, 
the definite and the indefinite, so there are in the 
nouns, the common nouns and the proper names ; 
for oppidum ' town ' and Roma ' Rome ' are not the 
same, since oppidum is a common noun, and Roma 
is a proper name. In their account of the systems, 
some make this distinction, and others do not ; 
but we shall enter in our account, at the proper 
place, M'hat this difference is and why it has come 
to be. 

21 . That noun <* may be like noun, it ought to have 
the qualities of being of the same gender, of the same 
kind, also in the same case and with the same ending : 
kind, that if it is a proper name which you are com- 
paring, it be a proper name with which you compare 
it ; gender, that not merely one, but both words be 
masculine ; case, that if one is in the dative, the 
other likewise be in the dative ; ending, that what- 



unum habeat extremas litteras, easdem alterum 

22. Ad hunc quadruplicem fontem ordines derigun- 
tur bini, uni transversi, alteri derecti, ut in tabula 
solet in qua latruncul«s* ludunt. Transversi sunt 
qui ab recto casu obliqui declinantur, ut albus albi 
albo ; derecti sunt qui ab recto casu in rectos 
declinantur, ut albus alba album ; utrique sunt parti- 
bus senis. Transversorum ordinum partes appellan- 
tur* casus, derectorum genera,^ utrisque inter se 
implicatis forma.* 

23. Dicam prius de transversis. Casuum voca- 
bula alius alio modo appellavit ; nos dicemus, qui 
nominandi causa dicitur, nominandi vel nomina- 
tivum. . . .^ 


24. . . . (dicuntur una)e^ scopae, non dicitur una 
scopa : alia enim natura, quod priora simplicibus, 

§ 22. ^ Bentinus, for latrunculus. ^ Aldus, for expel- 
lantur. ^ Aug., for genere. * Aug., for fonna.m. 

§ 23. ^ There is blank space here in F, for the rest of the 
page {IS lines), all the next page {39 lines), and the first part 
of the following {8 lines). ^ F^, in margin. 

§ 24. ^ Added and altered by Kent, for et ; cf. viii. 7. 

§ 22. " The ' men ' in a game like draughts or checkers 
were called latrunculi ' brigands ' by the Romans. *■ Varro 
did not arrange his paradigm of adjectives as we do, but set 
the cases of the same number and gender in one line across 
the page, while the other genders followed in the next two 
lines, and then the three genders of the plural in the succeed- 
ing lines. - " Varro counts his six genders by considering 
the genders of the plural as additional genders. 

§ 23. " The cases. '' \'arro's names for the remaining 



ever last letters the one has, the other also have the 

22. To this fourfold spring two sets of Unes are 
drawn up, the ones crosswise and the others vertical, 
as is the regular arrangement on a board on which 
they play with movable pieces." Those are cross- 
\iise which are the oblique cases formed from a nomi- 
native, ^* Uke albus ' white,' genitive albi, dative albo ; 
those are vertical which are inflected from one 
nominative to other nominatives, as masculine albus, 
feminine alba, neuter album. Both sets of hnes are 
of six members. '^ Each member of the crosswise 
Unes is called a case ; each member of the vertical 
Unes is a gender ; that which belongs to both in their 
crossed arrangement, is a form. 

23. I shall speak first of the crosswise lines." 
Scholars have given various sets of names to the 
cases ; we shall call that case which is spoken for the 
purpose of naming, the case of naming or nomina- 
tive ... * 


24. . . . To indicate one ' broom ' the plural scopae 
is used, not the singular scopa.'^ For they ^ are 
different by nature, because the names first men- 
cases, which were listed in the lost text, are : e<i*M« patrhus 
or patrius, casus dandi, casus accusandi or accusativus, casus 
vocandi, casus sextus. The names geneticus, dativus, roca- 
tivus, ablativus appear in Quintilian and Gellius. * In 
the lost text stood the remainder of the discussion of cases, all 
the discussion of gender, and almost all concerning number, 
which is concluded in § 30. 

§ 24. ' Cf. viii. 7. * The nouns in the preceding dis- 
cussion, of which scopae alone is preserved in the text. 



posteriora in coniunctis rebus vocabula ponuntur, sic 
bigae, sic quadrigae a coniunctu dictae. Itaque non 
dicitur, ut haec una lata et alba, sic una biga, sed 
unae bigae, neque^ dicitur ut hae duae latae, albae, 
sic hae duae bigae et quadrigae, <sed hae binae 
bigae et quadrigae).' 

25. Item figura verbi qualis sit refert, quod in 
figura vocis alias commutatio fit in primo^ verbo suit* 
modo suit,* alias in medio, ut curso' cursito, alias in 
extremo, ut doceo docui, alias co(m>munis, ut lego 
lege.* Refert igitur ex quibus litteris quodque verbum 
constet, maxime extrema, quod ea in plerisque 

26. Quare in his quoque partibus similitudines ab 
aliis male, ab aliis bene quod solent sumi in casibus 
conferendis, recte an perperam videndum ; sed 
ubicumque commoventur litterae, non solum eae 
sunt animadvertendae, sed etiam quae proxumae 
sunt neque moventur : haec enim vicinitas aliquan- 
tum potes<t>^ in verborum declinationibus. 

27. In quis figuris non ea similia dicemus quae 

* After neque, p and Sciop. deleted ut. * Added by L. Sp., 
cf. ix. 64. 

§ 25. ^ Mue., for uno. ^ Mue. added the signs of 
quantity ; cf. ix. 104. ' Aug., for cursu. * Aug., for 
lege. * L. Sp. for commutantur. 

§ 26. ^ Aldus, for potes. 

" These are all lost. ^ Scopae, as ' twigs ' done in a bundle ; 
bigae and quadrigae, because of the number of horses in- 
volved. ' The distributive numeral is used to multiply 
ideas whose singular is denoted by a plural form: cf. ix. 64. 
§ 25. " I have added the signs of quantity in lego and legi, 
to make clear Varro's point. 


tioned "^ are set upon simple objects, and those men- 
tioned later apply to compounded objects ^ ; thus 
higae ' two-horse team ' and quadrigae ' four-horse 
team ' are employed in the plural because they denote 
a union of objects. Therefore we do not say one biga, 
like one lata ' broad ' and alba ' white,' but one bigae, 
with the numeral also in the plural ; nor do we say 
duae ' two ' with reference to bigae and quadrigae, as 
we say duae ' two ' with application to the plural 
forms latae and albae, but we say binae ' two sets ' of 
bigae and quadrigae.^ 

25. Likewise the character of the form of a word 
is important, because in the form of the spoken word 
a change is sometimes made in the first part of 
the word, as in suit ' sews ' and suit ' sewed ' ; some- 
times in the middle, as in curso ' I run to and fro,' 
and cursito, of the same meaning ; sometimes at the 
end, as in doceo ' I teach ' and docui ' I have taught ' ; 
sometimes the change is common to two parts, as in 
ligo ' I read,' legi ' I have read.'" It is important 
therefore to observe of what letters each word con- 
sists ; and the last letter is especially important, 
because it is changed in the greatest number of in- 

26. Because of this, since the likenesses in these 
parts also are wont to be used in the comparison of 
case-forms, and this is done ill by some and well by 
others, we must see whether this has been done rightly 
or wrongly. Yet wherever the letters are altered, 
not only the altered letters must be noted, but also 
those which are next to them and are not affected ; 
for this proximity has considerable influence in the 
inflections of words. 

27. Among these forms we shall not call those 



similis res significant, sed quae ea forma sint, ut 
eius modi res simili*^ ex instituto significare plerum- 
que sole<a)nt,^ ut tunicam virilem et muliebrem 
dicimus non eam quam habet vir aut mulier, sed 
quam habere ex instituto debet : potest enim mulie- 
brem vir, virilem mulier habere, ut in scaena ab 
actoribus haberi videmus, sed eam dicimus muliebrem, 
quae de eo genere est quo indutui mulieres ut uteren- 
tur est institutum, Ut actor stolam muliebrem sic 
Perpenna et Caecina et (S)purinna' figura muUebria 
dicuntur habere nomina, non mulierum. 

28. Flexurae quoque similitudo videnda ideo 
quod alia verba quam vi<a>m^ habeant ex ipsis 
verbis, unde declinantur, apparet,* ut quemadmodum 
oporteat uti^ praetor consul, praetori consuli ; alia 
ex transitu intelleguntur, ut socer macer, quod 
alterum fit socerum, alterum macrum, quorum utrum- 
que in reliquis a transitu suam viam sequitur et in 
singularibus et in multitudinis declinationibus. Hoc 
fit ideo quod naturarum genera sunt duo quae inter 
se conferri possunt, unum quod per se videri potest, 
ut homo et equus, alterum sine assumpta aliqua re 

§ 27. ^ 3Iue., for similia. ' Aldus, for solent. 
^ Avff., for purinna. 

§ 28. ^ Schoell {marginal note in his copy of A. Sp.^s ed.), 
for uim. ^ Pius, for appellarit. ' A. Sp., for ut a. 

§ 27. " With eius modi, understand figurae ; cf. in eius 
modi, V. 128. " Cf. ix. 48. " Cf. viii. 41, 81, ix. 41. 

§ 28. " That is, the nominative is the stem to which the 
case-endings are added. '' That is, the stem is seen in an 



words like which denote like things, but those which 
are of such a stamp that such forms * are in most 
instances wont by custom to denote like things, as 
by a man's tunic or a woman's tunic we mean not a 
tunic that a man or a woman is wearing, but one 
wliich by custom a man or a woman ought to wear.^ 
For a man can wear a woman's tunic, and a woman 
can wear a man's, as we see done on the stage by 
actors ; but we say that that is a woman's tunic, 
which is of the kind that women customarily use 
to dress themselves in. As an actor may wear a 
woman's dress, so Perpenna and Caecina and Spurinna 
are said to have names that are feminine in form ; 
they are not said to have women's names. "^ 

28. The likeness of the inflection also must be 
watched, because the way which some words take is 
clear from the very words from which their inflection 
starts,* as how it is proper to use praetor and consul, 
dative praetori and consult. Others are properly 
appreciated only as a result of the change seen in the 
inflections, as in socer ' father-in-law ' and macer 
' lean,' because the one becomes socerum in the 
accusative, and the other macrum ; after making 
this change, each of them follows its o^\•n way in the 
remaining foi-ms,* both in the inflections of the 
singular and in those of the plural. This method is 
employed '^ because in the inflections there are two 
kinds of natures which can be compared with each 
other, one which can be seen in the word itself, such 
as homo ' man ' and equus ' horse,' but the second 
cannot be seen through without bringing in some- 
oblique case rather than in the nominative; c/. ix. 91-94. 
* Varro's logical sequence is here at fault, for he brings in 
derivative stems, after speaking only of noun declensions. 



extrinsecus perspici non possit, ut eques et equiso : 
uterque enim dicitur ab equo. 

29. Quare hominem homini similem esse aut non 
esse, si contuleris, ex ipsis homini<bus)^ animadversis 
scies ; at duo inter se similiterne sint longiores quam 
sint eorum fratres, dicere non possis, si illos breviores 
cum quibus conferuntur quam longi sint ignore** ; 
si(c)^ latiorum atque altiorum, item cetera eiusdem 
generis sine assumpto extrinsecus aliquo perspici 
similitudines non possunt. Sic igitur quidam casus 
quod ex hoc genere sunt, non facile est dicere similis 
esse, si eorum singulorum solum animadvertas voces, 
nisi assumpseris alterum, quo flectitur in trans- 
eundo* vox. 

30. Quod ad nominatuom^ similitudines animad- 
vertendas arbitratus sum satis es<se) tangere," haec 
sunt. Relinquitur de articulis, in quibus quaedam 
eadem, quaedam alia. De quinque enim generibus 
duo prima habent eadem, quod sunt et virilia et 
muliebria et neutra, et quod alia sunt ut significent 
unum, <alia>* ut plura, et de casibus quod habent 
quinos : nam vocandi voce notatus non est. Pro- 
prium illud habent, quod partim sunt finita, et hie 
haec, partim infinita, ut quis et quae,* quorum quod 
adumbrata et tenuis analogia, in hoc libro plura 
dicere <non>* necesse est. 

§29. ^ Canal, for homini. ^ Aldus, for ignorent. 
' Aug., for si. * Aug., for transeundum. 

§ 30. ^ L. - jSp. ; -tuum G, Aug., for nominatiuom. 
^ ^M^., /or est angere. ^ Added by Aug. * After quae, 
Aug. deleted et. * Added by Aug. 



thing from outside, as in eques ' horseman ' and equiso 
' stable-boy ' — for both are derived from equus 
* horse.'** 

29. By this method, you will, on making a compari- 
son, know that of men observed in person one is or is 
not Hke the other; but you could not say that the 
two are in like fashion taller than their brothers, if 
you should not know how tall those shorter brothers 
are with whom they are compared. In this way the 
Ukenesses of things broader and higher, and others 
of the same kind, cannot be examined without bringing 
in some help from outside. So therefore, inasmuch 
as certain case-forms are of this kind, it is not easy to 
say that they are like, if you observe the spoken words 
in one case only ; to make a correct judgement, you 
will have to bring in another case-form to which the 
spoken word passes as it is inflected. 

30. These considerations are what I have thought 
enough to touch upon, for obserWng the likenesses of 
nouns. It remains to speak of the articles, of which 
some are like nouns and others are different. For of 
the five classes the first two have the same properties, 
because they have forms for masculine, feminine, and 
neuter, they have some forms to denote the singular 
and others to denote the plural, and they have five 
cases ; the vocative is not indicated by a separate 
spoken form. They have this of their own, that 
some are definite, Uke hie ' this,' feminine haec, and 
others are indefinite, like quis ' which,' feminine 
quae. But since their system of Regularity is 
shadowy and thin, it is not necessary to speak 
further of it in this book." 

" C/. viii. 14. 

§ 30. • C/. X. 19-20. 



31. Secundum genus quae verba tempora habent 
neque casus, sed^ habent personas. Eorum declina- 
tuum species sunt sex : una quae dicitur temporalis, 
ut legebam gemebam, lego" gemo ; altera perso- 
narum, ut sero meto, seris metis ; tertia rogandi, ut 
scribone legone, scribisne legisne. Quarta respon- 
dendi, ut fingo pingo, fingis pingis ; quinta optandi, 
ut dicerem facerem, dicam faciam ; sexta imperandi, 
ut cape rape, capito rapito. 

32. Item sunt declinatuum species quattuor quae 
tempora habent sine personis : in rogando, ut fodi- 
turne seriturne, et fodieturne sereturne. Ab re- 
spondendi specie eaedem figurae fiunt extremis 
syllabis demptis ; op<t>andi species, ut vivatur 
ametur, viveretur amaretur. Imperandi declinatus 
sintne habet^ dubitationem et eorum sitne" haec 
ratio : paretur pugnetur, parator pugnator.' 

33. Accedunt ad has species a copulis divisionum 
quadrinis : ab infecti et perfecti, (ut)^ emo edo, emi 

§ 31. ^ Aug., for si. " For logo. 

§ 32. ^ Aug., for sum ne habent. - Aug., for sint ne. 
' Canal, for parari pugnari. 
§ 33. "1 Added by L. Sp. 

§31. " Cf. X. 17. * Respectively tense, person, inter- 

rogative (indicative), declarative indicative, subjunctive, 
imperative ; the technical vocabulary was not fully developed 
in Varro's time. 

§ 32. " Corresponding to the last four of the categories in 
§ 31 ; Varro shows a good understanding of the impersonal 

§33. " Cf. X. 14-17. 



31. The second subdivision" consists of those 
words which have tenses but not cases, and have 
persons. The categories of their inflections are six * : 
one which is that of the tenses, as legeham ' I was 
reading,' gemebam ' I was groaning,' lego ' I read,' 
gemo ' I groan ' ; the second is that of the persons, as 
sero ' I sow,' 7neto ' I reap,' seris ' thou sowest,' 
metis ' thou reapest ' ; the third is the interrogative, 
as scribone ' do I write ? ', legone ' do I read ? ', scribnne, 
legisne ; the fourth is that of the answer, as Jingo ' I 
form,' pingo ' I paint,' Jingis, pingis ; the fifth that of 
the ^\^sh, as dicerem ' would I were saying,' facerem 
' would I were making,' dicam ' may I say,' faciam 
' may I make ' ; the sixth that of the command, as 
cape ' take,' rape ' seize,' capita, rapito. 

32. Like^^ise there are four categories of inflec- 
tions which have tenses \dthout persons " : in the 
interrogative, as foditume ' is digging going on ? ', 
seriturne ' is sowing going on ? ' and fodieturne ' will 
digging be done ? ', sereturne ' will sowing be done ? ' ; 
of the category for the answer the same forms are 
used, but without the last syllable ne ; the category 
for the wish, as vivatur ' may there be living,' ametur 
' may there be lo\ing,' viveretur ' would there were 
lixing,' atnaretur ' would there were lo\ing. ' Whether 
the inflections for the impersonal command exist, is 
somewhat doubtful ; there is also doubt about the 
scheme of the forms, which is given as paretur ' let 
there be preparation,' pugnetur ' let there be fight- 
ing,' or parator, pugnator. 

33. There are added to these categories those 
which proceed from the four sets of pairs ° consisting 
of the divisions : from that of the incomplete and 
the completed, as emo ' I buy ' and edo ' I eat,' emi * I 



edi ; ab semel et saepius, ut scribo lego, scriptito 
lectito^ ; (a)' faciendi et patiendi, ut uro ungo, uror 
ungor ; a singular! et multitudinis, ut laudo culpo, 
laudamus culpamus. Huius generis verborum cuius 
species exposui quam late quidque pateat et cuius 
modi efficiat figuras, in libris qui de formulis verborum 
erunt diligentius expedietur. 

34. Tertii generis, quae declinantur cum tem- 
poribus ac casibus ac vocantur a multis ideo partici- 
palia, sunt hoc ge<nere>^ . . . 


35. . . . quemadmodum declinemus,^ quaerimus 
casus eius, etiamsi siqui^ finxit poeta aliquod vocabu- 
lum et ab eo casu(m)' ipse aliquem perperam de- 
clinavit, potius eum reprehendimus quam sequimur. 
Igitur ratio quam dico utrubique, et in his verbis quae 
imponuntur et in his quae declinantur, neque non 
etiam tertia ilia, quae ex utroque miscetur genere. 

36. Quarum una quaeque ratio coUata cum altera 

^ L. Sp.,for scriptitaui lectitaui. ^ Added by L. Sp. 

§ 34. ^ Added by Rhol. ; F here leaves blank the rest of 
the page {a little more than 28 lines) and all the next page 
{39 lines). ^ F^, in margin. 

§ 35. ^ L. Sp., for declinamus. * L. Sp., for is qui. 
' L. Sp., for casu. 

^ Verbs. " Not extant. 

§ 34. " Adjective to the more common term participia or 
participles ; both meaning ' taking part ' in the features of 
two sets of words (nouns and verbs). For the form partici- 
palia (in F) rather than -pialia (in jd), cf. M. Niedermann, 
Mnemosyne, Ixiii. 267-268 (1936). " The lost text contained 

the discussion of participles, that of adverbs, and the be- 
ginning of that on ratio. 

§ 35. " This is perhaps the simplest way of giving a mean- 
ing to the incomplete sentence. " Referring to the previous 
discussion, now almost entirely lost. " The independent 



have bought ' and edi ' I have eaten ' ; from that of 
the act done once and the act done more often, as 
scribo ' I write ' and lego ' I read,' scriptito ' I am 
busy with writing,' and lectito ' I read and reread ' ; 
from that of active and passive, as uro ' I burn ' and 
ungo ' I anoint,' uror ' I am burned ' and u?igor ' I 
am anointed ' ; from that of singular and plural, as 
laudo ' I praise ' and culpo ' I blame,' laudamus ' we 
praise ' and culpamus ' we blame.' With regard to the 
words of this class ** whose categories I have described, 
the matter of how full an equipment of forms each 
has, and what sort of forms it makes, will be set forth 
with more attention to detail in the books "^ which 
are to be on the paradigms of verbs. 

34". The words of the third subdivision, which 
are inflected with tenses and cases and are by many 
therefore called participials," are of this kind . . .^ 


35. . . . When we meet a new word," we ask 
about its case-forms, as to how we shall inflect them ; 
and yet if some poet has made up some word and has 
himself formed from it some case-form in an incorrect 
way, we blame him rather than follow his example. 
Therefore Ratio or Relation, of which I am speaking, 
is present in both ^ : in the words which are imposed 
upon things,*^ and in those which are formed by in- 
flection <* ; and then also there is that third kind of 
Relation, which combines the characteristics of the 

36. Among these, each and every relation, when 

words. "* The paradigms. 'In derivatives formed by 

VOL. II o 561 


aut similis aut dissimilis, aut saepe verba alia, ratio 
eadem, et nonnunquam ratio alia, verba eadem. 
Quae ratio in amor amori, eadem in dolor dolori, 
neque eadem in dolor dolorem, et cum eadem ratio 
quae est in amor et^ amoris sit in amores et amorum, 
tamen ea, quod non in ea qua oportet confertur* 
materia, per se solum efficere non potest analogias 
propter disparilitatem vocis figurarum, quod verbum 
copulatum singulare^ cum multitudine : ita cum est 
pro portione, ut eandem habeat rationem, turn 
denique ea ratio conficit id quod postulat analogia ; 
de qua deinceps dicam. 

III. 37. Sequitur tertius locus, quae sit ratio 
pro portione ; <e)a Graece^ vocatur* ava Xoyov ; ab 
analogo dicta analogia. Ex eodem genere quae res 
inter se aliqua parte dissimiles rationem habent 
aliquam, si ad eas duas alterae duae res allatae sunt, 
quae rationem habeant eandem, quod ea verba bina 
habent eundem Aoyov, dicitur utrumque separatim 
didXoyov, simul collata quattuor dvaXoy(i}a.^ 

38. Nam ut in geminis, cum simile(m)^ dicimus 
esse Menflechmum Menaechmo, de uno dicimus ; 
cum similitudine(m>^ esse in his, de utroque : sic 
cum dicimus eandem rationem habere assem ad 

§ 36. ^ After et, a repeated amor et has been deleted. 

* After confertur, Aug. deleted a. ^ Aug., for singularem. 

§ 37. ^ L. Sp., for agrece. ^ Aug., for uocantur. 

• GS. ; analogia Mue., with G ; for analoga. 

§38. ^C F. W. Mueller, for simile. ^ Aug., for 

§ 36. ° Because of the difference in number. 
§ 37. " As in mathematics, two ratios of equal value make 
a proportion. 

§ 38. " In the comedy of Plautus. 



compared with another, is either like or unhke ; and 
often the words are different but the relation is the 
same, and sometimes the relation is different but the 
words are the same. The same relation which is in 
amor ' love ' and dative amori is in dolor ' pain ' and 
dative dolori, but not in dolor and accusative dolorem. 
The same relation which is in amor and genitive 
amoris is in plural amores and genitive amorum ; and 
yet, because the subject-matter in it is not compared 
as it should be," this relation cannot of itself effect 
Regularities, on account of the differences in the 
forms of the spoken word, because a singular word 
has been associated with a plural. So, when it is by 
a proportionate likeness that the word has the same 
relation, then and not until then does this relation 
achieve what is demanded by Analogia or Regularity ; 
of which I shall speak next. 

in. 37. There follows the third topic : What is 
Ratio or Relation that is pro portione ' by proportionate 
likeness ' ? This is in Greek called ' according to 
logos ' ; and from analogue the term Analogia or 
Regularity is derived. If there are two things of the 
same class which belong to some relation though in 
some respect unlike each other, and if alongside 
these two things two other things which have the same 
relation are placed," then because the two sets of 
words belong to the same logos each one is said 
separately to be an analogue and the comparison of 
the four constitutes an Analogia. 

38. For it is as in a matter of twins : when we say 
that the one Menaechmus is like the other Menaech- 
mus," we are speaking of one only ; but when we say 
that a likeness is present in them, we are speaking of 
both. So, when we say that a copper as has the same 



semissem quam habet in argento' libella ad simbellam,* 
quid sit dvdXoyov ostendimus ; cum utrubique dici- 
mus et in acre et in argento esse eandem rationem, 
turn dicimus de analogia. 

39. Ut sodalis et sodalitas, civis et civitas non est 
idem, sed utrumque ab eodem ac coniunctum, sic 
dvdXoyoi' et dvaAoyta idem non est, sed item est con- 
generatum. Quare si homines sustuleris, sodalis 
sustuleris ; si sodalis, sodalitatem : sic item si sus- 
tuleris Aoyov, sustuleris dvdkoyov ; si id, dvakoyiav. 

40. Quae cum inter se tanta sint cognatione, de- 
bebis suptilius audire quam dici expectare, id est cum 
dixero quid de utroque et erit co<m>mune, <ne>^ 
expectes, dun^ ego in scribendo transferam in re- 
liquum, sed ut potius tu persequare animo. 

41. Haec fiunt in dissimilibus rebus, ut in numeris 
si contuleris cum uno duo, sic cum decem viginti : 
nam (quam)* rationem duo ad unum habent, eandem 
habent viginti ad decem ; in nummis in similibus sic 
est ad unum victoriatum denarius, si<cut>* ad alterum 
victoriatum alter denarius ; sic item in aliis rebus 
omnibus pro portione dicuntur ea, in quo est sic 
quadruplex natura, ut in progenie quom(odoy est 
filius ad patrem, sic* est filia ad matrem, et ut est in 

' Pius, for argumento. * Pius, for singulas. 

§ 40. * Added hy Sciop. 

§41. ^ Added by Aldus. ^ Aug., for si. ^ Mue., 
for cum. * After sic, Aug. deleted si. 

* A silver coin of the same value as the copper as. 

§ 41. " The quinarius, marked with a figure of Victory, 
and worth half a denarius. 


relation to a half-a* as a silver lihella * has to a half- 
lihella, then we are showing what an analogue is ; 
when we say that both in copper and in silver there 
is the same relation, then we are speaking of Analogia 
' Regular Relation.' 

39. As sodalis ' fellow ' and sodalUas ' fellowship,' 
civis ' citizen ' and civitas ' citizenship ' are not the 
same, but both come from the same origin and are 
connected, so analogue and Analogia are not the 
same, but are like^^^se congenitally connected. 
Therefore, if you take away men, you have taken away 
the sodales ; if you take away the sodales, you have 
taken away the sodalitas : just so, if you take away 
the logos or Relation, you have taken away the 
analogue, and if you have taken this away, you have 
taken away the Analogia. 

40. Since these are of such close kinship to each 
other, vou must listen \n\h keen understanding 
rather than wait to be told, that is, when I have said 
something about either, it A\ill be also of general 
application to both ; you should not wait for me to 
repeat it in writing in a later part of my work, but you 
should rather continue to follow up the line of 

41. These phenomena are produced in unlike 
things, as in numbers, if you compare two \\ith one 
and so also twenty with ten ; for twenty has to ten 
the same relation which two has to one. It is found 
also in like things ; in coins, for example, one denarius 
is to one victoriate " as a second denarius is to a second 
\'ictoriate. So likewise in all other things those are 
said to be in a status of comparative hkeness, wherein 
there is a fourfold nature of such a kind as among 
children the daughter is to the mother as the son is to 



te(m)poribus meridies ad diem, sic media nox ad 

42. Hoc poetae genere in similitudinibus utuntur 
multum, hoc acutissime geometrae, hoc in oratione 
diligentius quam alii ab AristarcAo grammatici, ut 
cum dicuntur pro portione similia esse amorem amori, 
dolorem dolori, cum ita dissimile^ esse videant amorem 
et amori,* quod est alio casu, item dolorem dolori, sed 
dicunt, quod ab similibus. 

43. Nonnunquam rationes habet implicatas duas, 
ut sit^ una derecta, altera transversa. Quod dico, 
apertius sic fiet. Esto sic expositos esse numeros, 
ut in primo versu sit unum duo quattuor, in secundo 
decern viginti quadraginta, in tertio centum ducenti 
quadringenti. In hac formula numerorum duo 
inerunt quos dixi logoe, qui diversas faciant ana- 
logias : unus duplex qui est in obliquis versibus, quod 
est ut unus ad duo, sic duo ad quattuor ; alter decem- 
plex in directis ordinibus, quod est ut unum ad decern, 
sic decem ad centum. 

44. Similiter in verborum declinationibus est 
bivium, quod et ab recto casu (declinantur in obliquos 
et ab recto casu)^ in rectu{m),^ ita ut formulam simi- 
liter efficiant, quod sit primo versu hie albus, huic 
albo, huius albi, secundo haec alba, huic albae, huius 
albae, tertio hoc album, huic albo, huius albi. Itaque 

§ 42. ^ For dissimilem. * Christ ; amori Canal, omit- 
ting et ,• for et dolorem. 

§ 43. 1 For sic. 

§ 44. ^ Added by Mue. (obliquom Mue. ; obliquos L. 
Sp.). * Mue., /or recto. 

§ 42. " The rhetorical figure. * That is, proportionally. 


the father, and in matters of time the midnight is to 
the night as the midday is to the day. 

42. The poets make a great use of this kind of 
relationship in their similes," and the geometricians 
use it \s'ith greatest keenness ; in reference to speech, 
Aristarchus and the grammarians of his school use it 
with more care than others do, as when ace. amor em 
and dat. amori, ace. dolorem and dat. dolori are said to 
be like by comparative likeness,^ although they see 
that amorem is unlike amori because it is in another 
case, and likewise dolorem is unlike dolori ; but they 
say that the four are like, because they come from 
like words. 

43. Sometimes it has two crossed relationships, 
in such a way that one is vertical and the other 
crosswise. What I mean will become clearer by 
this : Suppose that some numerals are so set down 
that in the first line there are 12 4 

in the second line there are 10 20 40 
in the third line there are 100 200 400 
In this scheme of numerals there will be two examples 
of what I have called logos, which make different 
systems of Regularity : one is the twofold which is in 
the crosswise lines, because two is to four as one is to 
two ; the other is the tenfold relation in the vertical 
lines, because ten is to one hundred as one is to ten. 

44. Likewise the inflections of words may go in two 
directions, because from the nominative case they are 
inflected into the oblique cases, and from the nomina- 
tive to the nominative, so that they make a similar 
scheme ; which is 

in line 1 : masc. nom. albus, dat. albo, gen. albi ; 
in line 2 : fem. nom. alba, dat. albae, gen. albae ; 
in line 3 : neut. nom. album, dat. albo, gen. albi. 



fiunt per obliquas declinationes ex his analogiae hoe 
genus Albius Atrius, Albio Atrio, quae scilicet erit 
particula ex ilia feinaria,' per directas declinationes 
Albius Atrius, Albia Atria,* quae seiHcet rfenaria* 
formula analogiarum, de qua supra dixi. 

45. Analogia quae dicitur, eius genera sunt duo : 
unum deiunctum sic est : ut unum ad duo sic decern 
ad viginti ; alterum coniunctum sic : ut est unum ad 
duo, sic duo ad quattuor. In hoc quod duo bis dicun- 
tur et turn (cum)^ conferimus ad unum et tunc cum 
<ad>* quattuor, 

46. hoc quoque natura dicitur quadrwplex^ ; sic 
e septem cAordis^ c/tharae tamen duo dicuntur habere 
tetracAorda,* quod quemadmodum crepat prima ad 
quartam c^ordam,^ sic quarta ad septumam respondet, 
media est alterius prima, alterius extrema. Medici' 
in oegroto* septumos dies qui observant, quarto die 
ideo dili^entius signa morbi advertunt, quod quam 
rationem habuit primus dies ad quartum eandem 
praesagit habiturum qui est futurus ab eo quartus, 
qui est septumus a primo. 

47. Quadruplices deiunctae in casibus sunt vocabu- 
lorum, ut rex regi, (lex legi>,^ coniunctae sunt tri- 
plices in verborum tribus temporibus, ut legebam* 
lego legam, quod quam rationem habet legebam ad^ 

' quae . . . binaria was transposed to this position by Mue., 
from its position after albia atria ; binaria Mue., for vice- 
naria. * After the transposition {note 3), albia atria atria 
quae is left ; the second atria is deleted. * L. Sp., for 

§ 45. 1 Added by L. Sp. * Added by Sciop. 

§ 46. ^ For quadriplex. * The h inserted by Aug. 
^ For midici. * L. Sp., for egrotos. 

§ 47. ^ Added by Mue. * After legebam, Aug. deleted 
ab. ' Aug., for ab. 


Therefore by the cross^^ise inflections there are made 
from these words systems of Regularity Uke Albius 
and Atriiis, Albio and Atrio, which to be sure is only a 
small part of that binary scheme ; and by the vertical 
inflections are made Albius and Atrius, Alhia and 
Atria, which is a part of the tenfold scheme of Regu- 
larities of which I have spoken above. 

45. Of that which is called Regularity, there are 
two kinds. One is disjoined, thus : as one is to two, 
so ten is to twenty. The other is conjoined, thus : 
as one is to two, so two is to four. Because in it two 
is said twice, both when we compare it with one, and 
then when we compare it with four, 

46. this kind also is said to be fourfold by nature. 
So the cithers, though with seven strings, are none the 
less said to have two sets of four strings, because just 
as the sound of the first string stands in a certain 
relation to that of the fourth, so the fourth stands in 
the same relation to the seventh ; the middle string 
is the first of the one set and the last of the other. 
The doctors who watch the seven days when a man is 
ill," note the symptoms of the illness vnXh greater care 
on the fourth day, for the reason that the relation 
which the first day had to the fourth, foretells that the 
day which \\\\\ be fourth from it, that is, seventh from 
the first, will bear the same relation to the fourth. 

47. The Regularities are disjoined and fourfold in 
the cases of nouns, such as rex ' king,' dative regi, and 
lex ' law,' dative legi ; they are conjoined and three- 
fold in the three tenses of verbs, such as legebam ' I was 
reading,' present lego, future legam, because the rela- 
tion which legebam has to lego, this same relation lego 

§ 46. « In recurrent fevers ; specifically the quartan 



lego hanc habet lego ad legam. In hoc fere omnes 
homines peccant, quod perperani in tribus temporibus 
haec verba dicunt, cum proportione volunt pro- 

48. Nam cum sint verba alia infecta, ut lego et 
legis, alia perfecta, ut legi et legisti, et debeant sui 
cuius(que>i generis in coniungendo copulari, et cum 
recte sit ideo lego ad'^ legebam, non recte est lego ad 
legi, quod legi significat quod perfectum : ut haec 
tutudi pupugi, tundo pungo, tundam pungam, item 
/zecatus' sum verberatus sum, (necor verberor.* 
necabor^) verberabor, iniuria reprehendant,* quod 
et infecti inter se similia sunt et perfecti inter se, ut 
tundebam tundo tundam et tutuderam tutudi tutu- 
dero ; sic amabar amor amabor, et amatus eram 
amatus sum amatus ero. Itaque <inique>' repre- 
hendunt qui contra analogias dicunt, cur dispariliter 
in tribus temporibus dicantur quaedam verba, natura 
cum quadruplex sit analogia. 

49. Id nonnunquam, ut dixi, pauciores videtur 
habere partes, sic etiam alias pluris, ut cum est : 
quemadmodum ad tria unum et duo, sic ad sex duo 
et quattuor, quae tamen quadripertito^ compre- 
henditur forma, quod bina ad singula conferuntur ; 
quod in oratione quoque nonnunquam reperietur sic : 

§ 48. ^ quoiusque H,for cuius F, V, p. ^ Aug., for et. 
3 Aug., for haec catus. * Added by Miie. ^ Added by 
Aug. * J/k^., /or reprehendunt. "> Added by Christ. 

§ 49. ^ GS., for quadripertita. 

§ 47. " That is, past action is to present action, as present 
is to future. 


has to legam.'^ In this, almost all men make a mistake, 
because they cite these verbs wrongly in the three 
tenses, when they wish to express them in a propor- 

48. For since some verbs denote incomplete action, 
like lego ' I read ' and legis ' thou readest,' and others 
denote completed action, like legi ' I have read ' and 
legisti ' thou hast read,' and since in the conjoined 
form they ought to be connected vrith others of their 
own kind and by this principle lego is rightly related 
to legebam—lego is not rightly related to legi, because 
legi denotes something completed ; so that they are 
wrong in finding fault with tutudi ' I have pounded ' 
and pupugi ' I have pricked,' tiindo and pungo, tundam 
and ptmgam, as well as necahis sum ' I have been killed ' 
and verberatus sum ' I have been beaten,' necor and 
verberor, necabor and verberabor, because the tenses of 
incomplete action are like one another, and those 
of completed action are like one another. Thus 
we should say tundebam tundo tundam, and tutuderam 
tutudi tutudero, and in the same way amabar amor 
amabor, and amatus eram, amatus sum, amatus ero. 
Therefore those who speak against the Regular- 
ities are unfair in finding fault on the ground that 
whereas Regularity is fourfold by nature certain 
words are cited in a different way, in three tense- 
forms merely. 

49. This seems sometimes to have fewer parts, as I 
have said ; similarly it seems, at other times, to have 
more parts, as when it is thus : as one and two are 
to three, so two and four are to six. Yet this form is 
included in the fourfold type, because sets of two are 
compared with sets of one. In speech also, this will 
sometimes be found, thus : As nominative Diomedes 



ut Diomedes confertur Diome(di et Diome>dis,* sic 
dicitur ab Hercules Herculi et Herculis.* 

50. Et ut haec^ ab uno capite ac recto casu in duo 
obliquos discedunt casus, sic contra multa ab duobus 
capitibus recti casuis^ confluunt in obliquom unum. 
Nam ut ab his rectis hi <B)a(e>biei, hae Baebiae 
fit his Baebieis, sic est ab his hi Caelii, hae CaeHae 
his CaeUis. A duobus simiUbus <dis>similiter' de- 
chnantur, ut fit in his nemus Aolus, nemora Aolera. 
AUa ab dissimiUbus similiter declinantur, ut in arti- 
culis ab hie iste, hunc istura<c).* 

51. Analogia fundamenta habet aut a voluntate 
hominum aut a natura verborum aut (a)^ re utraque. 
Voluntatem dico impositionem vocabulorum, naturam 
declinationem vocabulorum, quo decurritur sine doc- 
trina. Qui impositionem sequetur, dicet, si simile 
in recto casu dolus et malus, fore in obliquo dolo et 
malo ; qui naturam sequetur, si sit simile in obliquis 
Marco Quinto, fore ut sit Marcus Quintu** ; qui 
utrumque sequetur, dicet si sit simile, transitus ut 
est in servus serve, fore ut sit item cervus cerve. 
Co<m)mune omnium est, ut quattuor figurae vocis 
habeant proportione declinatus. 

52. Primum genus est ortum ab similitudine in 

^ L. Sp., for diomedibus. ^ L. Sp., for herculibus. 

§ 50. ^ Mue., for he hie. ^ A. Sp., for casiium / cf. 
Gellius, iv. 16. 1. ^ Christ, for similiter. * Mue., for 

§ 51. ^ Added by G, II. ^ Christ, for marcum quintum. 

§ 49. " For the double genitive form, see viii. 26. 

§ 50. " The writing EI in these forms is historically 
correct, and was doubtless used by Varro himself ; but it 
rarely survives in the manuscript. Caelii and CaeUis, im- 
mediately following, have survived with I and not EI. 



is compared with genitive Diomedi and Diomedis, so 
from nominative Hercules are said the genitive forms 
Herculi and Herculis.'^ 

50. And as these move away from one starting- 
point and nominative into two obhque case-forms, 
so on the other hand from two starting-points of the 
nominative many words unite in a single obUque 
case-form. For as from the nominatives Baebiet 
(masc.) and Baehiae (fem.) comes the dative Baebieis," 
so from the nominatives Caelii and Caeliae comes 
Caeliis. From two like words forms are developed 
in unlike fashion, as happens in nemus ' grove ' and 
holus ' vegetable,' plural nemora and holer a. Others 
from unlike words are developed in like fashion, as in 
the articles the accusatives hunc and istunc come from 
hie ' this ' and iste ' that.' 

51. Regularity has its foundations either in the 
will of men or in the nature of the words, or in both. 
By will I mean the imposition of the word-names : 
by nature I mean the inflection of the words, through 
\\hich passage is made without special instruction. 
He who starts froni the imposition, will say that if 
dolus ' guile ' and malus ' bad ' are alike in the nomina- 
tive, there will be found in an oblique case dolo and 
7nalo. He who starts from the nature of the words, 
will say that if Marco and Quinto are alike in the 
oblique cases, there will be nominatives Marcus and 
Quintus. He who proceeds from both, will say that if 
there is a likeness, then as the change is in servus 
' slave ' and vocative serve, so also there will be cervus 
' stag ' and vocative cerve. It is a common feature of 
all, that the four word-forms have their inflectional 
changes in a proportional relation. 

52. The first kind starts from the likeness in the 



rectis casibus, secundum ab similitudine quae est in 
obliquis, tertium ab similitudine quae est in transi- 
tibus de casu in casum. Primo genere ab imposito 
ad naturam profieiscimur, in secundo contra, in tertio 
ab utroque, Quocirca etiam hoc tertium potest 
bifariam divisum tertium et quartum dici, quod in eo 
vel prosus et n/sus* potest dici. 

53. Qui initia faciet analogiae impositiones, ab 
his obUquas figuras declinare debebit ; qui naturam, 
contra ; qui ab utraque, reliquas declinationes ab 
eiusmodi transitibus. Impositio est in nostro do- 
minatu, nos in natura<e>^ : quemadmodum enim 
quisque volt, imponit nomen, at declinat, quemad- 
modum volt natura. 

54. Sed quoniam duobus modis imponitur vocabu- 
lum aut re singulari aut multitudine, singulari, ut 
cicer, multitudinis, ut scalae, nee dubium est, quin 
ordo declinatuum, in quo res singulares declinabuntur 
solae, ab singulari aliquo casu proficiscatur,^ ut cicer 
ciceri ciceris, item contra in eo ordine, qui multi- 
tudinis erit solum, quin a multitudinis a(li>quo casu 
ordiri conveniat, ut scalae scalis scalas : aliud viden- 
dum est, cum duplex natura copulata acdeclinatu(u)m 
bini fiant ordines, ut est Mars Martes, unde turn ratio 
analogiae debeat ordiri, utrum ab singulari re in 
multitudinem an contra. 

55. Neque enim si natura ab uno ad duo pervenit, 

§ 52. ^ For rosus. 

§ 53. * Stephanus, for natura. 

§ 54. ^ Stepha7iu,i, for proficiscantur. 



nominatives, the second from a likeness which is in 
obhque cases, the third from a Hkeness which is in 
the changes from case to case. In the first kind we 
set out from the imposed name to the nature, in the 
second we go in the other direction, in the third we 
go in both directions. Therefore in fact this third 
can be divided into two parts and called the third 
and the fourth, because in it the argument can actu- 
ally go both forward and backward. 

53. He who makes the imposed forms the starting- 
point for the Regularity, will have to develop the 
oblique forms from these ; he who makes the nature 
the starting-point, will have to work in the other 
direction ; he who starts from both, will have to make 
the rest of the inflections from the changes of the 
same kind. The imposition is in our power, but we are 
under the control of the nature of the words : for each 
one imposes the name as he wishes, but he inflects it 
as its nature requires. 

54. But since a noun is imposed in two wavs, either 
on a singular thing or on a plural — singular like cicer 
' chickpea,' plural like scalae ' stairs ' — and there is 
no doubt that the hne of the inflections wherein 
things which are singular only ^\ill be declined, 
proceeds from some case of the singular, as cicer 
ciceri ciceris ; and likewise that in the line of inflec- 
tions which is in the plural only, it is proper to begin 
from some case of the plural, as scalae scalis scalas : 
another point must be examined, since their con- 
nected nature is twofold and two lines of inflections 
are made, like Mars and Martes, namely from what 
place the relation of Regularity ought to start, 
whether from the singular to the plural or vice versa. 

55. For not even if nature does proceed from one 



i<d)circo non potest ap<er>rius^ esse in docendo 
posterius, ut inde incipias, ut quid" sit prius ostendas. 
Itaque et hi qui de omni natura disputant atque ideo 
vocantur ph^sici, tamen ex his ab universa natura 
profeeti retro quae essent prineipia mundi ostendunt. 
Oratio cum ex litteris constat,' tamen (ex)* ea gram- 
matici de litteris ostenderunt. 

56. Quare in demonstrando, quoniam potius pro- 
ficisa'i oportet ab eo quod apertius est quam ab eo 
quod prius est et potius quam (a corrupto) principio 
ab ineorrupto,^ ab natura rerum quam ab lubidine 
hominum, et haec tria quae sequenda magis sunt 
minus sunt in singularibus quam in (multitudinis, a) 
multitudine* commodius potest ordiri, quod in his 
principi/s* minus rationis* verbis fingendis. Ver- 
borum forma(s>* facilius (ex multitudinis)' singu- 
lari** videri posse quam ex singularibus multitudinis 
haec ostendunt : trabes trabs, duces dux. 

57. Videmus enim ex his verbis trabes duces de 
extrema syllaba E litteram exclusam et ideo in singu- 

§ 55. ^ Canal, for amplius ; c/. § 56. * For quod. 
' L. Sp.,/or constat. * Added by L. Sp. 

§ 56. ^ G, a, Sciop., for proficisse ; after which Aug. 
deleted de litteris ostendunt, repeated from above. ^ L. 
Sp., for potius quam ab incorrupto principio. ^ GS., 
following Canal (in multitudinis, multitudine) and L. Sp. (in 
multitudine, a multitudine), /or in multitudine. * Aldus, 
for principibus. * L. Sp., for orationis. * L. Sp., for 
forma. ' Added by GS. ; added before videri by Groth. 

* Kent, for singularia. 

§ 55. " From Greek j>\)ais ' nature ' as an originating or 
moving power. * Properly, of sounds. 

§ 56. " Prineipia are the singular forms, in whichever 
direction the argument is carried ; but perhaps quam in 
singulari should be inserted between ordiri and quod. 

* Because the B and the C ending the stems can be seen in the 



to two, should the conclusion be drawn that in teach- 
ing the later thing cannot be the clearer, for the 
purpose of beginning from it, to show what the prior 
thing is. Therefore even those who deal with the 
nature of the universe and are on this account called 
physici " * natural philosophers,' proceed from nature 
as a whole and show by backward reasoning from the 
later things, what the beginnings of the world were. 
Though speech consists of letters,* it is nevertheless 
from speech that the grammarians start in order to 
show the nature of the letters. 

56. Therefore in the explanation, since one ought 
rather to set out from that which is clearer than 
from that which is prior, and rather from the un- 
corrupted than from a corrupt original, from the 
nature of things rather than from the fancy of men, 
and since these three factors which are more to be 
followed are less present in the singulars than in the 
plurals, one can more easily commence from the 
plural than from the singular, because in the latter 
as starting-points " there is less of a basis for relation- 
ship in the forming of words. That the singular 
forms of words can be more easily interpreted from 
plural forms than plural forms from the singular, is 
shown by these words ** : plural trahes ' beams,' singular 
trabs ; plural duces ' leaders,' singular dux. 

57. For we see that from the plural nominatives 
trahes and duces the letter E of the last syllable has 
been eUminated and thereby in the singular have been 

plural, but cannot be inferred with certainty from the nomi- 
native singular, especially if we read not trabs but traps 
(Roth, Philol. xvii. 176, and Mueller's note to § 57), which 
represents the actual pronunciation. Yet \'arro wrote trabs 
and not traps, according to Cassiodorus, Gram. Lat. vii. 
159. 23 Keil. 

VOL. 11 p 577 


lari factum esse trabs dux. Contra ex singularibus 
non tam videmus quemadmodum facta sint ex B et S 
trabs^ et ex C et S dua'.* 

58. Si mMl(t>itudinis^ rectus casus forte figura 
corrupta erit, id quod accidit raro, prius id corrigemus 
quam inde ordiemur ; (ab>* obliquis adsumere 
oporte^' figuras eas quae non erunt ambiguae, sive 
singulares sive multitudims,* ex quibus id, cuius modi 
debent esse, perspici possit.^ 

59. Nam nonnunquam alterum ex altero videtur, 
ut Chr^sippus scribit, quemadmodum pater ex filio 
et filius ex patre, neque minus in fornicibus propter 
sinistram dextra stat quam propter dextraw^ sinistra- 
Quapropter et ex rectis casibus obliqui et ex obliquis 
recti et ex singularibus multitudim's^ et ex multi- 
tudinis singulares nonnunquam recuperari possunt. 

60. Principium id potissimum sequi debemus, ut 
in eo fundamentum sit^ natura, quod in declina- 
tionibus ibi facilior ratio. Facile est enim animad- 
vertere, peccatum magis cadere posse in impositiones 
eas quae fiunt plerumque in rectis casibus singulari- 
bus, quod homines imperiti et dispersi vocabula rebus 
imponunt, quocumque eos libido invitavit : natura 

§57. ^ Aug., for trahes. ^ Aug., for duces, 

§58. ^ si multitudinis 3/m^., /or similitudinis. '^ Added 
by Canal. ' L. Sp., for oportere. * Aug., for multi- 
tudines. ^ Sciop., for possint. 

§59. ^ La^^w*, /or dextras. ^ Vertranius, for mu\tita- 

§ 60. 1 After sit, L. Sp. deleted in. 

§ 59. " Frag. 155 von Arnim. 



made the nominatives trabs and dux. But on the 
other hand, if we start from the singulars we do not 
so easily see how they have become trabs, from B 
and S, and dux, from C and S. 

58. If the nominative plural is by any chance a 
corrupted form, which rarely occurs, we shall correct 
this before we make it our starting-point ; it is proper 
to take from the oblique cases, either singular or 
plural, some forms which are not ambiguous, from 
which can be seen the make-up which the other forms 
ought to have. 

59- For sometimes the one is seen from the other 
and at other times the other is seen from the one, as 
Chrysippus writes," as the father's qualities may be 
seen from the son, and the son's from the father, and 
in arches the right-hand side stands on account of the 
left-hand side, no less than the left on account of 
theright. Therefore the oblique forms can sometimes 
be regained from the nominatives, and sometimes the 
nominatives from the oblique forms ; sometimes the 
plural from the singular forms, and sometimes the 
singular forms from the plural. 

60. The principle that we should most of all follow, 
is that in this the foundation be nature, because in 
nature " there is the easier relationship in inflections. 
For it is easy to note that error can more easily make 
its way into those impositions * which are mostly 
made in the nominative singular, because men, being 
unskilled and scattered,*^ set names on things just as 
their fancy has impelled them ; but nature ** is of 

§ 60. " Rather than in voluntas. * Or imposed word- 
names, characterized by voluntas. ' For this point of the 
Stoic philosophy, cf. Cicero, de Inventione, i. 2. ** The 
quaHty underlying the paradigms. 



incorrupta plerumque est suapte sponte, nisi qui 
earn usu inscio depravaftit. 

61. Quare si quis principium analogiae potius 
posuerit in naturalibus casibus quam in <im>positiciis,^ 
non multa' (inconcinna)' in consuetudine occurrent 
et a natura libido humana corrigetur, non a libidine 
natura, quod qui impositionem sequi voluerint 
facient contra.* 

62. Sin ab singular! quis potius proficisci volet, 
ini^ium^ facere oportebit ab sexto casu, qui est pro- 
prius Latinus : nam eius casuis' litterarum dis- 
criminibus faeilius reliquorum varietate(m>' discer- 
nere poterit, quod ei habent exitus aut in A, ut hac 
terra, aut in E, ut hac lance, aut in I, ut hac <c)lavi,* 
aut in O, ut hoc caelo, aut in U, ut hoc versu. Igitur 
ad demonstrandas declinationes biceps via.^ haec. 

63. Sed quoniam ubi analogia, tria,^ unum quod 
in rebus, alterum* quod in vocibus, tertium quod in 
utroque, duo priora simplicia, tertium duplex, ani- 
madvertendum haec quam inter se habeant rationem. 

64. Primum ea quae sunt discrimina in rebus, 
partim sunt quae ad orationem non attineant, partim 
quae pertineant. Non pertinent ut ea quae obser- 
vant in aedificiis et signis faciendis ceterisque rebus 

§61. ^ L, Sp. ; in impositivis Aug.; for in positiciis. 
^ Aug., for multae. ^ Added by Christ. * Aug., for 

§ 62. ^ Groth, for inillum. * A. Sp. ; cassuis Mue. ; 
for casus his. * Aug., for uarietate. ■* Groth, for leui ; 
cf. Varro, R. R. i. 22. 6. * Canal, for una. 

§ 63. ^ Aldus, for atria. * alterum is repeated in F. 

' By making wrongly inflected forms. 
§ 62. " The name ' ablative ' had not come into use in 



itself for the most part uncorrupted, unless somebody 
perverts it by ignorant use.* 

61. Therefore, if one has founded the principle 
of Regularity on the natural cases rather than on the 
imposed case-forms, not many awkwardnesses >\ill be 
his to face in usage ; human fancifulness will be cor- 
rected by nature, and not nature by fancy, because 
those who have \\ished to follow imposition will in 
reaUty act in the opposite wav. 

62. But if one should prefer to start from the 
singular, he ought to start from the sixth case," which 
is a case peculiar to Latin ; for by the differences in the 
letters * of this case-form he will be more easily able to 
discern the variation in the remaining cases, because 
the ablative forms end either in A, like terra ' earth,' 
or in E,'' like lance ' platter,' or in I, Uke clavi ' key,' 
or in O, like caelo ' sky,' or in U, like versu ' verse.' 
Therefore, for the explaining of the declensions, there 
is this way, which may proceed from either of two 

63. But where there is Regularity, there are three 
factors, one which is in the things, a second which is 
in the spoken words, a third which is in both ; the first 
two are simple, the third is twofold. In \-iew of this, 
attention must be given to the relation which they 
have to one another. 

64. First, of the differences which exist in the 
things, there are some which have no bearing on 
speech, others which are connected with it. Those 
which are not connected with it are like those which 
the artificers observe in making buildings and statues 

\'arro's time. * That is, the endings. ' Varro does not 
list separately the ablative of the fifth declension, ending in 
long E. 



artifices, e quis vocantur aliae ^armonicae, sic item 
aliae nominibus aliis : sed nulla harum fit <in>^ 
loqiiendo pars.^ 

65. Ad orationem quae pertinent, res eae sunt 
quae verbis dicuntur pro portione neque a similitudine 
quoque vocum declinatus habent, ut lupiter Mars- 
piter, lovi Marti. Haec enim genere^ nominum et 
numero et casibus similia sunt inter se, quod utraque 
et nomina sunt et virilia sunt et singularia et casu 
nominandi et dandi. 

66. Alterum genus vocale est, in quo voces modo 
sunt pro portione similes, non res, ut biga bigae, 
nuptia nuptiae : neque enim in his res singularis 
subest una, cum dicitur biga quadriga, neque ab his 
vocibus quae declinata sunt, multitudinis significant 
quicquam, id^ quod omnia multitudinis quae decli- 
nantur ab uno, ut a merula merulae : sunt (enim)^ 
eius modi, ut singulari subiungatur, sic merulae duae, 
catulae tres, faculae quattuor. 

67. Quare cum idem non possit subiungi, qxiod^ 
(non>* dicimus biga una,' quadrigae duae, nuptiae 
tres, sed pro eo unae bigae, binae quadrigae, trinae 
nuptiae, apparet non esse a biga et quadriga* bigae 
et quadrigae, sed ut est huius ordinis una* duae tres 

§ 64. ^ Added by L. Sp. ^ Sentence division of Boot. 

§ 65. ^ Mue., for genera. 

§66. 1 Fay, /or ideo. ^ Added by Fay. 

§ 67. ^ Sciop., for cum. ^ Added by Sciop. ' L. 
Sp. ; una biga Sciop. ; for bigae unae. * After quadriga, 
L. Sp. deleted et. ® Aug., for unae. 

§ Q5. " The unlikeness is in the forms of the nominative : 
but both words denote male deities. 

§ Q6. " The two words belong to the same declension and 
both lack the singular forms ; but the objects denoted are 
entirely unlike. 


and other things, of which some are called harmonic, 
and others are called by other names ; but no one of 
these becomes an element in speaking. 

65. The differences which pertain to speech, 
consist of those things which are expressed by the 
words in a proportionate way, and yet do not have a 
likeness of the spoken words also to help in forming 
the inflections : such as nominative lupiier and 
Marspiter, dative lovi and Marti.'* For these are Uke 
one another in the gender of the nouns, and in the 
number, and in the cases ; because both are nouns, 
and are masculine, and singular, and nominative and 
dative in case. 

66. The second kind has to do with the sounds, 
in which the spoken words only are similar in 
a proportionate way — and not the things — as in 
biga and bigae, nuptia and nuptiae.'* For in these 
there is no underlying unit thing expressed by 
the singular when we say biga or quadriga, nor 
have the plural forms which are derived from these 
words any plural meaning. Yet all plurals which 
are derived from a unit singular, like merulae from 
merula ' blackbird,' do have such plural meaning ; 
for they are of such a sort that there is subordina- 
tion to a singular form : thus two merulae ' black- 
birds,' three catulae ' female puppies, four faculae 
' torches.' 

67. Therefore since there cannot be the same sub- 
ordinating relation because we do not say una biga, 
duae quadrigae, tres nuptiae, but instead unae bigae 
' one two-horse team,' binae quadrigae ' two teams of 
four horses,' trinae nuptiae ' three sets of nuptials,' it is 
clear that bigae and quadrigae are not from biga and 
qtiadriga, but belong to another series : the usual ■ 



princip<i>um una, sic in hoc ordine altero unae binae 
trinae principium est unae. 

68. Tertium genus est illud duplex quod dixi, in 
quo et res et voces similiter pro portione dicuntur ut 
bonus malus, boni mali, de quorum analogia et Ari- 
stophanes et alii scripserunt. Etenim haec denique 
perfecta ut in oratione, illae duae simplices inchoatae 
analogiae, de quibus tamen separatim dicam, quod 
his quoque utimur in loquendo. 

69- Sed prius de perfecta, in qua et res et voces 
quadam similitudine continentur, cuius genera sunt 
tria : unum vernaculum ac domi natum, alterum 
adventicium, tertium nothum ex peregrino hie natum. 
Vernaculum est ut sutor et pistor, sutori pistori ; 
adventicium est ut Hectores Nestores, Hectoras 
Nestoras ; tertium ilium nothum ut Achilles et Peles. 

70. De (his primo)^ genere multi utuntur non 
modo poetae, sed etiam plerique omnes qui soluta 
oratione loquuntur. Haec primo^ dicebant ut quaes- 
torem praetorem, sic Hectorem Nestorem ; itaque 
Ennius ait : 

Hectoris natum de muro tactari<er>.' 

§ 70. ^ Added by A. Sp. " Lachmann transferred haec 
primo from its position after plerique. * So Scaliger 
(moero) for Hectoris natum de Troiano muro lactari F ; the 
misquoted line must be made metrical to establish the long 
o in Hectoris. 

§ 68. ° Page 267 Nauck; the grammarian of Byzantium, 
see V. 9, note a. 

§ 69. " The type is marked by the o in the stem. * The 
type is marked by the o in the stem, and the short vowels in 
the case endings -es and -as, for both of which native Latin 
had -es. "With -es replacing the normal -evs of the Greek 

nominatives (though Arcadian and some other dialects had 
' -j]s) ; the standardized Latin had Achilles, but Peleus. 



series una, duae, ires, has una as its beginning, but in 
this second series unae, bifiae, irinae, the beginning is 

68. The third kind of Regularity is that which has 
two elements, which I mentioned, in which both the 
things and the spoken words are uttered with a 
similarity in a proportionate way, like bonus ' good ' 
and malus ' bad,' plural boni and mali ; Aristoph- 
anes " and others have written about the Regularity 
in such words. And indeed this is a perfected Regu- 
larity in speech, but those two simple forms of Regu- 
larity are only incomplete beginnings ; yet I shall 
speak of them separately, because we use them also 
in speaking. 

69- But first I shall speak of the perfected Regu- 
larity, in which both the things and the spoken words 
are held together by a certain Ukeness ; of this there 
are three kinds : one native, bom here among us ; 
the second coming from abroad ; the third hybrid, 
born here of foreign paternity. The native type is 
such as sutor ' cobbler ' and pisior ' baker,' dative 
sutori and pisfori " ; the foreign tj'pe is such as 
Hectares ' men like Hector ' and Xestores ' men like 
Nestor,' accusative Hector as and XestorSs * ; that 
third type, the hybrid, consists of such words as 
Achilles and Peles.' 

70. Of these, many use the first type, not merely 
poets, but also almost all who speak in prose. At first 
they used to say Hectorem and Xestorem like quaes- 
torem and praetdrem ; so Ennius says ° : 

That Hector's * son be hurled from the Trojan wall. 

§ 70. " Andromache Aechmalotis, Traa. Rom. Frag. 93 
Ribbeck» ; Scsn. 82 Vahlen» ; R.O.L. i. 248-249 Warming- 
ton. * Hectoru, as the scansion shows. 



Accius haec in tragoediis largius a prisca consuetudine 
movere coepit* et ad formas Graecas verborum magis 
revocare,^ a quo Valerius ait : 

Accius He<c)torem* nollet facere, Hectora mallet. 
Quod adventicia pleraque habemus Graeca, secutum 
ut de nothis Graecanicos quoque nominatMs' plurimos* 
haberemus. Itaque ut hie alia Graeca, alia Grae- 
canica, sic analogiae. 

71. E quis quae hie not/«ae fiunt declinationes, 
de his aliae sunt priscae, ut Ba(c)chides et Chrj/sides/ 
aliae «wniores," ut Chr^sides et Ba(c>chides/ aliae 
recentes,' ut Chrj/sidas et Ba<c>chidas ; cum his 
omnibus tribus utantur nostri, maxime qui sequontur 
media in loquendo ofFendunt minimum, quod prima 
parum similia videntur esse Graecis, unde sint tralata, 
tertia parum similia nostris. 

IV. 72. Omnis analogiae fundamentum similitudo 
quaedam, ea, ut dixi, quae solet esse in rebus et in 
vocibus et in utroque ; in qua(m> harum parte(m) 
^worfque^ sit inferend2<(m>* et cuius modi, videndum. 
Nam, ut dixi, neque rerum neque vocis similitudo ad 
has duplicis qua** in loquendo quaerimus analogias 

* For caepit. * After revocare, L. Sp. deleted et. * For 
haetorem. ' V, for nominatos. ^ A. Sp., with a, for 

§ 71. ^ The quantities of the voioels were added by Christ ; 
cf. Charisius, G. L. i. 148. 38 Keil, and Diomedes, G. L. 
i. 305. 13 Keil. * Sciop., for minores. * Aldus, for 

§ 72. ^ Kent, for in qua harum parte cumque. * GS., 
for inferendo. * Mue., for quae. 

" Trag. Rom. Frag., inc. fab. XXXVI Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. 
ii. xxiii, 364-365, 556-557, 599 Warmington. <* Page 78 
Funaioli ; page 40 Morel. 



Accius in his tragedies " began to take these words 
away from the early usage and rather to restore them 
to their Greek forms ; hence Valerius says ** : 

Accius would not use Hectorem, but Hectora rather. 

Because most of our foreign words are Greek, it has 
followed that the greatest number of the hybrid 
nouns which we have are also Greek in origin. There- 
fore, as in these types some words are Greek and 
others are Greek in origin, so also are the systems of 

71. Of the hybrid inflectional forms which are 
made from these materials in our country, some are 
early, like Bacchides and Chry sides, '^ others are 
younger, like Chry sides and Bacchides,^ and still others 
are recent, like Chrysidas and Bacchidds " ; our fellow- 
countrvmen use all three, but those who follow the 
middle forms in speaking give the least offence, 
because those of the first set seem insufficiently like 
the Greek forms from which they are taken, and 
those of the third seem insufficiently like our own 

IV. 72. The basis of all Regularity is a certain 
likeness, that, as I have said, which is wont to be in 
things and in spoken words and in both ; we must see 
in which one of these sections each word should be 
entered," and of what sort it is. For, as I have said, 
neither the likeness of the things nor that of the 
spoken words is separately sufficient to express these 
double Regularities of the words, which we seek in 

§71. " Nom.-acc, with Latin ending. "Norn., with 

Greek ending, but diflFering from Latin only in the quantity 
of the vowel. * Ace, with Greek ending. 

§ 72. "A bookkeeping idiom. 



verborum exprimendas* separatim satis est, quod 
utraque parte opus est simili. Quas ad loquendum 
ut perducas aceedere debet usus : alia enim ratio qua 
facias vestimentum, alia quemadmodum utare vesti- 

73. Usui(s)^ species videntur esse tres : una con- 
suetudinis veteris, altera consuetudinis huius, tertia 
neutra(e>.'' Vetera, ut cascus casci, *urus *uri*; 
huius consuetudinis, ut albus caldus, albo caldo ; 
neutrae, ut scala scalam, phalera joAaleram.* Ad 
quas aceedere potest quarta mixta, ut amicitia inimi- 
citia, amicitiam inimicitiam. Prima est qua usi anti- 
qui et nos reliquimus, secunda qua nunc utimur, 
tertia qua utuntur poetae. 

74. Analogia^ non item ea definienda quae de- 
rigitur ad naturam verborum atque ilia quae ad usum 
loquendi. Nam prior definienda sic : analogia est 
verborum similium declinatio similis, posterior sic : 
analogia est verborum similium declinatio similis 
non repugnante consuetudine co(m>muni. At quom^ 
harum duarum ad extremum additum erit hoc " ex 

* analogias verborum exprimendas, after simili in F, was set 
here by A. Sp. (after duplicis, by Mue.). 

§ 73. ^ L. Sp. ; usus Aug. ; for usui. ^ Canal, for 
neutra. ' Scaliger, for furus furl. * For falera faleram. 
§ 74. ^ Aug., for analogiae. ^ Sciop., for ad quam. 

* That is, the ' regular ' form may be constructed, but it must 
also be found in use to have any value. 



speaking, because there must be a likeness in both 
respects. To introduce them into speech there must 
be also actual use ; for the method by which you 
make a garment is quite different from that in which 
you wear it.* 

73. The categories of use appear to be three : 
one that of old usage, the secondthat of to-day's usage, 
the third that of neither. Old words are such as 
cascus casci ' old,' sums suri ' stake ' ; words of to-day's 
usage, such as albus ' white,' caldus " ' hot,' datives albo 
and caldo ; words of neither usage, such as scala and 
ace. scalam 'stair,' phalera and phaleram 'trapping.''' 
To these there can be added a fourth kind which does 
not belong exclusively to one category, like amicitia 
' friendship ' and inimicitia * enmity,' accusatives 
amicitiam and itiimicitiam ." The first is that which 
the ancients used and we have abandoned ; the second 
is that which we now use ; the third is that which the 
poets use. 

74-. That Analogia or Regularity which is directed 
toward the nature of the words <" is not to be defined 
in the same way as that which is directed toward the 
actual use in speaking. For the former should be 
defined thus : Analogia is the like inflection of hke 
words-; and the latter thus : Analogia is the like 
inflection of like words, not inconsistent with common 
usage. But when to the end of these two there has 
been added "within a certain range," then poetic 

§ 73. " The syncopated form of calidus, current in Varro's 
time. ' Normally used only in the plural ; the forms 
cited are not ambiguous with any plural cases. ' Com- 

position by prefixes yielded words belonging to each of the 
three categories. 

§ 74. "As evidenced in their paradigms. 



quadam parte," poetica analogia erit definita. Harum 
primam sequi debet populus, secundam omne** 
singuli e populo, tertiam poetae. 

75. Haec diligentius quam apertius dicta esse 
arbitror, sed non obscurius quam de re simili defini- 
tiones grammaticorum sunt, ut Aristeae, Aristodemi, 
Aristocli, item aliorum, quorum obscuritates eo minus 
reprehendendae, quod pleraeque definitiones re in- 
cognita propter summam brevitatem non facile 
perspiciuntur, nisi articulatim sunt explicata<e).^ 

76. Quare magis apparebit, si erit aperte de 
singulis partibus, quid dicatur verbum, quid similitudo 
verbi, quid declinatio, quid similitudo declinationis 
non repugnante consuetudine co(m>muni, quid ex 
quadam parte. 

77. Verbum dico orationis vocalis* partem, quae 
sit indivisa et^ minima. Si declinationem naturalem 
habeat, simile^ verbum verbo tum quom* et re* quam 
significat et voce^ qua significat et' in figura e transitu 
declinationis parile. Declinatio est, cum ex verbo 
in verbum aut ex verbi discrimine, ut transeat mens, 
vocis commutatio fit aliqua. Similitudo declinationis, 

^ Aug., for omnem. 

§ 75. ^ Sciop., for explicata. 

§ 77. ^ Aug., for vocabulis. ^ For eo. ^ Sciop., for 
similem. * Aug., for quoniani. * Mue., for rem. 

* Mue., for vocem. ' Aug., for est. 

* Cf, § 78 ; the poets, while having certain privileges, are yet 
under some restrictions. 

§ 75. " Apparently followers of Aristarchus. Varro 
seems to have had a book containing a collection of defini- 
tions of analogia, arranged according to an alphabetical list 
of their authors. 



Analogia will be defined.'' The first of these is that 
which the people ought to follow ; the second is 
that which all the individuals in the people ought to 
follow ; and the third is that which the poets ought 
to follow. 

75. I think that these things have been said with 
more care than clarity, but not more obscurely than 
are the definitions of the same subject given by the 
grammarians, such as Aristeas, Aristodemus, Aristo- 
cles, and others," whose obscurities are the less to be 
found fault with, because most definitions, being on 
an unknown theme and being expressed -with, extreme 
brevity, are not easily understood unless they are 
expounded point by point. 

76. Therefore the matter will be more apparent if 
there is a clear exposition of the parts one by one, as 
to what is meant by a word, what is meant by the 
likeness of the word, by inflection, by likeness of 
inflection not inconsistent with common usage, and 
by " within a certain range." 

77. By word I mean that part of spoken speech 
which is the smallest indivisible unit. If a word has 
natural inflection," then a word is like another word 
when it is similar to the other word in the thing 
which it denotes and in the spoken word by which 
it denotes the thing and in the form which it has after 
an inflectional change has taken place. Inflection *• 
is that which takes place when some change of the 
spoken word is made from word-form to word-form 
or to a new word-stem by derivation, in order to 
express a change of the thought. Likeness of in- 

§ 77. " That is, inflection rather than stem-derivation ; 
both these ideas are included under declinatio. * Inclu- 
ding derivation. 



cum item ex aliqua figura in figuram transit, ut id 
transit, cum quo confertur. 

78. Adiectum est " non repugnante consuetudine 
co(m>muni," quod quaedam verba contra usum 
veterem inclinata patietur, ut passa Hortensium 
dicere pro hae^ cervices cervix, quaedam non, ut si 
dicas pro fauces faux. Ubi additur " ex quadam 
parte," significat non esse in consuetudine in his 
verbis omnis partis, ut declinatum ab amo* ^ivo amor 
<sed non)' vivor. 

V. 79. Quid videretur analogia in oratione et quas 
haberet species et quae de his sequenda<e)^ vide- 
re(n>tur,* ut brevi potui informavi ; nunc, in quibus 
non debeat esse ac proinde ac debeat soleat quaeri, 
dicam. Ea fere sunt quattuor genera : primum in 
id genus verbis quae non dechnantur analogia non 
debet quaeri, ut in his nequam mox vix. 

80. De his magis in alio quam in alio erratur 
verbo. Dant enim non habere casus mox et vix, 
nequam habere, quod dicamus hie nequam et huius 
nequam et huic nequam. Cum enim dicimus hie 
nequam et huius nequam, turn hominis eius, que(m)^ 
volumus ostendere esse nequam, dicimus casus, et ei 
proponimus tum hie no<me)n,* cuius putamus 

§ 78. ^ Stephanus, for hac si. ^ L. Sp., for amabo. 
' Added by Kent. 

§ 79. ^ Kent, for sequenda. " Aug., for videretur. 
§ 80. ^ For quae. ^ Sciop., for non. 

§ 78. " Frag. Poet. Lat., page 91 Morel ; cf. viii. 14. 
§ 79. " Cf. viii. 9. 


flection exists, when it passes from some form to 
another form in the same way in which that other 
word passes with which it is being compared. 

78. There is the addition " not inconsistent with 
common usage," because usage tolerates some words 
inflected contrary to the old practice, as it suffered 
Hortensius " to say cervix ' neck ' instead of the plural 
cervices, but does not tolerate certain others, as when 
you should say faux ' throat ' instead of the plural 
fauces. When the addition " ^\-ithin a certain range " 
is made, it means that in the relevant words not all the 
forms are in use, as, for example, there is derived from 
amo ' I love ' and vivo ' I Uve ' the passive amor but 
not the passive vivor. 

V. 79- What Analogia or Regularity in speech is 
seen to be and what categories it has, and which of 
these seem essential to follow, I have set forth as 
briefly as I could. Now I shall speak of the categories 
in which it ought not to exist and yet it is usually 
looked for just as if it ought to be there ; these are 
in general of four kinds. First, Regularity ought 
not to be looked for in such words as are not in- 
flected, for example nequam 'worthless,' viox ' soon,' 
vix ' hardly.'" 

80. Among these, a greater error is made in 
one word than in another. For they grant that 
mox and vix have no cases, but assert that nequam 
has, because we use it with nominative hie ' this,' 
with genitive huius, with dative huic. For when we 
say hie nequam and huius nequam, then we are utter- 
ing the cases of this man whom we wish to show 
as worthless, and before the word we then set hie 
to represent the name of him whose worthlessness 
we are considering. 

VOL. II Q 593 


81. Quod vocabulum factum ut ex non et volo 
nolo sic ex ne et quicquam item media extrita syllaba 
coactum est nequam. Itaque ut eum quern putamus 
esse non hili dicimus n<i>hili,* sic in quo putamus esse 
ne quicquam dicimus nequam. 

82. Secundo, si unum solum habent casum in 
voce, quod non decline(n>tur,^ ut litterae omnes. 
Tertio, si singularis est vocabuli series neque habet 
cum qua comparari possit, ut esse putant caput capiti 
capitis capite. Quartum, si ea vocabula quattuor 
quae conferuntur inter se rationem (non>* habent 
quam oportet, ut socer socrus, soceros socru*.' 

VI. 83. Contra in quibus debeat quaeri analogia, 
fere totidem gradus debent esse coniuncti : primum 
ut sint res/ secundum ut earum sit usus, tertium uti 
hae res vocabula habeant, quartum ut habeant de- 
clinatus naturalis. De primo gradu, quod natura 
subest et multitudinis et singularis, dicimus hi asses 
hosce as*es,* hie as hunc assem ; contra quod in 
numeris finitis multitudinis natura singularis non est, 
dicitur hi duo et hi tres, his duobus et his tribus. 

84. Secundo gradu si est natura neque est usus, 

§ 81, 1 For anhili. 

§ 82. ^ Laetus, for declinetur. ^ Added by Mue. 
* Mue., for socerum. 

§ 83. ^ Aug., for tres. ^ For asces. 

§ 81. " From n? and volo. * From ne and quam. 
" From 71^ and hili ; cf. ix. 54. 
§ 82. » Cf. ix. 51-52. > Cf. ix. 53. 



81. This word is made like nolo'* 'I do not 
wish ' from non ' not ' and volo ' I wish ' ; thus from 
ne 'not' and quicquam ' anything,' \\ith loss of the 
middle syllable, is likewise compounded nequam.^ 
So as him whom we think to be non hili ' worth 
not a whit ' we call nihili,'^ him in whom we think 
that there is ne quicquam ' not anything ' we call 

82. Second , Regularity is not to be looked for if the 
words have only one case in their spoken form, because 
they are not inflected, like all names of letters." 
Third, it is not to be looked for if the series of forms 
which the noun has is unique and has nothing with 
which it can be compared, as they consider true of 
caput ' head,' dat. capiti, gen. capitis, abl. capiteJ* 
Fourth, it is not to be sought if those four noun-forms 
which are compared with one another fail to have the 
mutual relation which they should have, as in socer 
' father-in-law ' and socrus ' mother-in-law,' accusa- 
tive plural soceros and socrus. 

VL 83. On the other hand, in words in which 
Regularity ought to be looked for, in general the 
same number of stages should be found in conjunc- 
tion : first, the things should exist ; second, the 
things should be in use ; third, these things should 
have names ; fourth, they should have natural inflec- 
tion. As for the first stage, because the nature of 
plural and singular is basic, we say plural nom. asses, 
ace. asses, singular nom. as, ace. assern ; on the other 
hand, because in definite plural numerals the singular 
nature does not exist, only plural forms are used, 
such as nominative duo 'two' and tres 'three,' dative 
duobus and tribus. 

84. In the second stage, if the nature exists but 



id genus ut sit discriminandum, ut fit in faba et id 
genus, quae item et ex parte et universa nominamus : 
non enim opu<s) fuit ut in servis. . . ^ 

§ 84. ^ The rest of the page in F, and five further pages, 
are blank ; after which Cicero^s Oration pro Cluentio is 

% 84. " Cf. viii. 48, ix. 38 ; the Romans seem to have used 
names of materials and foodstuifs freely in the singular, with 



there is no practice of making this kind of distinction, 
as happens in faba ° ' bean ' and in that class of words 
which we use for one and for all collectively, without 
change of form : for there was no need, as in the 
matter of slaves ... * 

collective meaning. * The thought seems to have been, 
that as one name was sufficient for a slave since he had no 
family name (c/. ix. 59), so one form was adequate for such 
words as faba, whether denoting an individual thing or many 
as a collective unit. 




Fr. 1.^ Deus autem vel dea generale nomen est om- 
nibus. . . . Varro ad Ciceronem tertio : " Ita re- 
spondeant cur dicant deos, cum <de>^ omnibus 
antiqui dixerint divos." 

Fr. 2.^ Figor ambigue declinatur apud veteres 
tempore perfecto. Reperimus enim fictus et fixus : 
. . . Varro ad Ciceronem tertio " fixum." 

Fr. 3.^ Hoc nomen licet veteres Latinum negent, 
auctoritate tamen valet. Dicebant enim leonem 
masculum et feminam. . . . Leam vero Varro ad 
Ciceronem dicit libro III : " Sicut now est" panthera 
et lea." 

Fr. 1. 1 Serv. Dan. in Aen. xii. 139. ^ Added by Thilo. 
Fr. 2. ^ Diomedes, Ars Grammatica, i. 377. 11-13 Keil. 
Fr. 3. ^ Philarg. in Buc. ii. 63. " For nocest. 

II.-IV. » Cf. also V. 1 ; V. 6 ; vii. 109-110 ; viii. 1 ; Frag. 

Fr. 1. " The word split into two paradigms, as a result of 
extensions from deus, divi, divo, deum, etc., which has come 
about by regular phonetic development. 



Fragments of Books II-IV " 

Fr. 1 . Deus ' god ' or dea ' goddess ' is in fact a 
general name for all. . . . \'arro, in the third book 
of the treatise addressed to Cicero, says : " So let 
them give answer why they say del ' gods,' when in 
reference to all of them the old-time Romans used 
to say divi.'^" 

Fr. 2. Figor ' I am transfixed ' is by the old «Titers 
inflected in two ways in the perfect tense. For we 
find both Jictus and Jixus ; . . . \'arro in the third 
book of the treatise addressed to Cicero has "Jlxum." 

Fr. 3. Though the old \^Titers say that the name 
leaena ' lioness ' is not good Latin, still it has the 
force of authority. For they used to say leo ' Uon ' 
both as masculine and as feminine. . . . But lea 
' lioness ' ^'arro has, in the third book of the treatise 
addressed to Cicero : " Just as panther a ' panther ' 
and lea ' lioness ' are not." " 

Fr. 3. " That is, are not similarly formed from a corre- 
sponding masculine ; c/. v. 100, ix. 56. 




Fr. 4.^ Varro de Lingua Latina lib. IIII : " Pro- 
luftiMm* et lubidinem' dici ab eo quod lubeat : unde 
etiam lucus Veneris Lubentina(e> dicatur." 

LiBRi VIII Fragmentum 

Fr. 5.^ (5) M. Varronis liber ad Ciceronem de 
Lingua Latina octavus nullam esse observationem 
similium docet inque omnibus paene verbis consue- 
tudinem dominari ostendit : (6) " Sicuti cum dicimus," 
inquit, " lupus lupi, probus probi et lepus leporis, item 
paro paravi et lavo lavi, pungo pupugi, tundo tutudi 
et pingo pinxi. (7) Cumque," inquit, " a ceno et 
prandeo et poto et cenatus sum et pransus sum et 
potus sum dicamus, a destringor tamen et extergeor 
et lavor destrinxi et extersi et lavi dicimus. 

(8) " Item cum dicamus ab Osco Tusco Graeco 

Fr. 4. 1 Nonius Marcellus, 64. 15-17 M. * Guiet, for 
proluuiem. ' Quicherat, for prolubidinem. 

Fr. 5. ^ Aldus Gellius, Noct. Att. ii. 25. 5-10; the text 
follows Rolfe's, in the Loeb Classical Library. 

Fr. 4. <■ Cf vi, 47. 

VIII. " See also vii. 90, ix. 53, 66, 79, 80, 81, 89, 90, 96, 
97, 100, 101, 104, 105, 108, 111, which refer to passages in 
VIII. that are not extant. 

Fr. 5. " The translation is essentially Rolfe's, in the Loeb 
Classical Library. ' Cf. especially viii. 25. " Cf. viii. 
34, ix. 91. <* Cf. ix. 106. « Cf. ix. 99, x. 48. ' Per- 
fect passives of active verbs, yet with active meaning. 




Fr, 4. Varro in the fourth book of the treatise On 

the Latin Language : " Prolubiiim and lubido ' desire * 
are derived from lubet ' it is pleasing ' ; whence also 
the grove of Venus Luhentina gets its name." " 

Fragment of Book VIII <» 

Fr. 5." (5) The eighth book of Marcus Varro 's 
treatise On the Latin Language, addressed to Cicero, 
maintains that no regard is paid to Regularity, and 
points out that in almost all words usage rules.* (6) 
"As when we decline," says he, " lupus ' wolf,' gen. 
lupi, probns ' honest,' gen. probi, but lepus ' hare,' gen. 
leporis '^ ; again, paro ' I prepare,' perf. paravi, and 
lavo ' I wash,' perf. lavi,^ pungo ' I prick,' perf. 
pupugi, iundo ' I pound,' perf. tutudi/ and pingo ' I 
paint,' perf. pinxi. (7) And although," he con- 
tinues, " from ceno ' I dine ' and prandeo ' I lunch ' 
and poto ' I drink ' we form the perfects cenatus sum, 
pransus sum, and potus sum,^ yet from destringor ' I 
scrape myself and extergeor ' I wipe myself dry ' 
and lavor ' I bathe myself we make the perfects 
destrinxi ' I am scraped ' and extersi ' I am dried ' 
and lavi ' I have had a bath.'' 

(8) " Furthermore, although from Oscus ' Oscan,' 
Tuscus ' Etruscan,' and Graecus ' Greek ' we derive 
the adverbs Osce ' in Oscan,' Tusce ' in Etruscan,' 

' Active perfects of passive verbs, yet with passive (intransi- 
tive, reflexive) meaning : this meaning of the perfect lavi is 
regular in Plautus, but is nowhere attested for destrinxi and 



Osce Tusce Graece, a Gallo tamen et Mauro Gallice 
et Maurice dicimus ; item a probus probe, a doctus 
docte, sed a rarus non dicitur rare, sed alii raro dicunt, 
alii rarenter." 

(9) Idem M. Varro in eodem libro : " Sentior," 
inquit, " nemo dicit et id per se nihil est, adsentior 
tamen fere omnes dicunt. Sisenna unus adsentio 
in senatu dicebat et eum postea multi secuti, neque 
tamen vincere consuetudinem potuerunt." 

(10) Sed idem Varro in aliis libris multa pro dva- 
Aoyi'ci tuenda scribit. 


Fr. 6.^ Et ubi auctoritas maiorum genus tibi non de- 
monstraverit, quid ibi faciendum est ? Scripsit Varro 
ad Ciceronem : " Potestatis nostrae est illis rebus 
dare genera, quae ex natura genus non habent." 

Fr. 7a. ^ Nunc de generibus dicamus. Varro dicit 
" genera dicta a generando. Quicquid enim gignit 
aut gignitur, hoc potest genus dici et genus facere." 

Fr. 6. ^ Julianus Toletanus, Commentarius in Donatum, 
V. 318. 31-34 Keil. 

Fr. 7. ^ [Serffii] Explanat. in Donatum, iv. 492. 37-493. 3 

* Charisius, i. 217. 8 Keil, cites rare as used by Cicero, 
Cato, and Plautus {Rudens 995) ; but editors usually replace 
it by raro. ' That is, not a deponent unless compounded ; 
even in a passive meaning, the passive form of the un- 
compounded verb is rare, though occasionally found, as in 
Caesar, Bellum Civile i. 67 {sentiretur), where it is however 
impersonal. ' Notably in ix. 


and Graece ' in Greek,' yet from G alius ' Gaul ' and 
Maurus ' Moor ' we have Gallice ' in Gallic ' and 
Maurice ' in Moorish ' ; also from prohus ' honest ' 
comes probe ' honestly,' from doctus ' learned ' docte 
' learnedly,' but from rarus ' rare ' there is no 
adverb rare, but some say raro, others rarenter." * 

(9) In the same book A'arro goes on to say : " No 
one uses the passive sentior,^ and that form by itself is 
naught, but almost every one says adsentior ' I agree.' 
Sisenna alone used to say adsentio in the senate, and 
later many followed his example, yet could not 
prevail over usage." 

(10) But this same Varro in other books' wrote a 
great deal in defence of Regularity. 

Fragments of Books XI-XXIV" 

Fr. 6. Where the authority of our ancestors has not 
sho-wn you the gender of a word, what in this instance 
must be done ? \'arro \\Tote, in the treatise addressed 
to Cicero : " We men have the right and power to 
give genders to the names of those things which by 
nature have no gender." " 

Fr. 7a. Now let us speak of genders, ^'arro says : 
" Genera ' genders ' are named from generare ' to 
generate.' For whatever gignit ' begets ' or gignitur 
' is begotten,' that can be called a genus and can 

XI.-XXIV. « On Books XI.-XIII., see also vii. 1 10, viii. 2, 
20, 34, X. 33 ; and on Books XIV.-XXV., see vii. 1 10. 

Fr. 6. " Varro uses genus both for grammatical gender 
and for natural sex ; each is a ' kind ' or ' cleiss,' c/. Frag. 7, 
note a. 



Quod si verum est, nulla potest res integrum genus 
habere nisi masculinum et femininum. 

Fr. 7b.* Tractat de generibus. Varro ait "genera 
tantum ilia esse quae generant : ilia proprie dicuntur 
genera." Quodsi sequemur auctoritatem ipsius, non 
erunt genera nisi duo, masculinum et femininum. 
Nulla enim genera creare possunt nisi haec duo. 

Fr. 8.^ Ostrea* si primae declinationis fuerit, sicut 
Musa, feminino genere declinabitur, ut ad anima/^ 
referamus ; si* ad testam, ostreum* dieendum est 
neutro genere et ad secundam declinationem, ut sit 
huius ostrei, huic ostreo,* quia dicit^ Varro " nuUam 
rem animalem neutro genere declinari." 

Fr. 9-^ Ait Plinius Secundus secutus Varronem : 
" Quando dubitamus principale genus, redeamus ad 
diminutionem, et ex diminutivo cognoscimus princi- 
pale genus. Puta arbor ignoro cuius generis sit : 
fac diminutivum arbuscula, ecce hinc intellegis et 
principale genus quale sit. Item si dicas columna, 

* Pompeius, Commentum Artis Donati, v. 159. 23-26 Keil. 

Fr. 8. ^ Cledonius, Ars Gramviatica, v. 41. 24-28 Keil. 

* For ostria. * Keil, for animam. * For sic. * For 
ostrium. * Keil, for sicui ostri. ' For dicitur. 

Fr. 9. ^ Pompeius, Commentum Artis Donati, v. 164. 13- 
18 Keil. 

Fr. 7. " The root gen- lies at the basis of all these words ; 
but genus has the weakened meaning ' kind, class,' from 
which the idea of ' begetting ' has faded out. * Donatus, 
the eminent grammarian who flourished about 350 a.d. 

* That is, ' kinds ' : cf. Frag. 6, note a. 

Fr. 8. " This distinction is not borne out by the use of the 
words in the Latin authors. * Almost precisely true for 
Latin, though there are many exceptions in Greek and in the 
Germanic languages {cf. rixvov, German das Kind, and the 
neuter diminutives in -lov, -chen, -lein). 



produce a genus." " If this is true, then the genus 
that a thing has is not perfect unless it is masculine 
or feminine. 

Fr. 7b. He* treats of genders. Varro says :" Only 
those are genera ' genders ' which generant ' generate ' ; 
those are properly called genera." But if we follow 
his authority, there will be only two genders, mascu- 
line and feminine. For no genders ^" can procreate 
except these two. 

Fr. 8. If osirea 'oyster' is of the first declension, 
like Musa ' Muse,' it ^\^ll be declined in the feminine 
gender, so that we refer the word to the U\ing being ; 
if we use it for the shell, then the word must be 
ostreum, inflected in the neuter and according to 
the second declension, so that it is genitive ostrei, 
dative ostreo " : because Varro says : " No Uving 
creature has a name which is inflected in the neuter 
gender." * 

Fr. 9- Plinius Secundus " says, following Varro : 
" When we are in doubt about the gender of a main 
word, let us turn to the diminutive form, and from 
the diminutive we learn the gender of the main word.* 
Suppose that I do not know the gender of arbor 
' tree ' ; form the diminutive arhuscula, and lo ! 
from this you observe as well the gender of the word 
from which it comes. Again, if you say, WTiat is the 

Fr. 9. " This and subsequent citations from Pliny are 
taken from the Elder Pliny's I>ubius Sermo, a work in eight 
books, mentioned by the Younger Pliny, Epist. iii. 5. 5. 
* Diminutives have in Latin the gender of the words from 
which they are derived ; the exceptions are very few. In 
Greek and in the Germanic languages, however, diminutives 
are commonly neuter without regard to their primitives ; ef. 
Frag. 8, note b. 



cuius generis est ? facis inde diminutivum, id est 
columella, et inde intellegis quoniam principale 
feminini generis est." 

Fr. 10.^ " //ypocorismata semper generibus suis 
und<e oriuntur consonant, pauca dissonant, velut 
haec rana) hie ranunculus, hie ung(u>is haec ungula, 
h<oc glandium haec glandula, hie panis hie pastillus 
et> hoc pastillum," ut Varro dixit : " haec beta hie 
betace(us, haec malva hie malvaceus), hoc pistrinum 
haec pistrilla, ut Terentius in Ad(elphis, hie ensis 
haec ensicula et hie ensiculus) : sic in Rudente 

Fr. 11.^ Dies communis generis est. Qui mascu- 
lino genere dicendum putaverunt, has causas reddi- 
derunt, quod dies festos auctores dixerunt, non festas, 
et' quartum et quintum Kalendas, non quartam nee 
quintam, et cum hodie dicimus, nihil aliud quam hoc 
die intelligitur.' Qui vero feminino, eatholico utun- 
tur, quod ablativo casu E non nisi producta finiatur, 

Fr. 10. 1 Charisius, Instit. Gram. i. 37. 13-18 Keil. The 
right-hand edge of the mantiscript is destroyed, but the restora- 
tions are made with certainty from almost verbatim repetitions 
Charisius i. 90. 10-12, 155. 14-17, 535. 21-25, 551. 36-38 Keil, 
in which Varro is not mentioned as the source. Hie pastillus, 
required by the spcu;e, was added by Keil from i. 90. 11, i. 
94. 4. 

Fr. 11. ^ Charisius, Instit. Gram. 1. 110. 8-16 Keil. 
* For ut. * For intellegatur. 

Fr. 10. " As substantive, for pes betaceus : but betaceus is 
an adjective, not a diminutive. '' Also an adjective ; its 
application as substantive is not known. ' Adelphoe 584. 

'Rudens 1156-U57. 

Fr. 11. " Dies was by origin a masculine ; in Latin, 
because it was declined like the feminines of the fifth de- 
clension, possiblj' also because its counterpart nox was 



gender of columna ' column ' ?, make from it the 
diminutive, that is, columella, and therefrom you 
understand that the word from which it comes is of the 
feminine gender." 

Fr. 10. " Diminutives always agree in gender 
with the words from which they come : a few differ, 
such as fem. rana ' frog,' diminutive masc. ranunculus 
'tadpole '; masc. unguis 'nail (of finger or toe),' fem. 
ungula ' hoof, talon ' ; neut. glandium ' kernel of 
pork ', fem. glandula ' tonsil ' ; masc. pants ' loaf 
of bread,' masc. pastillus and neut. pastillum ' roll,' " 
as Varro said ; " fem. beta ' beet,' masc. betaceus " 
' beet-root ' ; fem. malva ' mallow,' masc. malvaceus ^ 
' mallow-like vegetable ' ; neut. pistrinum ' pound- 
ing-mill,' fem. pistrilla ' small mill,' as Terence says 
in The Brothers '^ ; masc. ensis ' sword,' fem. ensicula 
and masc. ensiculus ' toy -sword ' : so Plautus in The 
Rope.'^ " 

Fr. 1 1 . Dies ' day ' is of common gender." Those 
who thought that it must be used as a masculine, 
offered these reasons : that their authorities said dies 
festi 'hoHdays,' with the mascuHne adjective, not the 
fem. festae ; that they said the fourth and the fifth day 
before the Kalends, ** with the masculine and not the 
feminine form of the adjective ; and that when we 
say kodie ' to-day,' it is understood as hoc die ' on this 
day,' %\-ith the masculine article," and nothing else. 
On the other hand, those who regard dies as feminine, 
use the general argument, that in the ablative the 

feminine, it acquired use as a feminine in some meanings. 
* Full phrase : ante diem quartum (quintum) Kalendas. 
' The demonstrative was an ' article,' in the grammatical 
terminology of the Romans ; cf. viii. 4a. 



et quod deminutio eius diecula sit, non dieculus, ut 
ait Terentius : 

Quod tibi addo dieculam. 

Varro autem distinxit, ut* masculino genere unius 
diei cursum significare(t>, feminino autem temporis 
spatium ; quod nemo servavit. 

Fr. 12.^ Catinus masculino genere dicitur . . . et 
hinc deminutive catillus fit. . . . Sed Varro ad 
Ciceronem XI " catinuli " dixit, non catilli. 

Fr. 13.^ Ncevus generis neutri, sed Varro ad 
Ciceronem " hie naevus." 

Fr. 14a.^ Antiquissimi tamen et hie gausapes et 
haec gausapa et hoc gausape et plurale neutri haec 
gausapa quasi a nominativo hoc gausapum protulisse 
inveniuntur, . . . Varro vero de Lingua Latina ait, 
" talia ex Graeco sumpta ex masculino in femininum 
transire et A litera finiri : o KoxAias haec cochlea, 
o x«P'''^5 haec charta, 6 yava-aTrrj^ haec gausapa." 

Fr. 14b.* Varro autem ait " vocabula ex Graeco 
sumpta, si suum genus non retineant, ex masculino 
in femininum Latine transire et A littera terminari 

* For et, 

Fr. 12. 1 Charisms, Instit. Gram. i. 79. 23-80. 4 Keil. 

Fr. 13. 1 De Dubiis Nominibus, v. 584. 27 Keil. 

Fr. 14. ^ Priscian, Inst. Gram. ii. 333. 9-14 Keil. 

* Charisius, Inst. Gram. i. 104. 13-16 Keil. 

•* But this masculine diminutive was used in Oscan. 
' Andria 710. ^ That is, a short space of time, as a 



word ends in a long E, never in a short E ; and that 
its diminutive is the feminine diecula (not the mascu- 
line dieculus **), as Terence has it * : 

That to you I give a daytime.' 

But Varro made the distinction, that in the masculine 
it means the course of one day, in the feminine a 
space of time : a distinction to which nobody has 
conformed in practice. 

Fr. 12. Catinus ' bowl ' is used in the masculine 
gender . . . and from it is made the diminutive catillus. 
. . . But Varro, in the eleventh book of his treatise 
addressed to Cicero, sp>onsored the form catinuU, and 
not catilU. 

Fr. 13. Naevus ' mole, wart,' is of the neuter 
gender " ; but ^'arro in the treatise addressed to 
Cicero uses it as a masculine. 

Fr. 14a. Yet the oldest writers are found to have 
employed masculine gausapes ' cloth,' and feminine 
gausapa, and neuter gausape, and a neuter plural 
gausapa as if from a neuter nominative singular ga«*a- 
pum. . . . But Varro in his treatise On the Latin 
Language says : " Such words, when taken from 
Greek, pass from the masculine to the feminine, and 
end in the letter A : fem. cochlea ' snail ' from masc. 
Ko\Xtas, fem. charta ' paper ' from masc. X'^P^V'^' 
fem. gausapa from masc. yaiia-dirqs." 

Fr. 14b. But \'arro says : " Words taken from 
Greek, if they do not keep their own gender, pass 
from the masculine to the feminine in Latin and end 
in the letter A, like cochlea from Kox\ia<;,herma ' pillar- 

Fr. 13. " Apparently an error ; nasmis is always 

VOL. II R 609 


velut KoxAtas cochlea, ^^p/xijs herma, X^P''"'!'^ charta, 
ergo yavcraTrrys gausapa." 

Fr. 14c.' Margarita feminini generis est, quia 
Graeca nomina -)/s terminata in A transeunt et fiunt 
feminina, ut 6 x^P'''*/^ haec charta, /xapyapiVv/s mar- 
garita, aut communia, ut u^Av/riys athleta. Ergo 
neutrahter hoc margaritum dicere vitiosum est ; et 
tamen multi dixerunt, ut \ algius . . . et Varro 
Epistularum* VIII " margaritum unum, margarita 
plura." Sed idem Varro saepe et ahi plures mar- 
garita feminine dixerunt ; in genetivo tamen plurali 
non nisi feminino genere margaritarum. 

Fr. 15.^ VAS terminata et SIS faciunt genitivo et 
DIS, hoc vas huius vasis ; utrumque Varro ait de 
Lingua Latina : hie vas huius vadis. 

Fr. 16.^ VIS et ipsa tertiae sunt declinationis et 
similem nominativo faciunt genetivum, (hic)^ civis 
huius civis, haec vis huius vis et pluraU hae vis, sicut 
<Luc>retius* et Varro : nam hae vires numero semper 
plurali declinantur. 

Fr. 17.^ M. Varronem et P. Nigidium, viros 
Romani generis doctissimos, comperimus non aliter 

' Charisuts, Inst. Gram. i. 108. 4-12 Keil. * Or Epistu- 
licarum; c/. Charisius, i. 104. 21 Keil. 

Fr. 15. 1 Probus, Catholica iv. 30. 26-27 Keil. 

Fr. 16. 1 Probus, Catholica iv. 30. 30-31 . 2 Keil. « Ad- 
ditions/ram Priscian, ii. 24.9. 9-10 Keil. 

Fr. 17. 1 Auhis Gellius, Noct. Att. iv. 16. 1 ; Rolfe's text, 
in the Loeb Classical Library. 

Fr. 14. "A sculptured head, originally of a bearded 
Hermes, at the top of a rectangular pillar. * On the title 


FRAGMENTS, 14b-17 

bust ' " from 'Epfirj^, charia from \dpTrj<i, therefore 
gausapa from yai-o-a—jy?." 

Fr. 14<;. Margarita ' pearl ' is of the feminine 
gender, because Greek nouns ending in -7^5 change to 
A and become feminine, like fem. charta from masc. 
Xa.pTr]<s, margarita from fiapyapirrj^, or else they are of 
common gender, like athleta ' athlete ' from adXr^Ti]^. 
Therefore to use margaritum as a neuter is \vTong ; 
and yet many have done so, like \algius . . . and \ arro 
in the eighth book of his Letters^: " One margaritum^ 
several margarita." But \'arro likew-ise often used 
viargarita in the feminine, and so did many others ; 
and in the genitive plural they never used any form 
except the feminine margaritarum. 

Fr. 15. Nouns ending in VAS *• make the genitive 
in -SIS and -DIS : neuter nom. vas ' vessel,' gen. vasis. 
\'arro mentions both in his tratise On the Latin Lan- 
guage, the other being masc. vas ' bondsman,' gen. 

Fr. 16. Nouns ending in VIS are also of the third 
declension and make the genitive Uke the nomina- 
tive : civis ' citizen,' gen. civis ; nom. vis ' force,' 
gen. vis, and also nom. plural vis, used by Lucretius " 
and \'arro ; for the plural vires is always inflected in 
the plural number. 

Fr. 17." I learn that Marcus Varro and Publius 
Nigidius,'' the most learned of all the Romans, always 

of this work, see the critical note, and F. Ritschl, Rhein. 
Miis. vi. 537. 

Fr. 15. "» The only word with this ' ending ' is the word 
vas, which is in reality two distinct words. 

Fr. 16. " iii. 265 ; also ace. pi. vis, ii. 586. 

Fr. 17. " Rolfe's translation, in the Loeb Classical Library, 
with modifications. * Operum RelL, frag. 63 Swoboda. 



elocutos esse et scripsisse quam senatuis et domuis et 
fluctuis, qui est patrius casus ab eo quod est senatus, 
domus, fluctus ; huic senatui, domui, fluctui, ce- 
teraque is eonsimilia pariter dixisse. 

Fr. 18.^ Amni Maro, 

Secundo defluit amni. 
Ubi Plinius eodem libro " Ab antiquis " inquit " quos 
Varro reprehendit, observatio omnis ilia damnata est, 
non quidem in totum. Dicimus enim," inquit, " ab 
hoc canali siti tussi febri. Maiore tamen ex parte 
forma mutata est. Ab hoc enim cane orbe carbone 
turre falce igne veste fine monte fonte ponte strig<i>le 
tegete ave asse axe nave classe dicimus." 

Fr. 19-* Quern Plinius ad eundem XI " rure 
ordinatum arbustum "* dixisse laudat. 

Fr. 20.^ Fonteis* : " Quorum nominum genetivi 
pluralis ante UM syllabam I litteram merebuntur, 

Fr. 18. ^ Charisius, Inst. Gram. i. 122. 23-29 Keil. 

Fr. 19. ^ Charisius, Inst. Gram. 1. 142. 20-21 Keil. 

* For ambustum. 

Fr. 20. ^ Charisius, Inst. Gram. i. 129. 19-24 Keil. 

* For fontis. 

Fr. 18. " Georg. iii. 447. * The rule, stated at i. 120. 
19-24 Keil, is that nouns with genitives ending in is have the 
ablative in e, unless the genitive is identical with the nomina- 
tive, when the ablative ends in i ; an adjective also has the 
ablative in i if it stands before a noun which it modifies. The 
scientific formulation is that consonant-stems should have 
short e in the ablative, and «-stems should have long / : a 
status much disturbed by the encroachment of the «-ending 
on the t-ending. ' Not all these should, by the ' rule,' 

end in i ; for carbo, falx, mons, fans, pons, teges do not have 
identical nom. and gen. ; and the nom. of asse is as, very 
rarely assis. As to the actual forms of the ablative, igni is 
commoner than igne ; orbi, turri,fini, strigili, avi, axi, navi, 



said and ■wTOte senatuis, domuis, and Jiuctuis as the 
genitive case of the words senatus ' senate,' domus 
' house,' and Jluctus ' wave,' and used senatui, domui, 
jiuctui as the dative ; and that they used other simi- 
lar words •with the corresponding endings. 

Fr. 18. Avini was used by \'ergil " as ablative of 
amnis ' river,' as in 

He drifts with the stream of the river. 

On this point, PUny in the same book says : "By the 
old wTiters, whom \'arro criticizes adversely, all 
observance of the rule * is disregarded, yet not 
utterly. For we still say," says he, " canali ' canal,' 
siti ' thirst,' tussi ' cough,' fehri ' fever ' as the abla- 
tive forms. But in most words the form has been 
changed, and uses the ablative which ends in E : 
cane ' dog,' orbe ' circle,' carbone ' charcoal,' turre 
' tower,' falce ' sickle,' igne ' fire,' veste ' garment,' 
Jine ' Umit,' monte ' mountain,' fonte ' spring,' ponte 
' bridge,' strigile ' scraper,' tegete ' mat,' ave ' bird,' 
asse ' as,' axe ' axle,' nave ' ship,' classe ' fleet.' " " 

Fr. 19. Varro, whom PUny mentions as having 
said, in the eleventh book of his treatise addressed to 
Cicero " a plantation of trees set in rows rure'^ ' in 
the country.' " 

Fr. 20. Fonteis ' springs,' accusative plural spelled 
i»ith EIS : " The nouns which gain an I in the genitive 
plural before the ending UM," says PUny, " have the 

classi are found in authors of the first century b.c, but are 
less common than the forms with «, or are used to satisfy 
metrical requirements ; ponti is found once in older Latin ; 
monti and /on^t are cited by Varro, ix. 112. 

Fr. 19. " Instead of the usual locative form ruri. 



accusativus," inquit Plinius, " per EIS loquetur, 
montium monteis ; licet Varro," inquit, " exemplis 
hanc regulam confutare temptarit istius modi, falcium 
falces, non faleeis facit, nee has merceis, nee hos axeis 
Itntreis ventreis stirpeis urbeis corfeeis' vecteis men- 
teis.* Et tamen manus dat praemissae regulae 
ridicule, ut exceptis his nominibus valeat regula." 

Fr. 21.^ Poematorum et in II et in III idem Varro 
adsidue dicit et his poematis, tam quam nominativo 
hoc poematum sit et non hoc poema. Nam et ad 
Ciceronem XI, horum poematorum et his poematis 
oportere dici. 

Fr. 22.^ Git : Varro ad Ciceronem XI per omnes 
casus id nomen ire debere conmeminit ; vulgo autem 
hoc gitti dicunt. 


Fr. 23.^ Palpetras per T Varro ad Ciceronem 
XIII dixit. Sed Fabianus de Animalibus primo pal- 
pebras per B. Alii dicunt palpetras genas, palpebras 
autem ipsos pilos. 

' For curueis. * GS., for inepteis, c/. viii. 67. 

Fr. 21. 1 Charisius, Inst. Gram. i. 141. 29-31 Keil. 
Fr. 22. ^ Charisius, Inst. Gram. i. 131. 7-8 Keil. 
Fr. 23. ^ Charisius, Inst. Gram. i. 105. 14-16 Keil. 

Fr. 20. " This EI does not represent an earlier diphthong, 
but was often written for a long i after the original diphthong 
had becomte identical in sound with the long i. There are 
scattered examples of the ending EIS in the accusative, found 
in inscriptions and manuscripts. 



accusative in EIS," like genitive montium ' mountains,' 
accusative monteis ; although \'arro," he continues, 
" tried to refute this rule by examples of the follo^Ning 
sort : to the genitive ya/««/« ' sickles ' the accusative 
is falces and not falceis, nor is the proper spelUng 
merceis ' wares,' nor axeis ' axles,' lintreis ' skiffs,' 
venireis ' belUes,' stirpeis ' stocks,' urbeis ' cities,' 
corbels ' baskets,' vecteis ' levers,' vienteis ' minds.' 
And yet he gives up the fight against the aforesaid 
rule in a ridiculous fashion, saying that apart from 
these nouns the rule holds." 

Fr. 21. In the second and the third books Varro 
constantly uses the genitive poematorum ' poems ' and 
the dative poematis, as though the word were poema- 
tum in the nominative and not poema. For in the 
eleventh book of the treatise addressed to Cicero he 
says that genitive poematorum and dative poematis are 
the proper forms to be used. 

Fr. 22. Git ' fennel ' " : \arro in the eleventh 
book of the treatise addressed to Cicero states that 
this form ought to be used in all the cases ; but 
people quite coHunonly say gitii in the ablative, 


Fr. 23. \'arro in the thirteenth book of the treatise 
addressed to Cicero used palpetrae, with T. But 
Fabianus," in the first book On Animals, wrote palpe- 
brae with B. Others say that palpetrae means the 
eyeUds, and palpebrae the eyelashes. 

Fr. 22. " yigella sativa. 

Fr. 23. " Papirius Fabianus, who wrote on philosophy 
and on natural history in the time of Augustus. 



Fr. 24.^ Oxo : " Varro ad Ciceronem XIII olivo 
et oxo putat fieri," inquit Plinius Sermonis Dubii 
libro VI. 


Fr. 25.^ Indiscriminatim, indifferenter. Varro de 
Lingua Latina lib. XVIII : " Quibus nos in hoc libro, 
proinde ut nihil intersit, utemur indiscriminatim, 


Fr. 26.^ Rure Terentius in Eunucho : 

Ex meo propinquo rure hoc capio commodi. 
Itaque et Varro ad Ciceronem XXII " rure veni." 


Fr. 27.^ Varro ad Ciceronem in libro XXIII : 
" ingluvies tori," inquit, " sunt circa gulam, qui 
propter pinguedinem fiunt atque interiectas habent 
rugas." Sed nunc pro gula positum. 

Fr. 24. 1 Charisnis, Inst. Gram. i. 139. 15-16 Keil. 
Fr. 25. ^ Nonius Marcellus, de Compendiosa Doctrina, 
127. 24-26 M. 
Fr. 26. 1 Charisius, Inst. Gram. i. 142. 18-20 Keil. 
Fr. 27. ^ Serv. Dan. in Georg. iii. 431. 

Fr. 24. " Antecedent unknown. * Greek o^o^ (neuter, 
third decl.), denoting sour wine, and vinegar made therefrom. 

Fr. 25. " Antecedent unknown. 

Fr. 26. " 971. * These are examples of rure as a pure 
ablative. The continuation is our Fragment 19, in which 
examples of rure as a locative are discussed. 

Fr. 27. " That is, double chins. 



Fr. 24. 0x0, ablative : " Varro, in the thirteenth 
book of the treatise addressed to Cicero, expresses 
the opinion that it " is composed of olive-oil and oxos * 
' vinegar,' " says Pliny in the sixth book of the treatise 
entitled Variations in Speech. 


Fr. 25. Indiscriminatim means ' without differ- 
ence.' Varro in the eighteenth book of the treatise 
On the Latin Language says : " Which " in this book 
we shall use indiscriminatim ' without distinction,' 
promiscuously, just as if there were no difference 
between them." 


Fr. 26. The ablative rare is used by Terence in 
the Eunuchus " : 

I get this comfort from my near-by country-seat. 

So also Varro, in the twenty-second book of the 
treatise addressed to Cicero, says : " I have come 
rure ' from the country.' " * 


Fr. 27. Varro, in the twenty-third book of the 
treatise addressed to Cicero, says : " The ingluvies is 
the bulging muscles around the throat, which are 
produced by fatness and have creases between 
them." " But now the word is used merely for the 



Fr. 28.^ (1) Cum in disciplinas dialecticas induci 
atque imbui vellemus, necessus fuit adire atque 
cognoscere quas vocant dialectic! «lo-ayojyas. (2) 
Turn, quia in primo Trepl d^tw/vtaToji' discendum, quae 
M. Varro alias profata, alias proloquia appellat, Com- 
mentarium de Proloquiis L. Aclii, docti hominis, qui 
magister ^"arronis fuit, studiose quaesivimus eumque 
in Pacis Bibliotheca repertum legimus. (3) Sed in 
eo nihil edocenter neque ad instituendum explanate 
scriptuni est, fecisseque videtur eum librum Aelius 
sui magis admonendi quam aliorum docendi gratia. 

(4) Redimus igitur necessario ad Graecos libros. 
Ex quibus accepimus a^i'w/ia esse his verbis (defini- 
tum) : XeKTOv avTOTekk<i uTrd^avTOV oa-ov ecf) avTM. 
(5) Hoc ego supersedi vertere, quia no vis et incon- 
ditis vocibus Htendum fuit, quas pati aures per inso- 
lentiam vix possent. (6) Sed M. Varro in libro de 
Lingua Latina ad Ciceronem quarto vicesimo ex- 
p^ditissime ita finit : " Proloquium est sententia in 
qua nihil desideratur." 

(7) Erit auteni planius quid istud sit, si exemplum 
eius dixerimus. 'A^tw/xa igitur, sive id proloquium 
dicere placet, huiuscemodi est : Hannibal Poenus 
fuit ; Scipio Numantiam delevit ; Milo caedis 
damnatus est ; Neque bonum est voluptas neque 
malum ; (8) et omnino quicquid ita dicitur plena 
atque perfecta verborum sententia, ut id necesse sit 
aut verum aut falsum esse, id a dialecticis a^tw/Aa 

Fr. 28. ^ Aulus Gellhis, Nodes Atticae, xvi. 8. 1-14 ; 
Rolfe''s text, in the Loeh Classical Library. 

Fr. 28. " Rolfe's translation, in the Loeb Classical Library, 
with modifications. * In Vespasian's Temple of Peace, in 
the Forum Pacis. " Page 75 Funaioli. 


Fr. 28." (1) When I wished to be introduced to 
the science of logic and instructed in it, it was neces- 
sary to take up and learn what the logicians call 
ewraywyat, or ' introductory exercises.' (2) Then 
because at first I had to learn about axioms, which 
Marcus \'arro calls, now prqfata or ' propositions,' and 
now proloquia or ' forthright statements,' I sought 
diligently for the Commentary on Proloquia of Lucius 
Aelius, a learned man, who was the teacher of \'arro ; 
and finding it in the Library of Peace,* I read it. 
(3) But I found in it nothing that was written to 
instruct or to make the matter clear ; Aelius '^ seems to 
have made that book rather as suggestions for his o>vn 
use than for the purpose of teaching others. 

(4) I therefore of necessity returned to my Greek 
books. From these I obtained this definition of an 
axiom : "a proposition complete in itself, declared 
with reference to itself only." (5) This I have for- 
borne to turn into Latin, since it would have been 
necessary to use new and as yet uncoined words, such 
as, from their strangeness, the ear could hardly 
endure. (6) But Marcus Varro, in the twenty-fourth 
book of his treatise On the Latin Language, dedicated 
to Cicero, thus defines the word very briefly : " A 
proloquium is a statement in which nothing is lacking." 

(7) But his definition will be clearer if I give an 
example. An axiom, then, or a forthright state- 
ment, if you prefer, is of this kind : " Hannibal was 
a Carthaginian " ; " Scipio destroyed Numantia " ; 
" Milo was found guilty of murder " ; " Pleasure is 
neither a good nor an evil " ; (8) and in general any 
saying which is a full and perfect thought, so expressed 
in words that it is necessarily either true or false, is 
called by the logicians an axiom ; by Marcus Varro, 



appellatum est, a M. Varrone, sicuti dixi, proloquium, 
a M. autem Cicerone pronuntiatum, quo ille tamen 
vocabulo tantisper uti se adtestatus est, " quoad 
melius," inquit, " invenero." 

(9) Sed quod Graeci a-vvrjufifvov a^ioj/xa dicunt, id 
alii nostrorum adiunctum, alii conexum dixerunt. 
Id conexum tale est : Si Plato ambulat, Plato move- 
tur ; Si dies est, sol super terras est. (10) Item quod 
illi (TVfXTreTrXtyfieioy, nos vel coniunctum vel copu- 
latum dicimus, quod est eiusdemmodi : P. Scipio, 
Pauli filius, et bis consul fuit et triumphavit et censura 
functus est et coUega in censura L. Mummi fuit. 
(11) In omni autem coniuncto si unum est mendacium, 
etiamsi cetera vera sunt, totum esse mendacium 
dicitur. Nam si ad ea omnia quae de Scipione illo vera 
dixi addidero Et Hannibalem in Africa superavit, 
quod est falsum, universa quoque ilia quae coniuncte 
dicta sunt, propter hoc unum quod falsum accesserit, 
quia simul dicentur, vera non erunt. 

(12) Est item aliud quod Graeci Su^fvy/itvov d^tw/xa, 
nos disiunctum dicimus. Id huiuscemodi est : Aut 
malum est voluptas aut bonum, aut neque bonum 
neque malum est. (13) Omnia autem quae disiun- 
guntur pugnantia esse inter sese oportet, eorumque 
opposita, quae avriKiifieva Graeci dicunt, ea quoque 
ipsa inter se adversa esse. Ex omnibus quae dis- 

^ Tusc. Disp. i. 7. 14. * Two connected statements, of 
which the second follows as the result of the first. ^ This 
is the younger Africanus, who destroyed Carthage in 146 B.C.; 
it was the older Africanus who defeated Hannibal at Zama 
in 202 B.C. 


as I have said, a proloquium or ' forthright state- 
ment ' ; but by Marcus Cicero ** a pronuntiatum 
or ' pronouncement,' a word however which he 
declared that he used " only until I can find a better 

(9) But what the Greeks call a a-wrjiiyikvov d^iwfxa 
or ' connected axiom,'* some of our countrymen 
call adiunctum ' adjoined,' others call conexum ' con- 
nected.' The following are examples of this : "If 
Plato is walking, Plato is moving " ; " If it is day, 
the sun is above the earth." (10) Also what they 
call crv/iTTc-Aey/xfiov or a ' compound axiom,' we call 
coniunctum ' conjoined ' or copulatum ' coupled ' ; for 
example : " Publius Scipio, son of Paulus, was twice 
consul and celebrated a triumph, and held the 
censorship, and was the colleague of Lucius Mummius 
in his consulship." (11) But if in the whole of a pro- 
position of this kind one member is false, even if the 
others are true, the whole is said to be false. For if 
to all those true statements which I have made about 
that Scipio ^ I add " and he worsted Hannibal in 
Africa," which is false, all those other statements 
which have been made in conjunction will not be 
true, on account of this one false statement which 
has been added to them, because they will now all 
be spoken of together as one statement of fact. 

(12) There is also another form, which the Greeks 
call a Su^ii'yfj.ei'oi' d^tw/xa or 'disjunctive proposi- 
tion,' and we call disiunctum ' separated.' For 
example : " Pleasure is either good or evil, or it is 
neither good nor evil." (13) Now all statements 
which are contrasted ought to be opposed to each 
other, and their opposites, which the Greeks call 
avTiKtt'/xtia, ought also to be opposed. Of all state- 



iunguntur unum esse verum debet, falsa cetera. 
(14) Quod si aut nihil omnium verum aut omnia 
plurave quam unum vera erunt, aut quae disiuncta 
sunt non pugnabunt, aut quae opposita eorum sunt eon- 
traria inter sese non erunt, tunc id disiunctum men- 
dacium est et appellatur TrapaSte^evyfieifov, sicuti hoc 
est, in quo quae opposita non sunt contraria : Aut 
curris aut ambulas aut stas. Nam ipsa quidem 
inter se adversa sunt, sed opposita eorum non pug- 
nant : non ambulare enim et non stare et non currere 
contraria inter sese non sunt, quoniam contraria ea 
dicuntur quae simul vera esse non queunt ; possis 
simul eodemque tempore neque ambulare neque 
stare neque currere. 

Fr. 29.^ Excipiuntur haurio hausi (invenitur tamen 
etiam haurivi vel haurii ; Varro in XXI III ad 
Ciceronem : " Cum indidem haurierint "), saepio 
saepsi, . . . 

Incertae Sedis Fragm-enta 

Fr. 30a. ^ Proceres : Varro ad Ciceronem dixit 
" proceres qui processerunt ante alios, unde et pro- 
ceres tigna quae alia tigna porro excesserunt." 

Fr. 30b.* Proceres autem ideo secundum Var- 
ronem principes civitatis dicuntur, quia eminent in 

Fr. 29. ^ Priscian, Inst. Gram. ii. 540. 3-5 Keil. 
Fr. 30. ^ Schol. cod. Ambr. in Aen. iii. 58. * Serv. in 
Aen. i. 740. 

Fr. 29. ," To the rule that in the fourth conjugation the 
perfect is formed by changing the is of the second person 
singular of the present, to ivi or ii; cf. Priscian, ii. 539. 8-11 

FRAGMENTS, 28-30b 

ments which are contrasted, one ought to be true and 
the rest false. (14.) But if none at all of them is true, 
or if all, or more than one, are true, or if the con- 
trasted things are not at odds, or if those which are 
opposed to each other are not contrary, then that 
is a false contrast, and is called TrapaSu^evyfihov or 
' WTong-disjunctive.' For instance, this case, in 
which the things which are opposed are not con- 
traries : " Either you run or you walk or you stand." 
These acts are indeed contrasted, but their oppo- 
sites are not contrary ; for ' not to walk ' and ' not to 
stand ' and ' not to run ' are not contrary to one 
another, since those things are called ' contraries ' 
which cannot be true at the same time. But you 
may together and at the same time neither walk nor 
stand nor run. 

Fr. 29. Exceptions " are kaurio ' I draw off,' 
perfect kausi (yet haurivi or haurii also is found ; 
\'arro, in the twenty-fourth book of the treatise 
addressed to Cicero, says " when they haurierint 
' have drained ' from the same "), saepio 'I fence in,' 
perfect saepsi, , . . 

Fragments of Undeterminable Position 

Fr. 30a. Proceres : Varro in the treatise addressed 
to Cicero said that proceres are those who processerunt 
' have advanced ' ahead of others," whence also those 
beams are called proceres which project beyond the 
other beams.* 

Fr. 30b. Proceres however, according to Varro, 
is a name applied to leaders of the state, because they 

Fr. 30. ° Wrong etymology. » The ends of the rafters 
project beyond the Une of the wall on which they rest. 



ea, sicut in aedificiis mutuli quidam, hoc est capita 
trabium, quae proceres nominantur. 

Fr. 31 a. ^ Senior : secundum Varronem senior et 
iunior comparativi sunt per inminutionem. . . . Ergo 
senior non satis senex, sicut iunior non satis iuvenis, 
intra iuvenem, sicut pauperior intra pauperem. Dicit 
autem hoc Varro in libris ad Ciceronem. 

Fr. 31b.^ lam senior : aut pro positive posuit, 
id est senex, aut, ut diximus, senior est virens senex, 
ut iunior intra iuvenem est : quam rem a Varrone 
tractatam confirmat et Plinius. 

Fr. 32.^ In summo vero constructionis eius, quam 
similem navaU carinae diximus, caput conlocavit, in 
quo esset regimen totius animantis, datumque illi hoc 
nomen est, ut quidem Varro ad Ciceronem scribit, 
quod hinc capiant initium sensus ac nervi. 

Fr. 33.^ Non nulli proprie calamos lupinorum 
alas dici putant, ut Aelius : alae ex lupino, s(urculi 
sine fo)liis ; Cato in Originibus : alae ex lup(ino) 
leg<umine ; V^arro) de Lingua Latina alam culmum 
fabae dic<i docet). 

Fr. 34.^ Haec de quattuor coniugationibus quae 

Fr. 31. ^ Serv. in Aen. v. 409. * Serv. in Aen. vi. 304. 

Fr. 32. ^ Lactantius, de Opificio Dei, v, 6. 

Fr. 33. ^ Serv. Dan. in Georg. i. 75. 

Fr. 34. 1 Diomedes, Ars Gram. i. 371. 23-26 Keil. 

Fr. 31. " Such a comparative expresses something which 
is not even as great as the positive : smaller is a typical 
example; but this feature of s^Wior is not clear. *" In both 

passages of the Aeneid the senior is still physically vigorous : 
the boxer Entellus, the ferryman Charon. 

Fr. 32. " The backbone of man. '' Wrong etymology. 


FRAGMENTS, 30b-34 

stand out in it, just as in buildings certain mutules, 
that is, heads of beams, stand out, which are called 

Fr. 31a. Senior : according to Varro, senior and 
tuntor are comparatives of diminution.". . , Therefore 
senior is not a man who is completely old, just as a 
iunior is not an entirely youthful person, but one not 
quite as much as a iuvenis ' young man,' as a pauperior 
' poorer ' person is not even as much as pauper ' poor. ' 
Varro says this in the books addressed to Cicero. 

Fr. 31b. lam senior ' now older ' : either he set 
this as a positive, namely senex, or, as we have said, a 
senior is a vigorous old man,*" as a iunior is one not yet 
a youth. The matter is mentioned by Varro, and is 
confirmed by Pliny. 

Fr. 32. But at the top of this edifice," which we 
have said was like a ship's keel, he set the caput 
' head,' in which there was to be the guidance of the 
whole creature, and the name caput was given to it, 
as indeed \'arro A\Tites in the treatise addressed to 
Cicero, because from it the senses and the nerves 
capiunt ' take ' their start. ^ 

Fr. 33. Some think that the steins of lupines are 
properly called alae " ' wings ' ; thus Aelius ^ : " alae of 
lupine, shoots without leaves " ; Cato in the Origins '^ : 
" alae of lupine pulse " ; \'arro in the treatise On the 
Latin Language instructs us that the stalk of the 
bean is called an ala. 

Fr. 34. With regard to the four conj ugations , these 

Fr. 33. " Properly, the places where the branches or 
shoots start from the stem. * Page 59 Funaioli. « Frag. 
122 Peter. 

VOL II. s 625 


pertinent ad verba quae analogiae parent, quarum 
exempla passim perscripta sunt et sunt nota. Quae 
siquis conceperit animo, non facile labetur. Sunt 
enim evidenter exposita et Varroni Menippeo. 

Fr. 35.^ Sapio tarn sapui vel sapii quam sapivi 
protulisse auctores inveniuntur ; Probo tamen sapui 
placet dici, Charisio sapui vel sapivi, Aspro sapivi et 
sapii secundum Varronem, quod Diomedes etiam 

Fr. 36.^ Sunt alia verba, quibus desunt diversa 
tempora, usu deficiente, non ratione significationis, 
Et quibusdam deest praeteritum perfectum et omnia, 
quae ex eo nascuntur, ut ferio sisto tollo fero aio furo, 
quod Varro ponit. Ergo aliorum verborum perfectis, 
quae videntur eandem significationem habere, pro 
his utimur. 

Fr. 37.^ Puer et in feminino sexu antiqui dicebant, 
ut Graeci 6 Trais Kal rj Trais ; ut in Odyssia vetere, 
quod est antiquissimum carmen : 

Mea puer,* quid verbi ex tuo ore audio ? 

Fr. 35, 1 Priscian, Inst. Gram. ii. 499. 17-19 Keil. 

Fr. 36. ^ Priscian, Inst. Gram. ii. 418. 27-419. 2 Keil. 

Fr. 37. 1 Charisius, Inst. Gram. i. 84. 5-1 1 Keil. " The 
verse is quoted with mea puera and supra fugit {for audio) 
by Priscian, ii. 231. 10 Keil. 

Fr. 34. " The rules for the formation of the perfect active. 
* Varro, as author of the Menippean Satires, is sometimes 
called Varro Menippeus, as here ; but the present passage 
may be textually corrupt. 


are the principles ** applying to the verbs which obey 
Regularity ; examples are set down everywhere and 
are well known. Anyone who has mastered them will 
easily avoid error. P'or they are set forth clearly also 
by Varro of the Menippean Satire.* 

Fr. 35. To sapio ' I am wise,' authors are found to 
have employed as perfect sapui or sapii as well as 
sapivi ; yet Probus " prefers sapui, Charisius * sapui 
or sapivi, Asper sapivi or sapii in reliance on Varro, a 
view which Diomedes " also approves. 

Fr. 36. There are other verbs, which lack different 
tenses ; it is the use of a form that is lacking, the 
reason for the meaning exists. Certain verbs lack the 
perfect and all the forms made from it ; such are 
ferio ' I strike,' sisto ' I put,' tollo ' I pick up,' ^ero ' I 
bear,' aio ' I say,' Juro ' I am mad ' — a list which 
Varro sets down. Therefore for the perfects of these 
verbs we use the perfects of other verbs which seem 
to have the same meaning." 

Fr. 37. Puer ' boy ' the ancients used to use also 
as a feminine, like the Greek irals, masc. meaning 
' boy ' and fem. meaning ' girl ' ; as in the old 
Odyssey,'^ a very ancient poem : 

My child, what word is this I hear fall from your lips ? 

Fr. 35. « C/. iv. 36. 12 Keil. » i. 246. 11 Keil. « i. 
369. 25 Keil. All these four grammarians belong to the 
fourth century a.d. 

Fr. 36. " The text then cites ferio percussi, sisto statui, 
tollo sustuli, /era tuliffuro insanivi. After Varro 's time, a 
perfect /«r Mi was occasionally used. 

Fr. 37. " Livius Andronicus, frag. 3 Baehrens ; R.O.L. 
ii. 24-25 Warmington. 



Et in Nelei Carmine, aeque' prisco : 

Saucia puer filia sumam ; 

ubi tamen Varro cum A puera putat dictum, sed 
Aelius <S>rilo,* magister eius, et Asinius contra. 

Fr. 38.^ Leontion et Chrysion et PAanion* ex 
neutris Graecis feminina nostri^ fecere, et Plautus 
quod dixit haec P^ronesium et Caecilius (haec>* 
Leontium. Varroni autem placet talia nomina 
dativo tantum casu et ablativo declinari, m* ceteris 
vero sic efferri ut nominativo. 

' Keil, for eoque. * For aedilius cilo. 

Fr. 38. ^ Charisius, Inst. Gram. i. 104. 1-4 Keil. * For 
thyrusion et faunion. * For neutra. * Added by 
Fabricius. ^ For de. 

" Traff. Rom. Frag., page 271 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. ii. 628-629 
Warmington. " The verse is incomplete in sense; perhaps 
the text is corrupt. "* Page 69 Funaioli. « Page 499 



And in the Song ofXeleus,'' which is equally old : 

A wounded child, a daughter, I'll take * . . . 

In this however Varro thinks that puera, with A, was 
used, but his teacher AeUus Stilo '* and Asinius * take 
the opposite view. 

Fr. 38. Leontion and Chrysion and Phanion " are 
neuters in Greek, but when we took them into Latin 
we made feminines of them ; Plautus ^ used Phrone- 
siuni <^ as a feminine, and Caecilius ^ used Leoniium 
in the same way. But Varro thinks that such nouns 
are inflected only for the dative and the ablative, and 
that in the other cases the same form as the nomina- 
tive is used.* 

Fr. 38. " Neuter diminutives, as women's names. 
" Truculentus 323. ' This and Leontium, with Latin -um 
replacing the Greek -on. ■* Comic. Rom. Frag., page 93 
Ribbeck*. • That is, nom. ace voc in -um, dat. abl. in 
-o, gen. lacking. 


Comparative Table of the Fragment Numbers 

K =the present edition. 
GS = Goetz and Schoell, edition of 1910. 
F = Funaioli, Grammaticae Romanae Fragmenta, 1907. 
W = Wilmanns, de M. Terenti Varronls lihris grammaticis, 










































.'•'«( J^l 


















































































































References are to Book (Roman numeral) and Section (Arabic number), 
and to Fragment (F.) and serial number (Arabic), with subdivisioiis. 

Accius, V. 21, 80 (Brutus), OS ; vi. 

80; vU. 11 ter (Philo:tetes), 14, 

15, 19, 50, (H, 6i) (Melanippus), 80 

(PhilocUtes), 83, 85, 88, 96; x. 

70 ; V. Cassius 
Aelius, V. 18, 21, 25, 66, 101 ; vL 7, 

59 ; vii. 2; viiu 81 
Afraniu-s, v. 25 (togata) 
AnnaUi, v. 74, 101 
Antipater, vi. 2 
ApoUodorus, v. 105 ; vi. 2 
Aprissius (?), vi. 68 
Aquiliu.s, vi. 89 (BoeotUi) 
Argei, see Sacra Argeorum 
Anstarchei, viii. 63 ; x. 16, 42 (ab 

Aristarcho granmiatici) 
Aristarchus, viii. 68 ; ix. 1, 43, 91 
Aristea.s, x. 75 
Aristocles, X. 10, 75 
Aristodemus, x. 75 
Aristophanes (Byzantius), v. 9 ; vi. 

2 ; ix. 12 ; X. 68 
Aristoteles, vii. 70 (cd^ /3ap- 

papiKd); viii. 11 
Atellanae, vii. 29, 84, 95 
Athenis in librit «acrorm», v. 97 
Atilius, \ii. 90, 106 
Augures, Anguria, Auspicia, v. 21, 

33, 47, 58, 85 ; vL 42, 53 bU, 64, 

76, 82 bu, 86, 91 ; vii. 6, 7, 8, 

31, 51 
Aurelius Opillus, vii. 50, 65, 67, 70, 

79, 106 
Auspicia, v. Augures 

Brutus, V. luniug 

Caecilius, vii. 103 
CaUimachu-s, v. 113; vii. 34 
Canius ( = Cassius?), vi. 81 
Carmen Ndei, F. 37 
Carmen Priami, vii. 28 
Carmen ScUiomm, see Salii 
Cassius, vi. 7 (Brutus), 81 ; vii. 72 
Cato, vii. 5S ; ix. 107 
Catullus, ^ii. 50 note 
Catulus ( = Pacuvius), vi. 6 
Censoriae Tabulae, vi. S6-87 
Chorus Proserpinae, vi. 60, 94 
Chrysippus, vi. 2, 11, 56; ix. 1 ; 

X. 59 
Claudius, viL 66, 70, 106 
Cleanthes, v. 9 
Comici, V. 62, 73 ; vi. 71, 73 
Commsnlaria Consularia, vi. 88-89 
Commentarium cetus anqnititionit, 

M. Sergii Mani t, vi. 90-92 
Cornelius, v. 148, 150 ; vii. 39 («xm- 

wentarium Naevii) 
Cosconius, vi. 36, 89 {Actionet) 
Crates, viii. 64, 6J8 ; ix. 1 

Democritus, vi. 39 
Dion, viii. 11 
Dionysius Sidonius, x. 10 
Duodecim Tabulae, v. 22, 140; vi. 
5 ; vii- 15, 51 

Ennius, v. 9, 163 
Annaleg, v. 22, 42, 55, 59, 60, 65, 
111, 182; vi. 82; vii. 6, 7, 12, 
20, 21, 26, 28, 32, 33, 36, 37, 41 



bis, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46 ter, 48, 
100, 103, 104 ter ; ix. 54 
Trag. v. 14, Ifi Ur, 23 ; vi. 6(i4jax), 
81 {Ajax), 81 (Medea), 83 (Alex- 
ander) ; vii. 6 (Hecuba), 6 (An- 
dronuwha), 9 (Medea), 12, 13, 16, 
19, 33, 49, 73, 76 (Ajax), 82 bis 
(Andrormcha), 87, 89, 93 Us, 
101 ; X. 70 
Mi'cellan^mis, v. 50 (Epicharmiis), 
60, 62 (.S'ota), 01 bis, 65, 68 (Spi- 
charmus), 86 ; vi. 61 ; vii. 35, 
71, 101, 104 ; ix. 107 

Epicurus, vi. 39 

Euripides, vii. 82 

Fasti, V. 84 

Flaccus flainen Martialis, vi. 21 

Fulvius, vi. 33 

Glossae, Glossemata, vii. 10, 34, 107 
Grammatici et similes, sine nomine 

citati, V. 30, 34, 43, 49, 51, 53, 

85, 120, 146, 147, 154, 157 ; vi. 

7, 34, 96 ; vii. 10, 17, 34, 36, 46, 

107 ; viii. 23, 44 

Hesiodus, v. 20 (Theogonia) 
Homenis, vii. 74, 85 
Hortensius, viii. 14 ; x. 78 
Hypsicrates, v. 88 

Junius Brutus, v. 5, 42, 48, 55 ; vi. 

33 bis, 95 (commentaria) 
luventius, vi. 50 ; vii. 65, 104 note 

Leges, vi. 60 ; v. Duodecim Tabulae 
Leges privatae aedificiorwn, v. 42 
Lex niancipioriim, v. 163 ; vi. 74 
Lex Plaetoria, vi. 5 
Lex praedioi-um urbanorum, v. 27 
Lex venditionis fundi, ix. 104 
Litterae antiquae, v. 143 ; vi. 33 
Livius (poeta), v. 9 ; vii. 3 
Lucilins, v. 17, 24, 44, 63, 80, 13S 
(Urbs); vi. 69; vii. 30, 32, 47 
t«r, 94, 96, 103 bis ; ix. 81 
Lutatius, V. 150 

Maccius, vii. 104 ; see Plautus 
Manilius, vii. 16 bis, 17, 28, 105 
Manlius, v. 31 
Matius, vii. 95, 96 
Mimu$, vi. 61 


Mucius Scaevola pontifex, v. 5, 83 ; 
vi. 30 ; vii. 105 

Naevius, v. 43, 53, 153; vi. 70; 
vii. 7, 23, 39, 51, 53 bis, 54 bis 
(Cemetria, Komuliis), 60 (Corol- 
laria), 70 (Fretum), 92, 107 
novies (Aesiona, Clastidiiim, 
Ihlus, Demetrius, Lampadio, 
Nagido, Rom,ulus, Stigmatias, 
Technicus), 108 ter (Tarentilla, 
Tunicularia, Bellum Punicum) ; 
ix. 78 (Clastidium) 

Nelei Carmen, v. Carmen Nelei 

Opillus, V. Aurelius 

Pacuvius, V. 7 ter, 17 bis, 24, 60; 
vi. 6 bi$, 60 (Medus), 94 (Htr- 
miona) ; vii. 6 (Periboea), 18, 22, 
34 (Medus), 59, 76, 87, 88, 91, 
Papinius ('0, vii. 28 (Epigrammation) 
Parmeniscus, x. 10 
Physici, v. 69 ; x. 55 
Piso, V. 148, 149 (Annales), 165 

Plato, vii. 37 
Plautus : 

Amph. vi. 6 ; vii. 50 

Asin. vi. 7 ; vii. 79 

Aid. V. 14, 108, 181 ; vii. 103 

Bac. vii. 16 

Cos. vii. 104, 106 

Cist. V. 72 ; vii. 64 bis, 98, 99 bis 

Cure. V. 146 ; vii. 60, 71 

Bpid. V. 131 

Men. vii. 12, 54, 56, 93 

Merc. vii. 60 

Miles, V. 108 ; vii. 52, 86 

Most. ix. 54 

Peraa, vi. 95 ; vii. 55 

Poen. V. 68 ; vii. 52, 69, 88 note 

Pseud. V. 108 ; vii. 81 

Rttd. F. 10 

Stich. V. 68 

Trin. vii. 57, 78 

True vi. 11 ; vii. 70 ; ix. 106 
Lost plays : 

Astraba, vi. 73 ; vii. 66 

Boeotia, vi. 89 

Cesistio, vii. 67 

Colax, vii. 105 

Condalium, vii. 77 


Cumicularia, v. 153 ; vii. 52 

Faeneratrix, vii. 96 

Frivolaria, v. 89 ; \'ii. 58 

FngUivi, vii. (53 

Xervohiria, vii. 65, 68 

Pagon, vii. 61 

Parasitus piger, viL 62, 77 

SiteUUergus, vii. 66 

Unnamed : vii. 38, 91, 103 
Poetae sine nomine citati, v. 1, 88 ; 
vL 11, 60, 67, 83; vii. 52; v. 
Comici, Mimus, Scaenici, Tra- 
Polybius, V. 113 
Pompilius, vii. 93 
Pontifices, v. 23. 98 
Porcius, v. 163 ; vii. 104 
Priami Carmen, v. Carmen Priami 
Procilius, v. 148, 154 
Pythagora.s, v. 11 ; vii. 17 

Sacra vel Saerificia Argeoram, v. 
47-54 ; in aliquot sacris et sactl- 
lis seriptum, vii. 84 ; v. Athenis 

Saliorum camiina, v. 110 ; vu 14, 
49 ; ^^i. 2, 3 bit, 26, 27 ; ix. 61 

Satumii versus, vii. 36 

Scaenici, vi. 76 

Scaevola, i'. Mucins 
Scenici, v. Scaenici 
Scriptores antiqui Graeci, v. 123 
Sergius, v. Commentarium 
Sibyllini libri, vi. 15 
Sisenna, viii. 73, F. 5. 9 
Sophron, v. 179 
Sueius, viL 104 bis 
Sulpicius, v. 40 

Terentius: Adel. vi. 69; vii. 84, 

F. 10 
Tragici, vi. 67 M», 72; vii. 23, 24, 


Valerius SoraniLS, vii. 31, 65 ; x. 70 
Varro : 

Antiquitatiim libri, vi. 13, 18 

De Aestuariis, ix. 26 

De Poematis, viL 36; De Poetis, 
vi 52 

Epistulae, F. 14 c 

Tribuum liber, v. 56 
Vergilii commentarium Naevi, vii. 39 
Volnios, V. 55 

Zenon Citieus, v. 59 



References are to Book (Roman numeral) and Section (Arabic number), 
and to Fragment (F.) and serial number (Arabic), with subdivisions. 

A, viii. 68 ; ix. 38, 52 ; A additum, 

V. 97 ; A exitus, x. (52 ; A littera 

finite, F. 14 a, F.^14 b ; A : E, vii. 

94; AS: ES: IS: IS, ix. 109; 

c/. B 
abacus, ix. 40 
abies, ix. 41 
aborigines, v. 53 
aboriuntur, v. 66 
abrogatae, v. vetus 
abscessit, vi. 3S 
Acca Larentia, vi. 23 ; sepidcrnm 

Accae, vi. 24 
accanit, vi. 75 
accensus, v. 82 ; vi. 88, 89, 95 ; vii. 

accessit, vi. 38 
accipe, vii. 90 
Acculeia, v. Curia 
accusandi casus, viii. 66 ; accusati- 

vus, viii. 67 ; v. casus 
acetum (non aceta), ix. 66, 67 
Acherusia templa, vii. 6 
Achilles, x. 69 
acquirere, vi. 79 
acsitiosae, t'. axitiosae 
actio, v. 11, 12 ; vi. 41 ; actiones 

tres, vi. 42 ; in actionibus, vi. 89, 

vii. 93 
actor, vi. 77 ; actores, v. 178, vi. 58, 

X. 27 
actus, V. 22, ,34, 35 ; actus numero- 

rum, ix. 86-88 
adagio, vii. 31 
addici numo, vi. 61 
addico, vi. 30 


addictus, vi. 61 

additio litteraruni, v. 6 ; t». I 

addixit iudicium, vi. 61 

adicere, v. litterae 

adiectio (syllabarum), v. 6 

adiunctum, F. 28. 9 

adlocutum ire, vi. 57 

adlucet, vi. 79 

adminiculandi pars, viii. 44 

administra, vii. 34 ; administros, 
v. 91 ; c/. amminister 

ad Murciae, v. Circus 

adsentior adsentio, F. 5. 9 

adseque, vi. 73 

adserere manu, vi. 64 

adsiet, vi. 92 

adventicium (genus similitudinis), 
X. 69 ; adventicia (verba), x. 70 

advocare, v. contio 

adytum, v. 8 

aedificia, v. 42, 141 ; viii. 29, 30 ; ix. 
20 ; X. 64 

aedilis, v. 81 ; v. Publicius 

aedis aedes, v. 80, 160 ; vi. 61 ; 
vii.*10, 12 ; v. Aesculapii, cavum 
aedium, Concordia, deus, Dius 
Fidius, luno, lupiter, Minerva, 
Portunus, Quirinus, Romulus, 
.sacrae, Salus, Saturnus, Venus, 

aeditumus, v. 50, 52 ; viii. 61 ; aedi- 
tuum non aeditumum, vii. 12 

aedus, v. haedus 

aeges, vii. 21 

Aegeum fretum, vii. 22 

aegrotus, v. 71 ; x. 46 


Aegyptionim vocabuU, viii. 65 

Aegj-ptus, V. 57, 79 

Aelia, \iii. 81 

Aelius Sextus, vii. 46 

Aemilius -lii, etc., viii. 4 ; Aemiliiis 
-ia, ix. 55 ; v. Basilica 

aenea, v. vas 

Aeneas, v. 144 ; ^-i. 60 

Aeolis, V. 25, 175 ; Aeolis Graeci, 
V. 101, 102 

aequabilitas, ix. 1, etc 

Aequimaeliiun, v. 157 

aequinoctium, vi. 8 ; %-ii. 14 ; ix. 25 ; 
r. circulns 

aequor, vii. 23 

aequutn, vL 71 ; r. pila 

aer, v. 65 ; c/. animalia 

aerariae (non aerelavinae), viii. 62 

aerarii, v. milites, tribuni 

aerarium, v. 180, 183 

aes, V. 169-171, 173, 180-183 ; ix. 81- 
83 ; X. 38 ; aes et libra, vii. 105, 
ix. 83 ; v. militare, mille, raudus 

Aesculapii aedes vetus, viL 57 

aesculetum, v. 152 

aestas, v. 61 ; vi. 9 

aestivum, vL 9 ; aestiva triclinia, 
viii. 29 

aestus, vii. 22 ; ix. 26 

aetas, vi. 11 ; ix. 93 

aetemum, vi. 11 

Aethiops, viii. 38, 41 ; ix. 42 

Aetolia, vii. 18 

aevitemum aetemum, vi, 11 

aevum, vi. 11 

Africa, V. 159 

Africae bestiae, vii. 40 

Africus vicus, v. 159 

Agamemno, v. 19 

Agenor, v. 31 

ager, v. 13, 34, 37 ; ciiltus, incultiis, 
V. 36 ; Romaniis, v. 33, 55 ; agro- 
rum genera quinque, v. 33 ; r. 
Arictnus, Calydonius, Gabinus, 
hosticus, incertiis, Latius, nova- 
lis, peregrinus, Praenestinus, 
Reatinus, restibilis, Romanus, 
Sabinus, Tusculanus, uliginosus 

agger, v. 141 

agitantur quadrigae, vi. 41, 42 

agitatus, v. 11, 12 ; vi. 41, 78 ; men- 
tis, vi. 42 

agnus, V. 99 

ago, V. 34 ; vi. 41, 42, 77, 78 ; agit 

gestum tragoedus, vi. 41 ; agitur 
pecHS pastum, vi. 41 ; agitnr 
fabula, vi. 77 ; agere causam, 
augurium, vi. 42 ; agere ex sponsu, 
vi. 72 ; V. facio, gerit, gradus 

agonales, v. dies 

Agonenses, vi. 14 

Agonia, vi. 14 

agrarius, v. 13 ; agrarii, viii. 15 

agrestis liostias, viL 24 ; c. Iocs 

agricola, v. 13 

agrosius, v. agntrins 

aio, F. 36 

ala, V. 33 

alauda alaudas (Gall.), viii. 65 

Alba, V. 144 ; \-iii. 35 ; Alba Longa, 
V. 144 

Albani Albenses, viii. 35 ; v. Aven- 

Albanus mons, vi. 25 ; rex, v. 43 

albatus, v. 82 

Albius, viii. 80 ; x. 44 ; Albia, x. 44 

AlbuU, V. 30 

albus -a -um, etc., viii. 38, 41, 80; 
ix. 42, 55; x. 22, 24, 44, 73; 
album albius albissimum, viii. 
52, 75 

alcedo, v. 79 ; vii. 88 

Alcmaeus Alcmaeo, ix. 90 

alcyonia, vii. 88 

Alcyonis ritu, vii. 88 

Alexander (Magnus), ix. 79 ; eius 
statua, ix. 79 

Alexander (Paris), vii. 82 

Alexandrea, v. 100 

Alfena, viii. 41 ; ix. 41 

aliena verba, v. 10 

alienigenae, v. 90 

alites, V. 75 

allecti, v\. 66 

AUia, Alliensis dies, vi. 32 

alpha, viii. 64 

altiores, x. 29 

altisono caeli clipeo, v. 19 ; vii. 73 

altitonantis Io^^s, vii. 7 

amator, Wiu 57 

ambages, ^ii. 30 

ambagio, vii. 31 

ambe, vii. 30 

ambecisus, viu 43 

ambegna bos, vii. 31 

ambiectum, v. 132 

ambiguus rectus ca.sus, ix. 103 

ambit, v. 28 



ambitiosus, vii. 30 

ambitus, v. 22, 28 ; vii. 30 ; v. in- 

Ambivius, vii. 30 

ambulatur, vi. 1 ; ambulans, am- 
bulaturus, viii. 59 

amburvom, v. 127 

ambustum, vii. 31 

amens, vi. 44 

amia, vii. 47 

amicitia -am, x. 73 

amictui, v. 131, 132 

amiectum, v. ambiectiim 

amitans (non est), viii. 60 

Amiternini, v. 28 

Amiternum, vi. 5 

amminister, vii. 34 ; c/. administra 

amnis, v. 28 

amo amor, etc., viii. 58, 60 ; ix. 97, 
110; X. 32, 48, 78; amans ama- 
turus amatus, viii. 58, ix. 110 

amor amorem, etc., x. 36, 42 

amphimallum, v. 167 

analogia, viii. 23, 25-27, etc. ; ix. 1, 
2, 7, 74, etc. ; X. 1, 36-38, 43, 44, 
61, 52, 63, 70, 72, 74, 79, 83, etc., 
F. 34; perfecta, inchoata analogia, 
X. 68, 69 ; index analogiae, ix. 
109 ; analogiae genus deiunctum, 
coniunctum, x. 45-47 ; poetica 
analogia, x. 74 ; v. genus, poetica, 
principium, proportione, ratio, 

anas, v. 78 

ancilia, vi. 22 ; vii. 43 

Andrius ab Andro, viii. 81 

Andromacha, vii. 82 

anfractum, vii. 15 

Angerona, Angeronalia, vi. 23 

angiportum, v. 145 ; vi. 41 

anguilla, v. 77 

angulus, vi. 41 

ani, vi. 8 

anicula anicilla, v. anus 

anima, v. 59, 60 ; animae hominum, 
ix. 30 

animalia, v. 75, 102 ; ix. 113 ; aqua- 
tilia, v. 77 ; in aere, v. 75 ; in 
aqua, V. 78 ; in locis terrestribus, 
V. 80 ; animalium semen, v. 59 ; 
species, x. 4"; voces, vii. 103 

animalis res, F. 8 

animantium (animalium) voces, v. 
75, 78, 96, 100 ; vii. 103 


animum, i'. despondisse 

Anio, V. 28 

annales, v. 74, 101 ; (feriae), vi. 25, 

annus, vi. 8 ; v. novus 

anomalia, viii. 23; ix. 1, 3, 113; x. 
1, 2, 16 ; V, dissimilitudo 

anquisitio, vi. 90, 92 

anser, v. 75 

Antemnae, v. 28 

antiqua, vi. 61, c/. vi. 82 ; antiqui, v. 
34, 71, 79, 96(Graeci), 131, vi. 19, 
33, 58 (nostri), 63, vii. 26, 36, 73 
(rustici), 84, ix. 17, 68, 83, 87, 
X. 73, F. 1 ; antiquissimum, v. 133 ; 
antiquissimi, v. 132 ; antiqui 
Graeci, v. 103, 166 ; antiquae 
mulieres, v. 69 ; antiquum oppi- 
dum Palatinum, v. 164, vi. 34 ; 
antiquum Graecum, vi. 84 ; anti- 
quum nomen, v. 50 ; antiquis 
litteris, v. 143, vi. 33 ; v. Graecus, 
gramma tica, lupiter, numerus, 
urbs, verbum 

Antonius, i'. Tullius 

anuli, vi. 8 

anus, viii. 25 ; anicula anicilla, ix. 
74 ; V. Liber 

a parte totum, v. 155 ; vii. 18, 75 

Apelles, ix. 12 

aper, v. 101 ; viii. 47 

apexabo, v. Ill 

Aphrodite, vi. 33 

Apollinar, v. 52 

ApoUinares ludi, vi. 18 

Apollo, V. 68 ; vii. 16, 17 ; cortina 
Apollinis, vii. 48 ; v. Sol 

appellandi pars, viii. 44 ; partes 
quattuor, viii. 45 

Aprilis, vi. 33 

aprunum (Sab.), v. 97 

Apula, V. lana 

Apulia, V. 32 

aqua, v. 61, 122, 123 ; v. animalia, 

aquae caldae, v. 25, 156 ; ix. 68, 

aquae frigidae, v. 25 

aqualis, v. 119 

aquarium, v. vas 

aquatilia, v. animalia 

aquila, viii. 7 ; ix. 28 

Aquiliani gladiatores ab Aquilio, 
ix. 71 


Aquilo, ix. 25 

ara, T. 38 ; arae, v. 74 ; r. Census, 

deiis, Elicii, Hercules, lupiter, 

Lavemae, Tatius 
arationes, v. 39 
aratrum, v. 135 
Arbemus -na, v. Airemus 
arbitrium ( = censio), vii. 58 
arbor arbuscula, F. 9 ; arbores, vii. 

8, 9, ix. 80 
arborariae felces, v. 137 
area, v. 128 ; ix. 74 
Areas, v. 21 
arcera, v. 140 
arcs, V. Arx 
areuJa, ix. 74 
ardor, v. 38, 61 
area ar«ae, v. 38 
arefacit, r. 38 
arena, r. a.sena 

Areopagus, Areopagitae, \ii. 19 
Argei, v. 45 ; viL 44 ; Argeorum 

sacriticia, v. 52 ; sacra, v. 50 ; 

saceUum quartum, v. 47 ; sex- 

tum, V. 48 ; sacraria septem et 

viginti, V. 45, c/. 47 
argentarii, xi. 91 
argenteom argentea, ix. 66 
argentifex non dicitur, viiL 62 
argentifodinae, v. 7 ; ^^iL 62 
argentum, v. 169, 173, 174 ; ix. 66 

(non argenta) ; x. 38 
.\i~gi, vii. 44 ; ix. 69 
Ar^letum, v. 157 
Argivi, vii. 38 ; v. Hercules 
Ai^os, ix. 89 
Argus, ix. 89 ; Argus lArisaens, v. 

Arieia, v. 32, 143 
Arieinus ager, v. 34 
aries, v. 98, 117 
ariga, r. ariuga 
Arimmas, ix. 12 
arista, vi. 49 
Aristarchum, vL 2 
ariuga ariugus, v. 98 
anna, v. 115 ; t». sonant 
armamentarium, v. 128 
armarium, v. 128 
Armenia (linguaX v. 100 
armenta, v. 96 
Armilustrium, v. 153; vi. 22 
arrabo, v. 175 
arruit, v. 135 

ars, V. 93 ; \iiL 6 ; v. medicina, 

musica, sutrina 
Artemas, viiL 21 
Artemidorus, viii. 21, 22 
articuli, ^-iii. 45, 51, 52, 63 ; x. 18- 

20, 30, 50 ; r. genus, inflniti 
artifex artufex, v. 93; ix. 12, 18, 

111; X. 64; artificum vocabula, 

V. 93 
aruspex, r. baruspex 
Ar\-ales (FratresX v. 85 
Arvernus -na, » iii. 81 
ar\iga, r. ariuga 
ar\Tis, V. 39 
Arx, V. 47, 151 ; vi. 28, 91, 92 ; vii. 

8, 44 (arcs) 
as, V. 169, 171, 174 ; ix. 81, 83, 84 ; 

X. 38 ; asses, v. 170, 182 ; as assem 

asses, X. 83 ; asse, F. 18 
asbestinon, v. 131 
ascripti^^, viL 56 
a.sellus, v. 77 ; ix. 113 
a.sena (= arena), vii. 27 
Asia, V. 16, 31 ; vii. 21 ; viii. 56 ; 

ix. 27 
Asiatici, viiL 56 
asinus -a, ix. 28 ; asini, ix. 93 
asparagi, v. 104 
aspicio, %i. 82 
assarius as.sarium, viii. 71 
asserere, r. adserere 
asseres, vii. 23 
assiduus, \iL 99 
assipondium, v. 169 
assnetudo, ix. 20 
assum, V. 109, c/. 120 
a-sta (Osc.), viL 54 
asta, V. hasta 
astrolc^, ix. 24 
atavus, vii. 3 
Atemus, v. 28 
Athenae, v. 97 ; vii. 19 ; viii. 

Athenaeopolitae, viiL 35 
Athenaeus, viii. 81 ; Athenaei, viiL 

Athenaeus rhetor, viiL 82 
Athenaiis, viiL 35 
Atheniensis, \iiL 81 
Atinia -ae, ^nii. 73 
atratus, viiL 18 
atri (diesX vi. 29 
Atriates (Tusci), v. 161 
atriensis (non atritumus), viiL 61 



atrium, v. 161 ; viii. 29 ; atrium 

sutorium, vi. 14 
Atrius ab atro, viii. 80 ; Atrius -a 

-o, X. 44 
Attalus rex, vi. 15 
Attica, V. 76 

Attici, V. 108, 175 ; vi. 10 
attributum, v. 181 
attuiinur, vii. 7 
aucella, v. avis 
auceps, viii. 61 
audio, vi. 83 
augendi genus, viii. 52 
augmentum, v. 112 
augur, vi. SI5 ; augures, v. 47, ^■i. 

42, 53, 64, 76 ; v. Index of AiUhm-s, 

s.v. Augures 
augurium, vi. 42 ; vii. 8, 51 ; au- 

guria, V. 85 ; v. ago 
auraculum, v. auguraculum 
aures, vi. 83 ; aurium aviditas, vi. 

83 ; auribus lupum teiieo, vii. 31 
aurescit, vii. 83 
aurifex, viii. 62 
aurora, v. 24 ; vii. 83 
ausculto, vi. 83 
auspicato, v. dies 
auspicium, vi. 76, 82, 86, 91 ; vii. 8 ; 

auspicium j>etitum, vi. 91 ; au- 

spicia, V. 33, 143 (urbana), vi. 53 

(caelestia), vii. 8, 97 (sinistra) ; 

V. Index of A uthors, s.v. Augures 
Auster, ix. 25 
autumnus, vi. 9 
auxilium, v. 90 
Aventinus (raons), v. 43, 152 ; vi. 

94 ; rex Albanus, v. 43 
averrvuicassint, vii. 102 
Averruncus, vii. 102 
aviarium (non avile), viii. 54 
avicula, v. avis 
aviditas, v. aures 
avis, viii. 54 ; ix. 76 ; avi et ave, 

viii. 66 ; ave, F. 18 ; aves avium, 

viii. 70 ; avis avicula aucella, 

viii. 79 ; avem specere, vi. 82 
axis, vii. 74 ; axe, F. 18 ; axes non 

axeis, F. 20 
axitiosae, acsitiosae, vii. 66 

B, ix. 38 ; BA~, ix. 51 ; BS, x. 57 
bacca in Hispania vinum, vii. 87 
Bacehae, vii. 87 
Bacchides Bacchidas, x. 71 


Bacchus, vii. 6 ; Bacchi sacra, vii. 

87 ; Bacchi templa, vii. 6 
Baebii -iae -lis, x. 50 
Balatium ( = Palatium), v. 53 
balneae (non balnea), viii. 48, 53 ; 
ix. 68, 106, 107 ; balneum, viii. 
48, ix. 68 
balneator, viii. 53 
balteum, v. 116 

barbara (vocabula), barbari, viii. 64 
barbatus, v. 119 ; ix. 15 
Basilica Aemilia et Fulvia, vi. 4 ; 

Opimia, v. 156 
beatus, v. 92 
Bellona, v. Duellona 
bellum, 1'. Carthaginiense, duelluni, 
indicit, Pimicum, Pyrrhi, Sabi- 
bes olim des, v. 172 
bestiae, v. Africae 
beta betaceus, F. 10 ; v. pes 
bibo, vi. 84 
bicessis, v. vicessis 
bigae, viii. 55 (non duigae), ix. 63 

64 ; X. 24, 66 (non biga), 67 
binaria, v. formula 
bini (non duini), viii. 55 ; binae 

bina, ix. 64. x. 24, 67 ; v. unus 
biselliuni, v. 128 

bonus boni, x. 68 ; bonum malum, 
V. 11, viii. 34; melius optimum 
(non bonius bonissimum), viii. 
75, 76 (optum optius, melum 
melissimum desunt) ; v. Copia, 
dea, duonus, meliosem, quod bo- 
num, scaeva 
bos boves, etc., v. 96 ; vii. 74 ; viii. 
54, 74 (bos non bous ; bourn et 
bovenim) ; ix. 28, 113 ; bovis vox, 
vii. 104 ; V. ambegna, Luca 
bovantes, vii. 104 
Bovarium Forum, v. 146 
bovile (non dicitur), viii. 54 ; ix. 

brassica, v. 104 
breviores, x. 29 
bruma, vi. 8 ; ix. 24, 25 
Bruti, 1». Mucins 
bubo, V. 75 
buceo, vi. 68 
bucinator, vi. 75 
bulbum, V. 112 
bura, V. 135 
Busta Gallica, v. 157 


C : G, V. 64, 101, 116 ; vi. 95 ; CS : 

X, ii. 44, X. 57 
Cabirum delubra, viu 11 
caccabus, v. 127 
cadus, ix. 74 
Caeciliani gladiatores a Caecilio, 

ix. 71 
Caecilius Cecilius, vU. 96 
Caecina, x. 27 
caecus -a -tun, ix. 58 ; r. cubi- 

caelare, v. 18 
Caeles Vibenna, v. 46 
caelestia, v. auspicium 
Caeliani, v. 40 
caeligeua, v. 6i ; v. Venus 
Caelii -iae -iis, x. 50 
Caeliohun, v. 46 
caelites, viL 5, 34 
Caelius mons, v. 46, 47 
Caelum, v. 57-60, 63, 65, 67 ; caelum, 

V. 16-18, 20, 31. viu 20; hoc 

caelo, X. 62 ; caeli loca supera, 

V. 16 ; caelum principium, v. 64 ; 

caeli regiones, v. 31 ; v. signum 
Caeriolensi-s (locusX v. 47 
caesa, r. exta, ruta 
caesins (caesior non diciturj caesis- 

simus, viii. 76 
Calabra, v. ciuria 
caiamLstrum, v. 129 
calatio, v. 13 
calcearia tabema non dicitur, riiu 

calcei, viiu 55 ; li. 40 
caldor, v. 59 
caldus caldo, x. 73 ; caldum calditis 

caldissimum, riii. 75 ; v. aquae 
Calendae, c. lanuariae, Kalendae 
calix, V. 127 
calo (kaloX vi. 16, 27 
calor, V. 60 
Calpumius, C, vi. 88 
Calydon, vii. 18 

Calydonius ager, non terra, vii. 18 
camelopardalis, v. 100 
camelus, v. 100 
Camena, vi. 75 ; vii. 27 ; Camena- 

rum priscum vocabulum, vii. 26 ; 

r. Casmena 
camillu.s Camilla, Aii. 34 
Campania, v. 137 
campus, v. 36 ; \-i. 92 (Martins) ; «. 

Flaminius, Martins 

canali, F. 18 

cancer, viL 81 

candelabrum, v. 119 

candens, r. signum 

candidus -um candidiu.s candidis- 

simum, ^-iiL 17 ; candidus -a can- 

didissimus -a, ^iiL 77 
canes, viL 32 (canes laniorumX 33 

(caninam non est) ; canis, v. 99, 

vii 32 ; canis catulus catellus, 

ix. 74 ; cane, F. 18 
canicula (piscis), v. 77 
canistia, v. 120 
canit canere, vi. 75 ; canite cant«, 

vii. 27 
cantatio, vi. 75 
cantator non dicitur, viiL 57 
cantitat, vi. 75 ; cantitans, viii. CO 

(cantitantes non dicitur) 
canto cautat, vi. 75 
cape, vii. 90 ; cape capito, x. 31 
caperrata fronte, viL 107 
capides, v. 121 
capilli (gen. sing.), vii. 44 
capiUl, V. 130 
capitales, v. trium\Tri 
capitellum, r. caput 
capitium, v. 131 
Capitoliuus, v. 41 ; Capitolinus 

cli\'us, vL 32 
Capitolium, v. 149, 158 ; ^n. 27, 68 ; 

Capitolium vetus, v. 158 
capitulum, v. caput 
capra, v. 97 
caprea, v. 101 
caprilicus, vL 18 
Caprotina (Iimo), vi- 18 ; Capro- 

tinae Xonae, vi. 18 
Capua Capimnus, x. 16 
capulae, v. 121 ; ix. 21 
caput capitis, etc, ix. 53 ; x. 82, 

F. 32 ; caput capitulum, viii. 14 ; 

capitellum (deest), ^iiL 79 ; caput 

Sacrae viae, v. 47 ; caput unde 

declinatur, x- 50, ef. ix. 102, 103, 

X. 50 
carbone, F. 18 

career, v. 151 ; carceres, v. 153 
carere (lanam), viL 54 
Carinae, v. 47, 48 
cariosas, vii. 28 
Carmena -ae, vii. 26, 17 
Cannentalia, vi. 12 
Carmen tis feriae, vi. 12 



earminari, vii. 54 

carnaria taberna non dicitiir, viii. 

caro, viii. 55 ; carnem petere (ex 
Albano monte ex sacris), \'i. 25 ; 
V. pecus 

Carrinas (non Carrinius), viii. 84 

Carthaginiense bellum, v. 165 

cartibuliim, v. 125 

Cascelliani gladiatores a Cascellio, 
ix. 71 

cascus -i, X. 73 ; cascws -a, vii. 28 ; 
Casca, vii. 28 

caseus, v. 10(>, 108 ; vi. 43 

Casinuin, vii. 29 

Casmena -ae, vii. 26-28 

Casmilus, vii. 34 

casnar (Osc), vii. 29 

cassabundus, vii. 53 

Castor, V. 58, 66, 73 

castra, v. 121, 162, 166 

casuale (genus declinationis), viii. 
52 ; onitionis prima pars easualis, 
X. 18 

casus, V. 4 ; vi. 36 ; viii. 11, 16, 22, 
42, 44, 46, 58, 63-67 ; ix. 31, 34, 
50-52, 54, 70, 77, 81, 88-90, 94, 
110 ; X. 7, 10, 17, 21, 22, 26, 29-31, 
34, 35, 42, 47, 54, 65, 80, 82 ; de 
cassu in cassum, viii. 39 ; casuum 
vocabula, x. 23 ; casuum iacturae, 
ix. 78 ; (casus) quis, quemadmo- 
dum, quo, a quo, cui, cuius 
vocetur, viii. 16 ; cum vocaret, 
cum daret, cum accusaret, viii. 
16 ; secundum naturam nomi- 
nandi est casus, ix. 76 ; casus com- 
munis, viii. 46 ; casus singuli, 
terni, etc., ix. 52 ; casus naturales 
et impositicii, x. 61 ; v. accusandi, 
dandi, declinatio, exitus, nomi- 
nandi, obliqui, patricus, patrius, 
ratio, rectus, series, sextus, trans- 
itus, vocandi 

catellus, V. canes 

Catinia -ae, viii. 73 

catinus, v. 120 ; catinuli, F. 12 

Cato Catulus, v. 99 

catulae, x. 66 

catulus, V. 99, ; v. canes 

catus -a, vii. 46 

caulis, V. 103 

caullae, v. 20 

causam orare, vii. 41 ; causae ver- 


borum, vi, 37 ; v. ago, dicis, 

cava, V. 19 ; cava cortina, vii. 48 
cavatio, v. 19, 20 
cavea, v. 20 
cavernae, v. 20 
ca\Tim, V. 19, 20, 135 ; cavum 

caelum, v. 19, 20 ; ca\'umclipeum, 

V. 19 ; V. cava, chaos, coum 
cavimi aedium, v. 161, 162 
Cecilius, v. Caecilius 
celare, v. 18 
cella, V. 162 
cenaculum, v. 162 
ceno cenatus sum, F. 5. 7 
censio ( = arbitrium), v. 81 ; vii. 58 
censor, v. 81 ; vi. 86, 93 ; censores, 

vi. 11, 87, 90, 92 
censorium iudicium, vi. 71 ; cen- 

soriae tabulae, vi. 86 
centenarius, v. gradus, numerus 
centum, ix. 82, 87 ; x. 43 
centumvirum (non -viiorum), ix. 85 
centuria, v. 35, 88 ; v. ollus 
centuriato constituit, vi. 93 ; v. 

centurio, v. 88 

centussis, v. 169, 170 ; ix. 81, 84 
cerei, v. 64 
cereo, vi. 81 
Ceres, v.' 64; vi. 15; templum 

Cereris, vii. 9 
Cerialia, vi. 15 
Cermalus, Germalus, Germalense, 

V. 54 
cerno, cernito, cemere vitam, vi. 

81 ; cernere crevi, vii. 98 
Ceroliensis, v. Caeriolensis 
cerus, vii. 26 

cervices cervix, viii. 14 ; x. 78 
cervus cerva, viii. 47 ; cer\'us cerve, 

x. 51 ; cervi, v. 101, 117 
Cespius Mons, v. 50 
chaos, V. 19, 20 
charta, F. 14 a, F. 14 b 
Chersonesice, v. 137 
Chio vinum, ix. t)7 
chlamydes, v. 133 ; clamide, v. 7 
chorda citharae, x. 46 
clioum, V. 19 

Chrysides Chrysidas, x. 71 
Chrysion, F. 38 
cibaria, v. 64, 90 
cibus, viii. 30 


ciccum, vii. 91 

cicer, viii. 48, 63 ; cicer ciceri 

ciceris, x. 54 
cicur cicurare, vii. 91 
Cicurini, v. Veturii 
cilibantiun, v. cilliba 
cilUba, V. 118, 121 
cinctus, V. 114 
cinerarius, v. 129 
cingillum, v. 114 
cippi pomeri, v. 143 
Ciprius, r. Cyprius 
ciprum, r. cj'prum 
circulus aequinoctialis, solstitialis, 

septemtrionalis, brumalis, ix. 24, 

25 ; circuli, v. 106 
circumiectui, v. 132 
circum muros, vi. 90, 92, 93 
circumtextiim, v. 132 
Circus, V. 153 ; vi. 20 ; Flaminius, 

V. 154 ; Maximus, v. 153 ; ad 

Murciae, v. 154 ; v. oppidum 
cista cistula, viii. 52 ; cista ci.stula 

cistella, viii. 79, ix. 74 
cis Tiberim, v. 83 
cistula, V. cista 
cithara, viii. 61 ; x. 46 
civilia vocabula dierum, \i. 12 
civis, X. 39 
civita.s, X. 39 ; civitatum -ium, viii. 

clam, vii. 94 
clamare, vi, 67 
clamide, v. chlamydes 
classes, v. 91 ; classe, F. 18 
classicus, V. 91 ; vi. 92 
claustra, vii. 21 
clavi, X. 62 

clepere clepsere, vii. 94 
clipeus, V. 19 
Clivos, r. Capitolinus, Cosconius, 

proximus, Publicius, Pullins 
cloacae, v. 149 
Cluaca Maxuma, v. 157 
clucidatus, vii. 107 
clupeat, V. 7 
cobius, vii. 47 
cochlea, F. 14 a, F. 14 b 
Codes, vii. 71 
cocus, vii. 38 
coemptio, vi. 43 
Coeus Titan, ^-ii. 16 
cogitare, vi. 42, 43 
cogitatio, vi. 42 


cc^natio verbomm, v. verbum 
cognomina, viii. 17; ix. 71, 
cohors, V. 88 
colem colis cole, ix. 75 ; colis non 

cols, ix. 76 
collatio verborum, viii. 78 
collecta, vi. 66 
collega collegae, vi. 66, 91 
colles (Romae), v. 36, 51, 52 ; v. 

Latiaris, Mucialis, Quirinalis, 

Salutaris, Viminalis 
Collina tribus, v. 56 ; regio, v. 45 
coUocatum, v. 14 
colloquium, vi. 57 
colo colis colui, ix. 108 
colonia nostra, v. 29 ; coloniae nos- 

trae, V. 143 
columba, v. 75 ; ix. 56 ; coliunbus, 

ix. 56 
columna columella, F. 9 
coma, V. frondenti 
comissatio, vii. 89 
comiter, vii. 89 
comitiales (dies), vi. 29 
comitiatum (ad c. vocare), v. 91 ; 

xl 93 ; c/. vL 91 
comitia\-it, r. quando rex 
comitium, v. 155 ; vi. 5, 29, 31 ; 

comitia, v. 85, 91, 155, vL 91, 92, 

vii. 42, 97 ; comitia centuriata, 

vi. 88, 92, 93 ; comitia curiata, v. 

commentum, comminisci, vi. 44 
commode, viiL 44 
Commotiles Lymphae, v. 71 
commimis, r. casus, consensus, con- 

suetudo, nomen 
commutatio (syllabarum, littera- 

rum), V. 3, 6, 79, 103, 137 ; vi. 2, 

62, 83 ; vii. 31 ; ix. 99 ; x. 25 ; 

commutatio vocis, x. 77 
comoedia comoediae, vL 55, 71, 73 
comoedus, ix. 55 
comparativi, F. 31 a 
compendium, v. 183 
competa, v. compitum 
compitalia, vi. 25, 29 
compitum, vi. 43 ; competa, vi. 25 
compluium, v. 161 ; compluvium, 

V. 125 
composita, ^-iiL 61 ; compositi 

numeri, ix. 84 
compositicium genus, viii. 61 ; com- 

positicia (verba), vi. 55 



computatio, vi. 63 

conceptis verbis, vii. 8 

conceptivus, v. dies, feriae 

concessit, vi. 38 

conchae, ix. 28 

conchylia, v. 77 

conciliari, vi. 43 

concilium, vi. 43 

concinne loqui, vi. 67 

conclavia, viii. 32 

Concordia, v. 73; ( = templum), v. 
148 ; aedis Concordiae, v. 156 

concubitus, vii. 78 

concubium, vi. 7 ; vii. 78 

condere, v. lustrum, oppidum, urbs 

conexum, F. 28. 9 

confessi, vi. 55 

conflctant, vii. 107 

confingere, v. 7 

coiigerro, vii. 55 

coniugationes quattuor, F. 34 

coniunctae res, x. 24 ; j;. analogia 

coniunctio (ignis et humoris), v. 
63 ; (verborum), vii. 110, c/. 
viii. 1 

coniunctum, F. 28. 10, 11 

conpernis, ix. 10 

conquaestor, v. q\iaestor, vi. 79 

conregio, vii. 8 

consensus communis, viii. 22 

Consentes, v. deus 

conserere manum, vi. 04 ; con- 
sertum manum, vi. 64 

consilium, vi. 43 

Consiva, v. Ops 

consortes, vi. 65 

conspicare, vii. 9 

conspicio, vi. 82 ; vii. 9 

conspicio -nis, vii. 8, 9 

consponsus, vi. 69 ; vii. 107 ; con- 
sponsi, vi. 70 

constantia, ix. 35 

Consualia, vi. 20 

consuetudo (comnnmis), v. 1, 6, 8 ; 
vi. 78, 82 ; vii. 32 ; viii. 6, 23, 26, 
27, 32, 74, etc. ; ix. 1, 2, 8, 74, 76, 
78, etc., 114; x. 2, 15, 16, 73, 
etc. ; F. 5. 9 ; non repngnante 
consuetudine comnuini, x. 74, 76, 
78 ; consuetudo nostra, vetenim, 
vi. 2 ; c6ns\ietudo vetus, liaec, 
x. 73 ; V. prisca 

consul, V. 80, 82 ; vi. 61, 88, 91, 93, 
95; X. 28; consules, vi. 91, 99, 


viii. 10 ; v. Curtius, Manlius, 

Census (et eius ara), vi. 20 
contemplare contempla, vii. 9 
contentiones, viii. 75 
conticinium, vi. 7 ; vii. 79 
contio, vi. 43, 90 ; contionem advo- 

care, vi. 91, 93 
contraria (verba), viii. 58, 59 ; v. 

convallis cavata vallis, v. 20 
convivium, v. 124, 168 ; convivium 

publicum, v. 122 
conum, V. 115 

Copia Bona, vii. 105 ; copia ver- 
borum, viii. 2, 20 
copis copiosus, v. 92 
copulae, viii. 10 ; trinae copulae, 

naturae et usuis (c/. viii. 14), per- 

sonarum multitudinis ac finis, ix. 

4 ; divisionis quadrinae copulae, 

X. 33 ; V. faciendi 
copulatum, F. 28. 10 
cor, vii. 9, 48 
corbes corbulae, v. 139 ; corbes 

non corbeis, F. 20 
corda, v. chorda 
Corduba, v. 162 
Cornelius, vi. 4 
Corneta, v. 146, 152 
cornicen, vi. 91 ; cornicines, vi. 75 
cornices, vi. 56 
cornua, v. 117 ; vii. 25 
cornutus, vii. 25, 39 
corolla Veneria, v. 62 ; corollae in 

scaena datae, v. 178 
corollarium, v. 175, 178 
corona, v. 62 ; coronas iaciunt in 

fontes, puteos coronant, vi. 22 
corpus, V. 11, 12, 59-61 ; a corpore 

declinata, viii. 15 
correptio (syllabarum), v. 6 
cortina, v. Apollo, cava 
cortumio, vii. 8, 9 
corvus, v. 75 ; ix. 55, 56 (non 

corva) ; corvi, vi. 56 
Cosconius (Clivus), v. 158 ; vio- 

curus, V. 158 
coum a cavo, v. 135 ; v. choum 
Covella, V. luno 
coxendices, vii. 67 
Cozevi, vii. 26 
eras, viii. 9 
cratis, vii. 55 



creatus, v. vitio 

crepare, vi. 67 

creperum, creperae res, vi. 5 ; vii. 

Crepusci, vi. 5 
crepusculum, ^-i. 5 ; vii. 77 
Cretaea, vi. 69 
cretaria tabema, viii. 55 
cretio, vi. 81 
crocodilos, v. 78 
cruda holera, v. 108 
erusta, v. 107 
crustulmn, v. 107 
Crustumerina secessio, v. 81 
crux cruce cruces, ix. 44 
ciibicularis gradus, viiL 32 
cubiculum, v. 162 ; viii. 29, 54 ; 

cubiculum caecum, ix. 58 
cuculus, v. 75 
cuciimeres, v. 104 
culcita, V. 167 
culmen, v. 37 
culmi, V. 37 
cnlpo c\ilpam\is, x. 33 
cultus, V. ager 
cumerus, vii. 34 
ciun muliere fuisse, vi. 80 
Cupidini.s Forum, Forum Ciippe- 

dinis, v. 146 
cuppedium, v. 146 
cupre.ssi cupres-sus, is. 80 
cur, viii. 9 
cura, vi. 46 
curare, vL 46 

curatores omnium trihnum, ^-i. 86 
Curenses, vi. 86 
Cures, V. 51 
Curia Acculeia, vi. 23 ; Calabra, v. 

13, vi. 27; Hostilia, v. 155, vii. 

10 ; curiae, v. 83, 155, vL 15, 46 ; 

curiae veteres, v. 155 
curiata, v. comitium 
curiones, v. 83 ; vi. 46 
curiosus, vi. 46 
currit, viii. 11, 53; cuiren-s cur- 

surus, viii. 59 
cursio, V. 11 
curso cursito, x. 25 
cursor, v. 11, 94 ; viiL 15, 53 
cursus, vi. 35 
Curtius, v. 148 ; Curtius lacu.s, v. 

148-150 ; Mettius Curtius Sabinus, 

V. 149 ; Curtius, consul, v. 150 
eurvor, viL 25 ; c/. v. 104 

CutUiensis lacus, v. 71 
cyathus, v. 124 
cybium, v. 77 
Cyprius Vicus, v. 159 
cyprum (Sab.) bonum, v. 159 
Cyzicenus (non Cyzicius) a Cyzico, 
ViiL 81 

D : R, vi. 4, ef. vi. 83 

damnum, v. 176 

dandi casus, viii. 36 ; x. 21, 65 ; v. 
casus ; ef. viii. 16 

dea bona, r. quis 

decern, x. 41, 43, 45 

December, \\. 34 

decemplex, v. logoe 

decemvirum (non -virorum) iudi- 
cium, ix. 85 

decemimt de vita, vi. 81 

decessit, \\. 38 

decessus, r. Galli 

deciens, hoc deciens, huius deciens, 
ix. 88 

Decimus, ix. 60 ; r. decuma 

declinata verba vel vocabula, v. 7 ; 
vi. 37; viii. 1, 2, 9; ix. 115; de- 
clinata nomina, viii. 5 

declinatio -ones, viii. 3, 5, 11, 13, 
15, 20, 21, 24 ; ix. 10, 17 (novae), 
110; X. 3, 11, 12, 16, 28, 44, 51, 
53, 60, 62, 74, 76 (verbi), 77; 
declinatio in casus, vii. 110 ; de- 
clinatio naturalis et voluntaria, 
viii. 21-23, ix. 35, i. 15 (volun- 
tas), 17, 51, 77, 83; declinatio- 
num genus, viiL 17, 21 ; declina- 
tionum genera quattuor, viiL 52 ; 
declinationes verborum, vi. 2, 36, 
38, ix. 3, X. 1, 2, 9, 11, 26, 44; 
V. declinatus, derectae, iuniores, 
nothus, priscum, recentes, simili- 
tiido, tran.situs 

declinatvLs, viii. 6, 10; ix. 37, 38, 
51, 53 ; X. 51, 76 ; declinatus 
voluntarius, naturalis, ix. 34, 62, 
X. 77, 83 ; vociun declinatus, x. 
65; verborum declinatuum genera 
quattuor, vi. 36 ; declinatuum 
species quattuor, x. 32 ; sex, x. 31 ; 
imperandi declinatus, x. 32, c/. 
ix. 32, 101 ; V. ordo declinatuum 

decuma, r. Hercules 

decuriae numerorum, ix. 86, 87 ; cf. 
v. 34, 91 , 



decuriones, v. 91 

decussis, v. 170 ; ix. 81 

dedicat dedicatur, vi. 61 

definitiones grammaticonim, x. 75 

deierare sub tecto, v. 66 

Dei Penates, v. dens 

deiunctum, v. analogia 

Deli, vii. 16 

Deliadae, vii. 16 

delicuum, deliquare, vii. 106 

Delphi, vii. 17 

delubra, v. Cabirum 

Demetrius rex, vii. 52 

demptio litterarum, v. 6 ; vii. 1 

denarius denarii, v. 170, 173, 174 ; 
viii. 71 ; ix. 85 ; x. 41 ; denarium 
(non -orum), viii. 71, ix. 82, 85 ; 
V. formula, gradus, numeri 

denasci, v. 70 

dens, v. 135 ; viii. 67 ; dentum 
denies, viii. 67 

densum, v. 113 

deorsum, v. 161 ; deorsum versus, 
ix. 86 

depsere, vi. 96 

derectae declinationes, x. 44 

derectus, v. ordo, ratio 

des, V. bes 

despicio, vi. 82 

despondet, vi. 69 ; desponsa, vi. 70 ; 
despondisse, vi. 71 ; despondisse 
animum, filiam, vi. 71 

desponsor, vi. 69 

destringor destrinxi, F. 5. 7 

detrectio (syllabanim), v. 6 

detrimentum, v. 176 

detritum, v. E, S 

deunx, v. 172 

deus deei, viii. 70 ; dei, v. 57, 65, 
66, 71 ; decs, F. 1 ; dei contrarii, 
v. 71 ; deo principe, vi. 34 ; dei 
principes, v. 57 ; Dei Consentes, 
viii. 70 ; Deum (non Deonim) 
Consentium aedem, viii. 71 ; dei 
magni, v. 58, vii. 34 ; diis inferis, 
vi. 34 ; Dii Penates nostri, v. 144 ; 
Dei Penates, viii. 70 ; aedes Deum 
Penatium, v. 54 ; Di Manes ser- 
viles, vi. 24 ; ara deum, v. 38 ; 
arae deorum, v. 52 ; liberorum 
dei nomina, ix. 55, 59 ; v. Samo- 
thraces ; c/. Novensides 

dextans, v. 172 

dextra, v. propter 


diabathra, vii. 53 

Dialis flamen, v. 84 ; vi. 16 

Diana, v. 68 (Diviana), 74 ; vii. 16 ; 
Dianae templum, V. 43; i'. Titanis, 

dil«lare, vii. 103 

dicare, vi. 61 

dicendi pars, viii. 44 

dicis causa, vi. 61, 95 

dice, vi. 30, 61, 62; dicit, vi. 78; 
dicere, vi. 42 ; dico dicebam dixe- 
ram, ix. 34 ; dicerem dicam, x. 
31 ; V. do 

dictata in ludo, vi. 61 

dictator, v. 82 ; vi. 61, 93 ; v. Poe- 

dictiosus, vi. 61 

dictum in mimo, vi. 61 ; dicta in 
manipulis castrensibus, vi. 61 

dies, v. 68 ; vi. 4 ; ix. 73 ; x. 41 ; F. 
11 ; Dies Agonales, vi. 12 ; die 
auspicate, v. 143 ; dies concepti- 
\iis, vi. 25 ; dies fasti, vi. 29, 53 ; 
die.s Fortis Fortunae, vi. 17 ; dies 
nefasti, vi. 30, 53 ; dies sacri 
Sabini, v. 123 ; dies et nox, v. 11 ; 
diemm nomina, vi. 10-32 ; dierum 
singiilonim vocabula, vi. 33 ; v. 
AUiensis, atri, civilia, comitiales, 
februatus, intercisi, lupiter, 
Larentinae, prodixit, quando, 
quartus, septumus, statuti, Venus 

Diespiter, v. 66 ; Diespiter Dies- 
pitri Diespitrem, ix. 75, 77 

dilectus, vi. 65 

diligens, vi. 65 ; diligentior dili- 
gentissimus -ma, viii. 78 

Di Manes, v. deus. Manes 

diminutio, F. 9 

diminutixTim, F. 9 

diobolares, vii. 64 

Diomedes -di -dis, x. 49 

Dionem, vi. 2 ; Diona, viii. 41, ix. 42 

Diores, ix. 12 

Diovis, V. 66, 84 

directus, v. derectus 

discere, vi. 62 ; discebam disco dis- 
cam, didiceram didici didicero, 
ix. 96 

discerniculum, v. 129 

discessit, vi. 38 

disciplina, vi. 62 ; loquendi, x. 1 

discordia verborum novorum ac 
veterum, v. 6 


discrimen, vi. 12 (naturaleX 81 ; ix. 

56 ; X. 20, 77 (verbi) ; discrimina 

verborum, rerum, vi. 36, 38, viii. 

1, 2, 10, 14, 16, 17 (c/. 51), ix. 32, 

X. 64 (in rebus) ; discrimina lit- 

terarum, x. 62 ; discriminum 

niimerus, x. 10 
disertus, vi. 64 

disparilita.s vocis flgurarum, x. 36 
Dis pater, v. 66 
dispendium, v. 183 ; ix. 54 
dispensator, v. 183 
dispntare, disputatio, vi. 63 
disserit, vL 64 

dissimilia, viii. 34, etc ; v. simile 
di.ssimiIitudo, viii. 23, 24, 29, 31, 32, 

etc ; ix. 46, etc. ; x. 1,3, etc. 
distractio doloris, vii. 60 
distrahuntur, vii. 60 
dius, V. 66 ; vii. 34 
Dius Fidius, v. 66 ; aedes Dei Fidi, 

V. 52 
diva, V. Palatna 
dives, V. 92 ; viii. 17 
Diviana, v. Diana 
dividia, vii. 60 
divisio, vii. 60 ; ix. 97 ; x. 14, 15, 

17, 33 ; divisiones, ^-iii. 44, ix. 

95, 101 ; ex eodem genere et ex 

divisione, ix. 96, 97 
divum, v. 66 ; vii. 27, 50 ; divos, 

F. 1 ; sub divo, v. 66 ; divi pote.s, 

V. 58 ; V. deus 
do dico addico, vi. 30 
do, r. ollus 
doceo, \i. 62 ; docet, x. 17 ; doceo 

docui, X. 25 ; docentiir induciin- 

tur, ^^. 62 ; docens, x. 17 ; doctus, 

F. 5. 8 
docilis, X. 17 

docte, viii. 12, 44 ; x. 17 ; F. 5. 8 
doctiioqui, vii. 41 
doctor, vi. 62 
doctus -a -um, viii. 46 ; ix. 67 ; 

doctus -a doctissimus -a, viiL 77 ; 

doctus docte, viii. 12 
documenta, vi 62 
dodrans, v. 172 
dolia, r. slrpata 
doliola, V. 157 
dolo dolas dolavi, ix. 108 
dolor dolori dolorem, x. 36, 42 ; r. 

dolus malus, dolo malo, x. 51 

domare, vL 96 

domus, v. 160 ; domus domuis 

domui, F. 17 ; v. hibemum, Mae- 

lius, video 
donum, v. 175 
dos, V. 175 
Dossennus, vii. 95 
drachmae, ix. 85 
ducenti, v. 170 ; x. 43 
ducere ductor, vL 62 
DueUona Bellona, v. 73, vii. 49 
duellum, v. 73 ; vii. 49 
duigae, r. bigae 
duini, V. bini 

dulcis didcior dulcissimus, viii. 76 
duo duae, ix. 64, 65, 87 ; x. 24, 41, 

43, 45, 49, 67, 83 
duodenarius numerus, v. 34 
duonus, vii. 26 
duplex verbum, ix. 97 ; dnplicia 

vocabula, ix. 63 ; ». logoe 
duplicarii, v. 90 
dupondium dupondius, v. 169, 173 ; 

ix. 81 (-um), 83, 84 
dux, \i. 62 ; duces dux, x. 56, 57 

E, viii. 68; ix. 52; E:AE. v. 97, 
viL 96 ; EI :U8, ix. 80 ; E : A, v. 
114, vii. 94 ; E : I, \-i. 95 ; E : U, 
V. 91 ; E detritum, vii. 74 ; E ex- 
clusum, X. 57 ; E exemptum, ix. 
44 ; E exitus, x. 62 

ecbolicas aulas, v. 108 

echinus, v. 77 

ecurria, vi. 13 

edictiim, vi. 92 

edo, vi. 84 ; edo edi, x. 33 

edulium, WL 61 ; edulia, vi. 84 

edus, r. hedus 

effari, templa efEsntor, fines effiui- 
tur, vi. 53 

eflata, vi. 53 

efiFutitum, ^ii. 93 

Egeria, vii. 42 

elegantia, ^-iiL 31 

elephans, elephantos, viL 39 

Elicii lovis ara, vi. 94 

eliquatum, viL 106 

elixum, v. 109 

eloquens, vi. 57 

eloqui, vi. 57 

eminisci, vi. 44 

emo emi, x. 33 ; r. homo 

em pa, viL 27 



ensis ensiciilus ensicula, F. 10 

eo, V. i, ite 

Epeus, vii. 38 

Ephesi (loc.), viii. 21 

Bphesius, viii. 21, 22 

epichysis, v. 124 

epicrocum, vii. 52 

epigrammation, vii. 28 

Epimenides, vii. 3 

epityrum, vii. 85 

Epnlo, vi. 82 

equa, v. equiis 

eques equites, vii. 4 ; x. 28 ; v. 

ferentariu.s, magister 
eqiiile, viii. 18, 29, 52 
eqwiiria, v. eciirria 
eqiiiso, viii. 14 ; x. 28 
equitatum, vii. 4, 103 
equus, vii. 4 ; viii. 11, 14, 52 ; ix. 

113 ; X. 4, 28 ; equus equi, ix. 63 ; 

equoeqimm, viii. 52 ; equus equa, 

ix. 28, 56 ; equus publicus, viii. 

71 ; equi dissimiles eadem facie, 

ix. 92, 93 ; V. Troianus 
errare, vi. 96 
eras eri ero, x. 12 
esca, vi. 84 

escaria mensa, v. 118, 120 
esculentum, vi. 84 
esculetum, v. aesculetum 
Esquiliae, v. 25 (Exq-), 49, 50, 159 

Esquilina (regio), v. 45 ; (tribus), v. 

56 ; Esquilinus lucus, v. 50 
esum es est, v. sum 
et, viii. 9, 10 

Etruria, v. 30, 32, 46 ; vii. 35 
Etrusco ritu, v. 143 
etymologia, vii. 109 
etymologice, vii. 3 
etymologiis, vi. 39 
eu, vii. 93 
Euander, v. 21, 53 
euax, vii. 93 
eum {gen. pi.), vii. 26 
Buropa, v. 16, 31, 32 ; vii. 21 ; ix. 27 
exbolas, v. ecbolicas 
exceptum, v. os 
excessit, vi. 38 
exercitus, v. 87 ; v. urbanus 
exiguitas, viii. 14 
exitium, v. 60 
exitus v. 60 ; exitus nominatuum, 

X. 21 ; exitus casus sexti, x. 62 


ex iure (coctum), v. 109 

ex iure manum consertum vocare, 

vi. 64 
exorat, vi. 76 
ex parte, x. 84 
explanandi, v. gradus 
expecto, vi. 82 
expensum, v. 183 
ex quadam parte, x. 74, 76, 78 
exquaeras, vi. 91 

Exquiliae, v. 25, 159 ; v. Esquiliae 
exta oUicoqua, v. 104, c/. v. 98 ; exta 

caesa et porrecta, vi. 16, 31 
extemplo, vii. 13 
extergeor extersi, F. 5. 7 
extcrmentarium, v. 21 
externa, ix. 102 

extremum, vi. 59 ; v. littera, syllaba 
extrita, v. syllaba, I, R, S 

F : H, V. 97 

faba, ix. 38 ; x. 84 

fabri, vi. 78 

fabulae, vi. 55 ; nova fabula, vi. 58 ; 

V. ago 
facete, x. 17 

faciendi et patiendi copulae, x. 33 
facies, vi. 78 ; ix. 92 
facilis, X. 17 
facio facere, vi. 42, 77, 78 ; facit, x. 

17 ; poeta facit fabulam (non 

agit), vi. 77 (v. ago, gerit) ; 

facerem faciam, x. 31 ; faciens, x. 

17 ; facere verba, vi. 78 ; v. lumen, 

lustrum, velatura 
factiosae, vii. 66 
faculam, vi. 79 ; faculae, v. 137, 

X. 66 
facundi, vi. 52 
Facutalis lucus, v. 49, 50 ; v. 

Faeneratricem Feneratricem, vii. 96 
faenisicia fenisicia, vii. 96 
faenus, vi. 65 
Fagutal, lovis Fagutalis, v. 152 ; v. 

Falacer flamen, pater, v. 84 ; vii. 45 
falces, V. 137 ; falce, F. 18 ; falcium 

falces, non falceis, F. 20 ; v. 

arborariae, fenariae, lumariae, 

falera, v. phalera 
Falerii, v. Ill, 162 
Faliscus venter, v. Ill 


fallacia, vi. 55 

falli, vi. 55 

falsum, vi. 55 

fiilx, V. falces 

fama, \i. 55 

famigerabile, vi. 55 

familia, v. fiinesta, mater, pater, 

famosi, vi. 55 
fana, v. 51 ; vi. 54 ; fanorum servi, 

viii. 23 ; v. Fortis Fortunae, Liber, 

magmentaria, Quirinus, Sabinus, 

fanatur, vi. 54 
far, v. 106 ; v. mola 
forcimina, v. Ill 
fari fatur, vi. 52, 56 ; vii. 36 
larina, v. 106, 107 
lariolus, vi. 52 
ferticulum, v. Ill 
fertum, V. Ill 
fartura, v. Ill 
fas, vu 31 ; v. quando 
fasces, V. 137 
fasciola, v. texta 
fassi, vi. 55 
fasti, V. dies 
fastidium, v. 146 
fatales res, vi. 52 
fatidici, vi. 52 
Fatuae, vi. 55 
fatum, vi. 52 

fatuus, vi. 52 ; Fatuus, vi. 55 
fauces, V. 42 ; vii. 21 ; (non faux), 

X. 78 
Fauni (Faunus, Fauna), vii. 36 
Faustiani gladiatores a Faustio, ix. 

Faustini gladiatores a Fausto, ix. 

Faventinus a Faventia, viii. 83 
febri, F. 18 

Februarius, vi. 13 (Xonae), 34 
februatio, vi. 13 
febniatur, vi. 34 
februatus dies, vi. 13, 34 
februm ( = extremum), v. 79 
februm (Sabini, purgamentum), vi. 

fedus, V. 97 
felix, V. quod bonum 
femina, ix. 57 ; feminae, v. 130, ix. 

67 ; feminae nomen, ix. 40 ; v, 


femininum, F. 14 a, F. 14 b; femi- 

ninum genus, F. 9, F. 11 
fenariae falces, v. 137 
Feneratricem, v. Faeneratricem 
fenestra ta, viii. 29 
fenisicia, v. faenisicia 
ferae, v. 80 ; ferarum vocabula, v. 

feralia, vi. 13 
fere, \ni. 92 
ferentarius, ferentarii equites, vii. 

feretnim, v. 166 
feriae «conceptivae, vi. 26 ; con- 

ceptae, vi. 29 ; menstruae, vi. 

13 ; V. annates, Carmentis, Furi- 

nales, Latinae, paganicae, rex, 

ferio, F. 36 ; ferio feriam percussi, 

feriam ferio feriebam, ix. 98 
ferme, vii. 92 
fero, F. 36 ; fero ferebam, x. 14 ; 

ferte, vL 96 ; ferendo, viii. 57 ; 

ferundo, v. 104 
Feronia, v. 74 
ferreus ferreei, viii. 70 
ferrifodinae non dicitvu-, viii. 62 
fertor non dicitur, viii. 57 
ferus fero ferum, x. 12 
fervere, \i. 84 
fetiales, v. 86 
fetus, V. 61 
fiber, V. 79 
fibra, V. 79 
ficedulae, v. 76 
ficta (verba), v. 9 
flctor, vi. 78 ; flctores, vi. 78, vii. 

Ficuleates, vi. 18 
ficus, V. 76 ; ficus fici, ix. 80 ; v. 

Fidenates, vi. 18 
Fides, V. 74 
Fidius, V. Dius 
fidus, t'. foedus 
figlinae, v. 50 
figuli : inter flgulos, v. 154 
figura figurae, \-i. 78 ; viii. 39, 71 ; 

ix. 39, 40, 42, 52, 93 ; x. 4, 11, 27, 

32, 33, 58, 77 ; tigura vocis, i. 25, 

36, 51 ; figura verbi, viii. 39, ix. 

37, X. 11, 25 ; figurae vocabu- 
lorum, ix. 55 ; v. Graecus, ob- 
liqui, singularis 



filius, X. 59 ; Alius -a, ix. 55, x. 41 

filum, V. 113 

fimbriae, v. 79 

fingo, V. 7 ; vi. 78 ; flngo flngis, x. 

finis fine, F. 18 ; v. copulae, eflfari 

flnitum et infinitum, v. 11 ; viii. 
45 ; ix. 31, 64, 85 ; x. 18, 20, 30 ; 
V. infinitei. Humerus ; cf. templum 

fircus, V. 97 

flscina, v. 139 

fistula, V. 123 

fixum, F. 2 

Flaccus flamen Martialis, vi. 21 

flamen vinum legit, vi. 16 ; flamines, 
V. 84, vii. 45 ; v. Dialis, Falacer, 
Flaccus, Floralis, Furinalis, 
Martialis, Palatualis, Pomonalis, 
Quirinalis, Volcanalis, Volturnalis 

Flaminius circus, campus, v. 154 

flexura, x. 28 

Flora, V. 74, 158 ; vii. 45 

Floralis flamen, vii. 45 

fluctus fluctuis fluctui, F. 17 

flumen, v. 27, 28 

fluvius, V. 27 

fodari, vii. 100 

foditurne fodieturne, x. 32 

foedus, V. 86 ; fidus, v. 86 ; foede- 
sum, vii. 27 

Fens, v. 74; vi. 22; fons, v. 123; 
fonts, F. 18 ; fonti et fonte, ix. 
112 ; fontis fontes, viii. 66 ; v. 

Fontanalia, vi. 22 

forda (quae fert in ventre), vi. 15 

Fordicidia, vi. 15 

forma, vi. 78 ; viii. 9, 47 ; Ix. 21, 
39-41, 82 ; x. 1 (vocabulorum), 22, 
27, 49 ; forma etymologiae, vii. 
109 ; forma in declinando, ix. 37 ; 
formae verborum, ix. 101, 102, 
109, 115, X. 56 ; formae Graecae 
verborum, x. 70 ; v. similitudi- 

formido, vi. 48 

formo, vi. 78 

formula, ix. 103 ; x. 44 ; formula 
numerorum, x. 43 ; formulae ver- 
borum, X. 33 ; analogiarum for- 
mula binaria, denaria, x. 44 

fornices, v. 19 (caeli) ; x. 59 

Fortis Fortunae fanum, vi. 17 ; v. 


Fort\ina, v. 74 ; vii. 93 ; v. vocabula 
fortunatum, v. quod bonum 
forum, V. 47, 145, 148, 149 ; vi. 59 ; 

vii. 94 ; ix. 17 ; v. Bovarium, 

Cupidinis, Holitorium, Pis- 

carium, vetus 
fossa, v, 143 ; vii. 100 
Fratres, v. Arvales 
fratria, v. 85 
fremere, vi. 67 ; vii. 104 
fremor oritur, vi. 67 
frendit, vii. 104 
frequens, vii. 99 
frequentare, vii. 99 
fretum fretu, vii. 22 
frigidum, v. 59 ; v. aquae 
frigus, V. 60 
fringuillae vox, vii. 104 
fringvittis, vii. 104 
fritinnit, vii. 104 
frondenti coma, vii. 24 
fructus, V. 37, 40, 104 
liaiges, V. 37, 104 ; frugis frux 

(haec), ix. 76 ; frugis -i -em, ix. 

frugi (non frugalus -a) frugalissumus 

-ima, viii. 77 
frumentum, v. 104 
fnior, v. 37, 104 
fugitiva, V. 5 
fulgur, V. 70 
fulguritum, v. 70, 150 
fuUo, vi. 43 
fulmen, v. 70 
fulmentum, viii. 10 
Fulvia, V. Basilica 
fumificus, vii. 38 
fundolus, V. Ill 
fundula, v. 145 
fundus, V. 37 
funesta familia, v. 23 
funus, V. indicit, indicti\'um 
Furinalis flamen, v. 84 ; vi. 19 ; 

vii. 45 ; Furinales feriae, v. 84 
Furnacalia, vi. 13 
furo, F. 36 

Furrina, v. 84 ; vi. 19 ; \'il. 45 
Furrinalia, vi. 19 
fustes, V. 137 
futis, V. 119 
futurum, viii. 20, 58 

G, i;. C ; GL, v. 134 ; GS : X, ix. 44 
Gabii, V. 33 


Gabinas ager, v. 33 
galea, v. 116 
galeritus, v. 76 

Galli obsederunt Romam, vi. 32 ; 

decessus Gallorum, vi. 18 ; Gallo- 

ruin os.<ia, v. 157 ; vocabula, ^'iii. 


Gallica (lorica), v. 116 ; (rocabula), 

V. 167 ; V. Busta 
Gallicana, t;. laoa 
Gallice, F. 5. 8 
gallina, v. 75 

Gallus Gallice, F. 5. 8 ; c. Galli 
gannit, vii. 103 
gar^rissare, vi. 96 
gartibulum, v. cartibulum 
ganun (non gara), ix. 66 
gaiinaca, v. 167 
gausapa, F. 14 a, F. 14 b 
gemere, xi. 67 ; gemebam gemo, x. 

gemini simillimi, x. 4 ; ». lanus, 

geniculis, ix. 11 
gens gentium gentis, viiL 67 
gentilicia natura, ix 59 ; nomina, 

ix. 60 
Genucius, M., v. 150 
gentis, ix. 40, 110 ; x. 8, 16, 21, 29, 
31, 33-35, 37, 65 ; genera, ix. 55- 
57, 67, 68, X. 11, 18, 22, 79, F. 10 ; 
genus vocale, x. 66 ; ex eodem 
genere, viii. 39, ix. 96, x. 37 ; 
analc^iae genus naturale, volun- 
tarium, is. 33 ; genus (re/ genera) 
nominatus (rel nominumX ix. 62, 
X. 8, 21, 65 ; genera articulorum, 
X. 30 ; rerum, v. 13 ; verborum, 
V. 4, 13, viii. 9, ix. 95, 102; 
genera a generando, F. 7 a, F. 7 b ; 
genera rebus dare, F. 6 ; v. ana- 
Ic^^, augendi, declinatio, de- 
clinatus, femininum, mas, mascu- 
linum, minuendi, muliebre, 
natura, neutrum, principale, 
virile ; c/. mas, neutrum, simili- 
tude, virile 
geometrae, x. 42 
gerit (id est sustinet), vi. 77; res 

gerere (non agere, fecere), \i. 77 
Germalus Germalense, r. Cermalus 
gerra, vii. 55 

Geryon Geryonens Geryones, ix. 90 
gignitur, vi. 96 

git, F. 22 

gladiatores, ix. 71 ; 8amnit«s, v. 

gladium, v. 116 ; viii. 45 ; gladium 

gladius, ix. 81 
glandio, vii. 61 ; glandium glandnla, 

F. 10 
gleba abiecta in sepulcrum, v. 23 
glebarii valentes, vii. 74 
globi, V. 107 
glossae, vii. 10 

glossema gloss^^nata, ^-ii. 34, 107 
grabatis, viii. 32 
gradus in lectiun, v. 168; gndus 

agendi, vi. 77, c/. vi. 41, 51 ; 

gradus analogiae, x. 83, 84 ; gradus 

explanandi, v. 7-9 ; gradus nnme- 

rorum, ix. 86 ; gradus singularis 

denarius centenarius, ix. 87 
Graecanica, x. 71 ; Graecanici nomi- 

natus, X. 70 
Graecanice, ix. 89 
Graece, v. 77, 88, 96, 112, 120, 122, 

175 ; \i. 4, 6, 10, 84 ; vii. 52, 88 ; 

ix. 89 ; X. 37 ; F. 5. 8 
GraeciA, v. 21, 96, 124 ; viL 47, 82, 

87, 89 ; ix. 21 
Graecostasis, v. 155, 156 
Graecus, vii. 42; Graeca, v. 100; 

Graeci, v. 2, 21, 34, 36, 65, 66, 73, 

76, 78, 79, 97, 101, 102, 105, 111, 
112, 118, 119, 156, 160, 166, vL 2, 
4, 6, 11, 15, 61, Yii. 20, 31, 50, 74, 

87, 96, viii. 16, 23, 65, ix. 31, 34 ; 
Graeci antiqui, v. 103, 166; 
Graeco ritu, viL 88 ; Graeca 
ftgura, V. 119 ; Graeca lingua, v. 
166, vi. 12, 40, 96, c/. vi. 84; 
Graeca origo, vi. 61, 96, vii. 37, 

88, 89 ; Graecus Graece, F. 5. 8 ; 
Graecum verbum rel vocabulum, 
Graeca verba vel vocabula, v. 68, 

77, 78, 85, 96, 103, 104, 106, 107, 
113-115, 120, 121, 130, 131, 133, 
138, 160, 167, 168, 175, 182, vi. 9, 
58, 84 (antiquum), vii. 14, 31, »4, 
53, 55, 61 (antiquum), 67, 82, 94, 
97, 108, X. 70, 71, F. 14 a, F. 14 b ; 
Graecum nomen, v. 73, 119, ix. 
68 ; Graecum cognomentum, vi. 
68 ; Graeca oppida, vii. 16 ; v. 
Aeolis, forma 

graguli, V. 76 
grallator, vii. 69 



grammatica antiqua, v. 7 
grammatici, x. 55, 75 
granarium, v. 105 
grandis olea, v. 108 
granum, v. lOti 
greges, v. 76 
giibernator, ix. 6 
giistat, vi. 84 
guttus, V. 124 

liaedus, v. 97 ; haedi vox, vii. 104 

hahae, vii. 93 

harmonicae res, x. 64 

Harpocrates, v. 57 

haruspex, vii. 88 ; haruspice.s, v. 148 

liasta, V. 115 

hastati, v. 89 

haiirierint, F. 29 

Hectorem, viii. 72 ; Hectorem -is -a, 

X. 71 ; Hectores Hectoras, x. 69 
Hecuba, viii. 3 
hedus, v. 97 
heliae, v. hahae 
heiulitabit, vii. 103 
Helena, viii. 80 
Heliconides, vii. 20 
Hellespontns, vii. 21 
hemisphaerium, vii. 7 
Heraclides Heraclide, viii. 68 
Hercules, v. 66 ; vii. 82 ; viii. 16 

(-les -lis, etx;.), 26 (-li an -lis) ; ix. 

79 (non Hercul) ; Hercules -li -lis, 

X. 49 ; Herculi immolata iuvenca, 

vi. 54 ; Herculi in aram, vi. 54 ; 

Herculi decuma, vi. 54 ; Hercules 

Argiv\is, V. 45 
herma, F. 14 b 
herois tritavus atavus, vii. 3 
heu, vii. 93 
hibernacula, vi. 9 
hibernum, vi. 9 ; hibernum domus, 

V. 162 ; hiberna triclinia, viii. 29 
hie, viii. 22 ; x. 18 ; hi his hibus, 

viii. 72 ; hie haec, viii. 45, x. 30 ; 

hie hi haec hae, viii. 46 ; hie 

hunc, X. 50 
hiems, v. 61 ; vi. 9 
hilum hila, v. Ill ; hilum hili, ix. 

hinnitus, vii. 103 
hinnulei, ix. 28 
hippos potamios, v. 77 
hireus, v. 97 
hirpices, v. irpicea 


hirundo, v. 75 

Hispania, vii. 87 

historia (verborum), viii. 6 

holitor, vi. 64 ; holitores, vi. 20 

Holitorium Forum, v. 146 

holus holera, v. 104, 108, 146 ; x. 50 

homo, viii. 11, 12, 14, 44, 52, 79 
(non homen) ; ix. 113 ; x. 4, 6, 28, 
29 ; hominis, viii. 1 ; homines, 
viii. 7, 14 ; homines imperiti et 
dispersi vocabiila rebus im- 
ponunt, X. 60 ; homines eniendi, 
ix. 93 ; hominum voeabula, v. 80 ; 
V. nihil, sene.scendi 

homunculus, viii. 14 

honestum, v. 73 

honor publicus, v. 80 ; honos, v. 73 

hora, v. 11 ; hora prima, secunda, 
ix. 73 ; horae lunares, ix. 26 

hordeum, v. 106 ; vi. 45 ; ix. 27 

horologium ex aqua, vi. 4 

horrent, vi. 45 

horti, vi. 20 ; hortorum, vi. 146 ; 
quae in hortis nascuntur, v. 103 

hostia, vii. 31 ; v. agrestis, infulatae, 

hosticus ager, v. 33 

Hostilia, v. Ouria 

Hostilius rex, v. 155 

hostis, V. 3 

humanitas, viii. 31 

humanus -a -um, viii. 47 

humatus, v. 23 

humectus, v. 24 

humidus, v. 24 ; humidum, v. 59 ; 
humidissimus, v. 24 

humilior humillimus, v. 23 

humor humores, v. 24, 59-61, 63 

humus, V. 23, 59 

hypocorismata, F. 10 

I, viii. 67 ; I littera extrita, v. 96 ; 

I:E, ix. 106; I additum, ix. 76; 

I exitus, X. 62 ; «;. B 
i {imperaiive), vi. 96 ; v. ite 
lapetus, V. 31 

Idus, vi. 14, 28, 29 ; v. Itus, luniae 
ignis, V. 59, 61, 63, 70 ; igne, F. 18 ; 

ignis et aqua in nuptiis, v. 61 
Ilium, viii. 56, 80 
Ilius (non Ilienus), viii. 56, 80 ; ab 

Ilo, viii. 80 ; Ilia, viii. 56, 80 
illex inlex, vi. 95 ; inlicis, vi. 94 ; 

illiei, vi. 94 


illicit, vi. 95 ; v. inlicere 
immortales, v. 75 ; immortalia in 

locis, V. 57 
impendium, v. 183 ; vi. 65 
imperandi (fecies), x. 31, 32 ; in im- 

perando, x. 32 ; cum imperamus, 

is. 101 ; r. declinatus 
imperator, v. 87 ; vi. 77 ; viL 37 
impius, vi. 30 
impluium, v. 161 
imponenda (vocabula), vi. 3 
impos, r. inpos 
impositicia nomina, ^iii. 5 ; imposi- 

tieii casus, x. 61 
impositio verborum (vocabulonun), 

V. 1,3; vi. 3 ; vii. 32, 109, 110 ; 

viii. 5, 7; X. 15, 16, 34, 51, 53, 

60, 61 
impositor, v. 18 ; vii. 1, 2 
impositum (verbxim, vocabulum, 

nomen), v. 1-3 ; viii. 1, 9, 10, 22, 

27 ; ix. 34, 52 
impurro, v. amburvom 
ina«quabilitas, viii. 28, 30 ; ix. 1 
incertus ager, v. 33 
incessit, vi. 38 
incfaoata (=infecta) re.s, ix. 96; r. 

incirctim, v. 25 
inclinanda verba, x. 13 
inclinatio inclinationes, ix. 1, 113 ; 

e/. X. 13 
incommutabilia, ix. 99 
incrementiim, viii. 17 
increpitare, vi. 67 
incnltus, r. ager 
incnrvicenicum, v. 7 
indagabilis ambitus, r. 28 
indagare, v. 5 
indeclinabilia, x. 14, 79, 80, 82; 

viiL 9 
indicandi, ix. 101 
indicit belliim, vi. 61 ; indixit funns, 

vL 61 
indicium, vi. 61 

indictivum funus, v. 160 ; viL 42 
indiscriminatim, F. 25 
indoctus, ^iiL 62 ; indocti, ix. 22 
indusiatam, v. 131 
indusium, v. 131 
indutui, v. 131 ; s. 27 
infantes, vi. 52 
Infecta (verba), ix. 97, 100, 101 ; x. 

48 ; infecti verba, ix. 99, 101, x. 

33, 48; infecti tempora, ix. 96; 

infectae res, ix. 32 ; c/. in- 

infeineitei, r. intinitei 
inferi, viL 37, v. deus ; infera loca, 

V. terra 
inficientem esse, ^i. 78 
infima Nova Via, v. 43 
infinitei articuli, viiL 50 ; inflnita 

natiua articulonun, viiL 52 ; in- 

flnitae naturae verborum, ^iiL 3 ; 

infinitum, v. 11, viii. 45, ix. 84 ; 

V. finitum 
infrequens, vii. 99 
infulae, %iL 24 
infulatae hostiae, vii. 24 
ingeniosi, viiL 15 
ingluvies, F. 27 
inhumatus, v. 23 
inimicitia -am, x. 73 
initia, v. 60 ; rerum initia, v. 11 ; 

initiorum quadrigae, v. 12 ; initia 

regis, V. 8 ; initia analogiae, x. 

53 ; V. nascendi. Samothraces 
inlex inlicis, r. illex 
inlicere populum, \i. 90 ; inliciator 

ad magistratus conspectum, vi, 

inlicium vocare, >nsere, vi. 86-88, 

93-95 ; V. illicit 
inlocabilem, v. 14 
inminutio, F. 31 a 
inops, v. 92 
inpos, v. 4 
insane, vii. 86 
insicia, v. 110 
insidiae, v. 90 
insignia militaria, vii. 37 
insipitur, v. 105 
Insteianus Vicus, v. 52 
institutum, x. 27 
instrumentum, v. 105 ; instrumen- 

tum muUeris, ix. 22 ; r. rustica 
insulsus, viii. 62 
intemi)esta nox, vi. 7 ; viL 72 
Interamna, v. 28 
intercisi dies, vL 31 
interduo, vii. 91 
intermestris, vi. 10 
interpolata (verba), v. 3 
interrex, vi. 93 
interrogando, ix. 32 
intertrigo, v. 176 
intertrimentom, v. 176 



intervallum miindi motiis, vi. 3, c/. 

V. 12 
intuiti, vii. 7 
intusium, v. indusium 
inumbravit, vi. 4 
invident, vi. 80 ; invidit inyiden- 

dum, vi. 80 
Ion, viii. 21, 22 
lones, v. 146 ; vi. 9 
Ionia, V. 16 ; viii. 21 
irons, V. hircus 
irpices, v. 136 
irundo, v. hinindo 
is ea id, ea eae, eins eaius, ei eae, 

ieis eais, viii. 51 ; eins viri, eius 

mulieris, eius pabuli, viii. 51 
Isis, V. 57 
iste istunc, x. 50 
Italia, vii. 86 
ite (imperat.), vi. 96 
iter, V. 22, 35 
Itus (Tn.scornm), vi. 28 

iactarier, x. 70 

iaculum, v. 115 

iam, viii. 9 

ianens, vii. 26 

ianitor ianitos, vii. 27 

lanualis Porta, v. 165 

lanuarius, vi. 34 ; Kalendae lanu- 

ariae, vi. 28 
lanus, V. 165 ; lanus geminus, v. 

156, c/. vii. 26 ; lani signnm, v. 

loum lovenim, v. lupiter 
iuba, vii. 76, c/. vi. 6 
iubar, vi. 6, 7 ; vii. 76 
iiibilare, vi. 68 
iucunditas, ix. 46 
index, vi. 61 ; indices, vi. 88 
indicare, vi. 61 
iudicinm, v. addixit, censorinm, 

iugernm, v. 35 
iuglans, v. 102 
Ingula, vii. 50 
iugnm, V. 135 
iumentnm, v. 135 
inngendi pars, viii. 44 
luniae Idus, vi. 17 ; Iwnius mensis, 

vi. 17, 33 
inniores, vi. 33, (declinationes) x. 

71 ; V. iuvenis 
Inno, v. 65, 67 ; Innonis, viii. 49 ; 


luno Covella, vi. 27 ; aedes lunonis 
Lannvi, v. 162; InnoLncina, v. 
69, 74 ; aedes Innonis Lncinae, v. 
50 ; Incus lunonis Lucinae, v. 49 ; 
luno Regina, v. 67 ; v. Caprotina, 
lupiter, terra 
lupiter, V. 65, 67, 84 ; vi. 4 ; vii. 
12, 16, 85 ; lupiter non Ions, 
viii. 74 ; lupiter lovi, viii. 34, x. 
65 ; luppitri, viii. 33 ; lupiter 
lovis lovem, viii. 49 ; lovis lovem 
lovi, viii. 74 ; loum lovemm, viii. 
74 ; aedes lovis, v. 41 ; aedes 
(lovis) in Capitolio, v. 158 ; ara 
lovis Vimini, v. 51 ; sacellum 
lovis lunonis Minervae, v. 158 ; 
dies lovis non Veneris, vi. 16 ; 
lovis luno coniunx, v. 67 ; lovis 
filium et filiam (non) lovem et 
lovam, ix. 55 ; antiquius lovis 
nomen, v. 66 ; v. Elicii, Fagutal 
inrgare, iurgium, vii. 93 
ins, V. ex iure, praetorium 
luturna lympha, v. 71 
iuvencus, v. 96 ; v. Hercules 
iuvenis iunior, F, 31 a, F. 31 b 

Kalendae, vi. 20, 27-29 ; v. lanuariae 
kalo, vi. 16, 27 

L, V. G ; L : 8, V. 79 

Ijacedaenionii, v. 146 

lact, v. 104 

lactuca, V. 104 

lacus, V. 26 ; v. Curtius, Cutiliensis, 

laena, v. 133 
laeta, vi. 50 
laetari, vi. 50 
laetitia, vi. 50 
lana, v. 113, 130, c/. 133; vii. 24; 

ix. 92 ; lana Gallicana et Apula, 

ix. 39 ; V. carere, vellere 
lanea, v. 130 
langula, v. 120 
laniena, viii. 55 
Lanuvium, v. 162 
lanx lance, x. 62 
lapathium, v. 103 
lapicidae, viii. 62 
lapidicinae, v. 151 
Larentalia, vi. 23 
Larentia, v. Acca 


Larentiime dies, vL 23 

Lares, v. 74 ; Lares Lasibus, vi. 2 ; 

Lares ^iales, vL 25 ; Lamm Qiier- 

quetulanum sacellum, v. 49 ; v. 

Larisaeus, v. Argiis 
Larunda, v. 74 
Lasibus, v. Lares 
lata latae, x. 24 
Latiaris CoLlis, v. 52 
Latinae feriae, vi. 25, 29 
I^tine, vi. 6, 84 ; vii. 89 ; ix. 89 
Latinus (rex), v. 9, 32, 53, 144; 

Latinus (adj.), v. 29, passim ; 

Latinus casus sextus, x. 62 ; 

Latinum vocabulum, Latina vo 

cabula, v. '29, 68, 78, 79, 103, 167, 

vi. 35 ; Latini populi, vL 25 ; 

Latini, v. 30, 43, 69, vi. 25, 

vii. 28, 3<), viiL 23, ix. 34; v. 

lingua, litterae, nomen, sermo, 

latiores, x. 29 
Latium, v. 21, 29, 30, 32, 42, 57, 79, 

84, 96, 97, 100, 143, 144, 162; vi. 

16, 18 ; vii. 35 ; ix. 34, 59 
Latius ager, v. 32 
Lato, vii. 16 

latomiae lautumia, v. 151 
Latona, vii. 16 
Latonius, viii. 19 
latrat, viL 103 
latratus, vii. 32 
latrocinatus, vii. 52 
latrones, vii. 52 
latrunculis ludere, x. 22 
laudo laudamus, x. 33 
Laurentes, v. 152 
Lauretum, v. 152 
lautolae, v. 156 
lautumia, v. latomiae 
lavatrina, v. 118 ; ix. 68 
Lavemae ara, v. lt>3 
Lavemalis Porta, v. 163 
I^vinia, v. 144 
Lavinium, v. 144 
lavo lavor lavat lavatur lavare 

lavari lautvis sum, ix. 105-107 ; 

lavo lavi, F. 5. 6 ; lavor lavi, 

F. 5. 7 
lea, F. 3 

leaena Leaena, v. 100 
lecte lectissime, vi. 36 
lectica, v. 166 

lectio, vL 36 

lectito, X. 33 

lector, vi. 36 ; viii. 57 

lectus lectulus, ix. 74 ; lecti, viiL 

32 ; ix. 47 ; lectulorum vocabula, 

V. 166 ; lectus mortui, v. 166 ; v. 

legasse mille aeris, ix. 83 
legati, V. 87 ; vi. 66 
legio, V. 87, 89; \i. 66; miles 

legioniB, militis militem legionis, 

ix. 54 
legitima, vi. 66 
lego, vi. 36, 37 ; viii. 44 (lego legeas), 

ix. 102 ; X. 33 ; lego legis, x. 48 ; 

lego legis legit, ix. 32, 101 ; lego 

legis legit legam, vi. 37 ; lego 

legam, ix. 96 ; lego legi, x. 25, 48 ; 

legi lego legam, viii. 3, 9, ix. 96 ; 

lege bam lego legam, ix. 32, x. 31, 

47, 48 ; legit, viii. 11 ; leges lege, 

vi. 36 ; lege legito legat, ix. 101 ; 

legere, vi. 6tj ; legisti, vi. 35 ; 

legi legisti, x. 48 ; legor, viii. 58 ; 

legone legisne, x. 31 ; legem lec- 

turus, vi. 36 ; v. flamen 
legtilus, V. 94 ; leguli, vi. 66 
leguniina, vi. 66 
Lemnia litora, vii. 11 ; Lemnius 

Philoctetes, viu 11 
lentes, ix. 34 
leo, V. 100 ; vii. 76 ; leones, .vii. 

■M) ; leonis vox, vii. 104 
Leontion, F. 38 
lepestae, v. 123 
lepus, v. 101 ; viii. 68 ; ix. 91, 94 ; 

X. 8 ; lepus leporis, F. 5. 6 ; lepus 

lepori, viii. 34 ; lepores, ix. 94 
Lesas non Lesius, viiL 84 
Lesbo vinum, ix. 67 
letum, vii. 42 ; v. olios 
lex, vi. 71 ; lex legi, x. 47 ; leges, 

vi. 60, 66, viu 15, ix. 20; v. 

poetica, vetus 
libella, v. 174 ; x. 38 
Libentina, v. Venus 
Liber, vii. 87 ; Liberi cognomentiun 

Graecum, vi. 68 ; Liberi lanum, 

v. 14 ; sacerdotes Liberi anus, vi. 

14 ; 1^. Loebeso 
Liberalia, vi. 14 
liberi, ix. 59 ; r. deus, servus 
liberti, v. Romanus 
libertini a municipio manumissi, 



viii. 83 ; orti a publicis servis 

Romaiii, viii. 83 
Libethrides, vii. 20 
libidinosus, vi. 47 
libido, vi. 47 ; x. 60, 61 ; v. lubido 
Libitina, v. Venus 
Libo, V. Poetelius 
libra, v. 169, 174, 182 ; vii. 14 ; v. aes 
librarii, viii. 51 ; ix. 106 
libuin, V. 106 ; libum libo, ix. 54 ; 

liba, vii. 44 
Libya, vii. 40 ; viii. 56 
Libyatici non dicitur, viii. 56 
Libyci, vii. 39 
lictores, vii. 37 
ligna, vi. 66 

ligiiicidae non dicitur, viii. 62 
ligo, v. 134 
lilium, V. 103 
lima, vii. 68 ; limae, x. 14 
limax, vii. 64 
lingers, vi. 96 
lingua Latina, v. 1, 29 ; vii. 55, 110 ; 

viii. 58 ; ix. 113 ; lingua nostra, 

V. 3, 29 ; V. Armenia, Graecus, 

Osca, Sabinus 
lingula, vii. 107 
lingulaca, v. 77 
lintres non lintreis, F. 20 
linum lino, ix. 64 
liquidum, vii. 106 
liquitur, vii. 106 
lis, vii. 93 

liticines, v. 91 ; vi. 75 
litora, V. Lemnia 
litterae, v. 30 ; vi. 2, 66 ; vii. 2 ; 

viii. 63 ; ix. 52 ; x. 25, 26, 55, 82 ; 

antiquae litterae, v. 143, vi. 33 ; 

litterae Latinae, v. 73, vii. 2, ix. 

51 ; litterae Graecae, viii. 64, 65 ; 

interpretationem exili littera ex- 

peditam, vii. 2 ; littera praeterita, 

vii. 2 ; littera extrema, ix. 44, x. 

21, 25 ; littera extrita, v. 96 ; 

litterani adicere, vii. 1 ; litteras 

assumere, vi. 2 ; litteras mittere, 

vi. 2 ; litterarum vocabula, ix. 

51 ; V. additio, commutatio, 

demptio, discrimina, productio, 

lixulae, v. 107 
locare, v. 14, 15 
locarium, v. 15 
locatum, v. 14 


locus, V. 11-15, 57 ; viii. 12 ; loca, 

vi. 97, vii. 5 ; loca agrestia, vii. 

10 ; loca Europae, v. 32 ; loci 

muliebres, v. 15 ; loca naturae, 

V. 16 ; loca urbis, v. 45 ; origines 

locorum, vii. 110 ; vocabula vel 

verba locorum, v. 10, 184, vi. 1 ; 

V. animalia, caelum, Caeriolensis, 

terra, Tutilinae, urbs 
Loebeso ( = Libero), vi. 2 
logoe, x. 43 (duplex, decemplex), 

c/. X. 2, 37, 39 
lolligo, V. 79 
longavo, V. Ill 

longus, viii. 17 ; longiores, x. 29 
loquax, vi. 57 
loquela, vi. 57 
loquor, viii. 59 ; loquontur, vi. 1 ; 

loqui, vi. 56 ; loquens locuturus 

locutus, viii. 59 ; v. concinne, 

lorica, v. 116 
Lua Saturni, viii. 36 
Lubentina, v. Venus 
lubere, vi. 47 
lubido hominum, x. 56 ; lubidinem, 

F. 4 ; V. libido 
Luca bos, vii. 39, 40 ; Lucana bos, 

vii. 39 
Lucani, v. 32, 111 ; vii. 39, 40 ; 

Ijucana origo, v. 100 
Lucanica, v. Ill 
Ulcere, vi. 79 
Luceres, v. 55, 81, 89, 91 
hicerna, v. 9, 119 
Lucia, ix. 61 ; Lucia Volumnia, ix. 

Lucienus, vi. 2 
Lucina, v. luno 
lucifer (stella), vii. 76 
Lucius, ix. 60 ; Lucii, vi. 5 ; v. 

Aelius ; c/. Lucia 
Lucretia, vi. 7 
lucrum, V. 176 
L\icumo, V. 55 
lucus, V. Esquilina, Facutalis, luno, 

Mefitis, Poetelius, Venus 
ludens, vi. 35 
ludus, ix. 15 ; ludi quibus virgines 

Sabinae raptae, vi. 20; v. Apol- 

linares, dictata, Ta\u'ii 
lumariae falces, v. 137 
lumecta, v. 137 
lumen facere, vi. 79 


Luna, luna, v. 68, 69, 74 ; vi. 10 ; 

vii. 16 ; ix. 25 ; v. hora, nova 
lunaris, v. hora 
luo luam, viii. 36; luit, ix. 104; 

luendo (id est solvendo), vi. 11 ; 

V. solvunt 
Lupe (voc.), vii. 47 
Lupercal, v. 85 ; vi. 13 ; Luper- 

calia, vi. 13 ; Lupercalibus, v. 85 
Luperci, v. 85 ; vi. 13 ; Luperci 

nudi, vi. 34 
lupinum, ix. 34 
lupus, v. 77 (piscis) ; ix. 28 ; lupus 

lupi, F. 5. 6 ; lupus lupo lupe, 

viii. 34, 68, ix. 91, 113 (piscis); 

lupi vox, viu 104 
lusciniola, v. 76 
luscus (non luscior luscissimus), Ix. 

lustrare, vi. 93 
lustrum, vi. 11, 22 ; lustrum facere, 

condere, vi. 87 
lutra, V. 79 
lux, vii. 40 ; v. primo 
Lyde, vii. 90 
lympha, v. 71 ; vii. 87 (a Nympha) ; 

V. Commotiles, lutiu'iia 
lymphata, lymphatos, vii. 87 
Lysippus, ix. 18 

M : N, vi. 75 

Macedonia, vii. 20 

Macellum, v. 146, 147, 152 

Macellus, v. 147 

macer macri macrum, ix. 91 ; x. 28 ; 

macer macricolus macellus, viii. 

79 ; macri, vi. 50 ; macrior macer- 

rimus, viii. 77 
Maecenas (non Maecenius), viiL 84 
Maelius (et eius domus), v. 157 
maerere, vi. 50 
Maesium, v. Mesium 
magida, v. 120 
magis, viii. 9 ; ix. 73 
magister equitum, populi, v. 82 ; 

vl 61 
magistratus, v. 82 ; vi. 87, 91 ; viii. 

83 ; V. vitio 
magmentaria fana, v. 112 
niagmentum, v. 112 
magnetae lapides, ix. 94 
magnitudo, ix. 74 ; magnitudinis 

vocabula, viii. 79 
magnus, v. deus, pes 

maiores, v. 5 ; vL 17, 33 ; ix. 16 
Mains (mensis), vi. 33 
malaxare, vi. 96 
malum, v. 102 ; mala, ix. 92 ; v. 

malus mali, x. 68 ; malum peius 

pessimum (non malius malis- 

simum), viii. 75, 76 (peium non 

dicitur) ; v. bonum, dolus 
malva, v. 103 ; malva malvaceus, 

F. 10 
Mamers (Sab.), v 73 
maramosae, viii. 15 
Mamuri Veturi, vi. 49 
mancipium, vi. 85 ; vii. 105 
mandier, vii. 95 
manducari, vii. 95 
Manducus, vii. 95 
mane, vi. 4 ; (manius manissime 

non dicuntur) viii. 76, ix. 73 ; 

magis mane surgere, ix. 73 ; primo 

mane, ix. 73 
Manes, v. 148 ; v. deus 
Mania mater Lamm, ix. 61 
manica, vi. 85 
manicula, v. 135 
Manilius Maniliorum, viii. 71 
manipularis, vi. 85 
manipulus, v. 88; vi. 61, 85 
Manius, ix. 60 
Manlius, T., consul, v. 165 
mantelium, vi. 85 
manubriinn, vi. 85 ; manubria, viii. 

15, c/. V. 118 
manum ( = bonum), vi. 4 
manumissi, viii. 83 ; v. vitio 
manupretium, v. 178; vi. 85 
manus, vi. 85 ; ix. 80 ; quae manu 

facta, V. 105 ; v. adserere, con- 

mappae tricliniares, ix. 47 
marcescere, vi. 50 
Marcius Marci, viii. 36 
Marcus Marci, viii. 36 ; Marcus 

Marco, viii. 46, x. 51 ; Marcus 

non Marca, ix. 55 ; v. Perpenna 
margaritum margarita margari- 

tanim, F. 14 c. 
Maro, V. 14 
Mars, V. 73 ; vi. 33 ; Mars Martes, 

X. 54 ; Marspiter Marti, x. 65 ; 

Maspiter, viii. 40 ; Maspiter sed 

non Maspitri Maspitrem, ix. 75 ; 

Marspitrem, viii. 33 



Martialis (flamen), v. 84 ; vii. 45 ; 

V. Flaccus 
Martins (mensis), vi. 33 ; Martius 

campus, V, 28, vi. 13, 92 
mas femina, v. 58, 61 ; viii. 7, 40 ; 

Ix. 38 ; mas femina neutrum, ix. 

55, 57, 59, 62, cf. viii. .36, 47, 78, 

X. 22 ; V. genus ; cf. virilia 
masculinum, F. 14 a, F. 14 b ; mas- 

culino genere, F. 11 
Maspiter, v. Mars 
matellio, v. 119 
mater, x. 41 ; matres familias, vii. 

44 ; V. Mania, Ops, terra 
materia, x. 11, 36 
Matralia, v. 106 
mattea, v. 112 
ma tula, v. 119 
Maurus Maurice, F. 5. 8 
maximus, v. Circus, Cluaca 
Mecinus, v, maximus 
media, v. 118; media nox, x. 41; 

media vocabula, viii. 79 
medicina ars, v. 93 ; vii. 4 ; ix. Ill 
medicus, v. 8, 93 ; ix. 11 ; x. 40 
Meditrinalia, vi. 21 
Mefitis lucus, v. 49 
Megalesion, vi. 15 ; Megalesia, vi. 15 
mel mellis melli melle, viii. 63 
melander, v. 76 

Melicertes Melieerta, viii. 68 ; ix. 91 
melios, vii. 20 ; meliosem, vii. 27 ; 

V. bonus 
melius, v. bonus 
Melius, V. Maelius 
meminisse, vi. 44, 49 
memoria, vi. 44, 49 
Menaechmum -mo, x. 38 ; Me- 

naechmi gemini, viii. 43 
mendicus, v. 92 
mens, v. 59 ; vi. 43-45, 48, 49 ; mens 

mentium mantes, viii. 67 ; mentes 

non menteis, F. 20 ; v. agitatus 
mensa, v. 118 ; vii. 43 ; v. escaria, 

urnarium, vasaria, vinaria 
mensis, v. 69 ; vi. 10, 33 ; mensium 

nomina, vi. 33 ; v. novus, lanu- 

arius, Februarius, Martius, 

Aprilis, Maius, lunius, Quintilis, 

Septembres, October, December 
menstruae, v. feriae 
mensura, ix. 67 ; mensura ae pon- 

dera, ix. 66 
menta, v. 103 


meo meas, ix. 109 

mera ( = sola), v. 76 

merces, v. 44, 175, 178 ; .vii. 52 ; 

viii. 19 ; merces non merceis, 

F. 20 
mergus, v. 78 

meridies, vi. 4 ; vii. 7 ; x. 41 
menila, v. 76 ; ix. 28, 55 (non mem- 

lus) ; merula merulae, x. 66 ; 

merulae vox, vii. 104 
Mesium rustici, non Maesium, vii. 

messor, viii. 57 
Metellus Metella, ix. 55 
meto metis, x. 31 ; meto raetam 

metebam, ix. 89 ; metendo, viii. 

Meto Metonis Metonem, ix. 89 
Mettius, V. Curtius 
metuere, vi. 48 ; metuit (non 

sperat), vi. 73 ; metuisti, vi. 45 
metus, vi. 45 
Mico, ix. 12 
miliariae (aves), v. 76 
miliariae (decuriae numerorum), ix. 

87 ; miliaria (vocabula), ix. 85 
miliens, ix. 88 
militare aes, v. 181 ; v. raudus ; 

militiiria, v. insignia, ornamenta 
milites, v. 89 ; milites aerarii, v. 

181 ; militis stipendia, v. 182 ; v. 

legio, tribuni 
milium, v. 76, 106 
mille milia, ix. 82, 85, 88 ; mille 

aeris, ix. 83 ; hi, hoc, huius, 

liorum mille, ix. 87, 88 ; haec duo 

milia, ix. 87 
Minervae, v. 74 ; aedes Minervae, 

vi. 17 ; 1'. lupiter 
Minervium, v. 47 
minima vocabula, viii. 79 
rainores, ix. 87 
minuendi (genus declinationis), vii. 

minusculae, v. Quinquatrus 
minuta opera, v. Myrmecidis 
miraculae, vii. 64 
miriones, vii. 64 
miser, v. 92 
mitra, v. 130 
moenere, v. 141 
moenia, v. 141 
moerus, v. 141 ; moeri, vi. 87 ; v. 



mola (sale et farre), v. 104 ; molae, 

V. 138 
monere, vi. 49 ; monerint, vii. 102 
mouimenta, vi. 49 
monitor, v. 94 
montes (Romae), v. 41 ; vi. 24 ; 

monte, F. 18 ; monti monte, ix. 

112 ; montes montis, viii. 66 ; t>. 

Albanus, Caelius, Cespius, Op- 

pius, Ripaei, Saturnius, Tarpeius 
morbus, v. quartus, septumus 
mors, V. vita 
mortales, v. 75 ; mortalia in locis, 

V. 57 
morticinum, vii. 84 
mortui lectus, v. lectus 
motacilla, v. 76 
motus, v. 11, 12 ; vi. 3, 4, 8 ; ix. 34 

(caeli) ; motus in mari, ix. 25 ; i'. 

mox, X. 14, 79, 80 
Mucialis collis, v. 52 
Mucionis porta, v. 164 
Hucius, Q., vi. 30; viii. 81; Muci 

et Bruti sedulitas, v. 5 ; Mucia, 

viii. 81 
Mugionis, v. Mucionis 
mugit, vii. 104 
mulgere, ^-i. 96 
muliebre, viii. 46, 51 ; muliebria, 

ix. 41, 48, 110, X. 30; nomina 

muliebria, viii. 36 ; v. locus, mun- 

dus, stola, tunica 
mulier, viii. 80 ; x. 4 ; mulieris, 

mulieribus, viii. 51 ; praenomina 

mulierum antiqua, ix. 61 ; v. 

antiqua, cum muliere 
multa, V. 95, 177 
multitude multitudinis, viii. 7, 14, 

36, 46, 48, 60, 66, 67; ix. 64-66, 

68, 69, 76, 81, 82, 84, 85, 87; x. 

28, 33, 36, 54, 56, 58, 59, 66, 83 ; 

multitudinis solum, ix. 63, x. 54, 

66 ; multitudinis vocabula, ix. 

64, 65 ; multitude verborum, vi. 

35, 40 ; V. copulae 
mulus mula, ix. 28 ; v. mutuum 
mundus, vi. 3; (=omatus mulie- 

bris), v. 129 ; v. intervallum, terra 
municipes, v. 179 
municipium, viii. 83 
munus, V. 141, 179 
muraena, v. 77 ; ix. 28, 113 
Murciae, v. Circus 


Murmecidis, v. Myrmecidis 

murmurantia litora, vi. 67 

murmurari, vi. 67 

murtatimi, v. 110 

Murteae Veneris sacellum, v. 154 

murtetum, v. 154 

murus, V. 143; v. ctrcum, moerus, 

postici, Saturnii, terreus 
Musa, ix. 63 ; Musae, vii. 20, 26, 

ix. 64 
musica, ix. Ill 
mussare, vii. 101 
mustela, ix. 113 
muti, vii. 101 
Muti, V. Mucins 
mutuum, V. 179 ; mutua mull, vii. 

Myrmecidis opera minuta, ix. 108 ; 

obscuram operam Myrmecidis, 

vii. 1 
mysteria, vii. 11, 19, 34 
mystica vada, vii. 19 

N, cf. M 

Xaevia Porta, v. 163 ; Naevia 
nemora, v. 163 

naevus, F. 13 

nanus, v. 119j 

narratio, vi. 51 

narro, vi. 51 

narus, \i. 51 

nascendi initia, v. 15 ; causa, v. 61 ; 
cf. V. 60, 70 

natare, viii. 74 ; ix. 71 

natator, v. 94 

natura, ix. 37, 38, 58, 62, 63, 70, 72, 
76, 78, 94, 101 ; X. 15, 17, 24, 41 
(quadruplex), 51-53, 55, 56, 60, 
61, 83, 84, F. 6 ; natura novenaria, 
octonaria, ix. 86 ; natiu^ ser- 
monis, viiL 25 ; natura verborum, 
viii. 43, X. 51, 74; naturae verbi, 
v. 2 ; naturarum genera, x. 28 ; 
V. copulae, gentilicia, infinitei, 

uaturalis, v. casus, declinatio, dis- 
crimen, genus 

naviculae ratariae, vii. 23 

navis longa, vii. 23 ; nave, F. 18 

Xeapolis (Xovapolis), v. 85 ; vi. 58 

necatus sum necor necabor, x. 48 

necessitas, viii. 31 

nefas, vi. 30, 31 

ne£asti, v. dies 



neraus nemora, v. 36 ; ix. 94 ; x. 8, 
60 ; V. Naevia 

neo nes, ix. 109 

Neptunalia, vi. 19 

Neptunus, v. 72 ; vi. 19 ; v. Salacia 

nequam, x. 79-81 

Nestor, viii. 44; Nestorem Xestoris, 
viii. 72, X. 70 ; Nestores Nestoras, 
X. 69 

neutnim, viii. 46, 51 ; ix. 41 ; x. 8, 
31 (neutra) ; F. 8 (genus) ; v. mas, 

nexus, nexum, vii. 105 

niger nigricolus nigellus, viii. 79 

nihil niliili, ix. 53 ; nihili nihilum, 
homo nihili (non hili), ix. 54, 
X. 81 

nobiles nobilitas, viii. 15 

Noctiluca, V. 68 (et eius templum) ; 
vi. 79 

noctua, V. 76 

noctulucus, V. 99 

Nola, Nolani, viii. 56 

nolo, X. 81 

nomen nomina, viii. 13, 14, 40, 45, 
53, 56, 80 ; ix. 40, 43, 52, 54, 89, 91 ; 
X. 20, 21, 27, 53, 54, 65, 80 ; nomen 
an vocabulum, viii. 40 ; nomen 
commune, ix. 89 ; nomen Lati- 
num, V. 30, 119 ; Latina nomina, 
vii. 109 ; nomina nostra, vi. 2, 
viii. 64, 84 ; v. deus, dies, Graecus, 
impositicia, lupiter, mensis, 
muliebre, Persarum, pisces, pro- 
prio, servile, servus, Syriacum, 
tralaticio, translaticium, virile 

nomenclator, v. 94 

nominandi casus, viii. 42 ; ix. 76, 
77 ; x. 23, 65 ; nominandi genus 
declinationis, viii. 52 ; v. casus 

nominare, vi. 60 

nominativus, x. 23 

nominatus, viii. 45, 52, 63 ; ix. 69, 
70, 95, 102; x. 18, 20, 21, 30; 
V. exitus, Graecanica, species 

Nonae, vi. 27-29; v. Caprotina, 

nonaginta, ix. 86, 87 

Nonalia .sacra, vi. 28 

nongenta, ix. 86, 87 

non hili, v. ilihil 

nonussis, v. 169 

nostri, v. 36, 100, 166 ; vi. 2, 6 ; vii. 
39, 87, 88 ; ix. 69 ; x. 71 ; nostra 


memoria, vi. 40 ; v. antiqua, 
colonia, consuetudo, deus, no- 
mina, provincia, sacerdotes, 
sacra, verba, vetus, vocabulum 

nothum (genus similitudinis), x. 
69 ; notlia (verba), x. 70 ; nothae 
declinationes, x. 71 

novalis (ager), v. 39 ; vi. 59 

nova luna, vi. 28 

Nova Via, v. 43, 164; vi. 24, 59; 
V. infima 

Novapolis, V. Neapolis 

novem, ix. 86, 87 

novenarius, v. natura, numerus 

Novendiales, vi. 26 

Novensides, v. 74 

novicius, vi. 59 ; novicii servi, viii. 6 

novitas, vi. 59 

novus annus, mensis, sol, vi. 28 ; 
sub Novis, vi. 59 ; novius novis- 
simum, vi. 59 ; novissimum ves- 
per, ix. 73 ; V. fabulae, nova luna. 
Nova Via, senex, verbum 

nox, vi. 6 ; x. 14, 41 ; v. dies, in- 
tempesta, silentium 

Numa, V. Pompilius 

numen, vii. 85 

Numerius (non Numeria), ix. 55 

numerus, ix. 66, 67, 81, 85 ; x. 65 ; 
numeri, ix. 65, 84, 87, x. 41, 43 ; 
numerus novenarius, ix. 86 ; de- 
narius, V. 170 ; duodenarius, v. 
34 ; centenarius, v. 88 ; numerus 
singularis, v. 169 ; numerus ver- 
borum, vi. 38, 39, viii. 3 ; numeri 
antiqui, ix. 86 ; flniti, x. 83 ; v. 
actus, decuriae, formula, gradus, 

nummi, v. 173, 174 ; ix. 80, 85 ; x. 
41 ; V. addici 

nuncupare, vi. 60 

nuncupatae pecuniae, vi. 60 

nuntium, vi. 86 

nuntius, vi. 58 

nuptiae, v. 72; vi. 70; vii. 28, 34; 
X. 66, 67 (non nuptia) ; v. ignis 

nuptu ( = opertione), v. 72 

nuptus, V. 72 

nutus, vii. 85 

nux, V. 102 

Nympha, v. lympha 

O exitus, X. 62 
obaeratus, viL 105 


obiurgat, vii. 93 

obliqui casus, viii. 1, 2, 6, 7, 16, 46, 

49, 51, 69, 74 ; ix. 43, 54, 70, 75- 

77, 79, 80, 89, 90, 103 ; x. ■22, 44, 

50-52, 58, 59 ; obliquae figiirae, x. 

53 ; obliqiiae declinationes, x. 44 ; 

obliqui versus, x. 43 
oblivia verba, v. 10 
oblivio, V. 5 ; vii. 42 
obscaenum obscenum, vii. 96, 97 
obscuritas verborum, vi. 35, 40 ; 

obscuritates grammaticonini, x. 

obsidium, v. 90 

occasus (solis), vi. 4, 5 ; vii. 7, 51 
ocimum, v. 103 
ocrea, v. 116 
October mensis, vi. 21 
octonaria, v. natiira 
odor olor, vi. 83 
odora res, vi. 83 
odorari, vi. 83 
odora tus, vi. 83 
offula, V. 110 
olea, V. 108 
olet, vi. 83 

oleum (non olea), ix. 67 
olitores, v. holitores 
oUtx)rum, v. Holitorium 
ollaner, v. olla vera 
oUa vera arbos, vii. 8 
ollicoqua, v. exta 
ollus olla, vii. 42 ; olla centuria, 

vii. 42 ; ollus leto datus est, 

vii. 42 
olor, V. odor 
olus olera, v. holus 
Olympiades, vii. 20 
Olympus, vii. 20 
omen, vi. 76 ; vii. 97 
omnicarpa, v. 97 
Opalia, vi. 22 
Opeconsiva, vi. 21 
opercula, v. 167 
operimenta, v. 167 
Opimia, v. Basilica 
opinio, V. 8 
oppidum, V. 8, 141 ; x. 20 ; oppiduni 

in circo, v. 153 ; oppida condere, 

V. 143 ; V. antiqua, Graecus 
Oppius Mons, v. 50 
Ops, V. 57, 64 (mater), 74 ; vi. 22 ; 

Ops Consiva (et eius sacrariiim), 

vi. 21 ; V. terra 

optandi species, x. 31, 32 ; in op- 

tando, ix. 32 
optimum, v. bonus 
optiones, v. 91 
opulentus, v. 92 
opus, v. 64 
oratio, vi. 64, 76 ; vii. 41 ; viii. 1 

(tripertita), 38, 44; ix. 9, 11, 30, 

32, 33, 35, 36, 45, 46, 48, 56, 112 ; 

X. 14, 42, 49, 55, 64, 65, 68, 77 

(vocalis), 79 ; oratio poetica, vi. 

97 ; oratio soluta, vi. 97, vii. 2, 

110, X. 70; V. partes, scientia 
orator, vi. 42, 76 ; vii. 41 ; viii. 26 ; 

ix. 5, 115 
orbis, V. 143 ; orbe, F. 18 
orchitis, v. 108 
Orcus, V. 66 ; vii. 6 
ordo, X. 67 ; ordo declinatuum, x. 

54 ; ordines transversi et derecti 

(pel directi), x. 22, 23, 43 
oriens, vi. 4 ; vii. 7 
origo, origines verborum, v. 3, 4, 6, 

7, 92, 166; vi. 1, 37, 97; vii. 4, 

47, 107, 109 ; viii. 58 ; origo duplex, 

vii. 15 ; origo nominatus, ix. 69 ; v, 

Graecus, locus, Lucana, poetica, 

Sabin\is, similitudo 
Orion, vii. 50 
ornamentum, vi. 76 ; ornamenta 

militaria, vii. 37 
ornatus (muliebris), v. 129, c/. v. 

oro, vi. 76 ; v. causam 
ortus, V. hortus 
ortus (solis), vi. 6 ; vii. 83 ; (Luci- 

feri), vii. 76 
OS exceptum, v. 23 ; ossa, v. Galli 
Osce, V. 131, F. 5. 8 
Osci, vii. 29, 54 ; Osca lingua, vii. 

28 ; Oscus Osce, F. 5. 8 
oscines, vi. 76 
o.sculura, vi. 76 

osmen ( = omen), vi. 76 ; vii. 97 
ostrea, v. 77 
ovile, viii. 18, (non ovarium) 54 ; 

ovilia, ix. 50 
ovillum pecus, v. 99 
ovis, V. 96 ; viii. 46, 54 ; ix. 76 (non 

ovs), 113; ovis ovi, %iii. 34; ovi 

ove, viii. 66 ; oves ovium, viii. 

70, ix. 26 ; v. peculiariae 
ovum, V. 112 
0X0, F. 24 



pa ( = patrem), vii. 27 

pabulum, viii. 51 

Paganalia, vi. 24 

paganicae (feriae), vi. 26 

pagus, vi. 26 ; v. Succusanus 

pala, V. 134 

Palanto, v. 53 

Palatina tribus, v. 56 ; regio, v. 45 ; 

Palatini, v. 53, 54 ; Palatinum, v. 

Palatium, v. 21, 53, 68 (Bal-), 164 
Palatua diva, vii. 45 
Palatuali.s flamen, vii. 45 
Pales, V. 74 ; vi. 15 
Palilia, vi. 15 
palla, v. 131 
Pallantes, v. 53 

pallium, v. 133, 167 ; viii. 28 ; ix. 48 
palma, v. 62 

palpetras, non palpebras, F. 23 
Paluda, vii. 37 
paludamenta, vii. 87 
paludatus, vii. 37 
palus, V. 26 
panarium, v. 105 
Pandana Porta, v. 42 
pandura, viii. 61 
panificium, v. 105 
panis, V. 105 ; pani.s pastillus pas- 

tillum, F. 10 
pannus, v. 114 
panther, v. 100 ; panthera, v. 100, 

(non pantherus) ix. 55, F. 3 ; 

pantherae, vii. 40 
Pantheris, v. 100 
panuvellium, v. 114 
Pappu.s, vii. 29, 96 
parapechia, v. 133 
Parcae, vi. 52 
Parentalia, vi. 23 
parentant, vi. 23 ; parentare, vi. 

13, 34 
parentum parentium, viii. 66 
paries, ix. 41 
Paris, vii. 82 ; viii. 80 ; Paris Pari, 

viii. 34 
parma, v. 115 
Parma (urbs), viii. 56 
Parmenses (non Parmani), viii. 56 
jjaro paretur parator, x. 32 ; pare 

paravi, F.-5. 6 
partes animae, ix. 30 ; partes ora- 

tionis, viii. 11, 38, 44, 53, x. 7, 

c/. vi. 36, viii. 48, ix. 31, x. 17 ; 


V. casuale, ex quadam, scaena, 

templum, urbs 
participalia, x. 34 
participia, viii. 58; ix. 110 
patella, v. 120 
patena, v. 120 
pater, v. 65 ; x. 41, 59 ; pater 

patres, viii. 48 ; pater familias, 

patres familias familianim, viii. 

73; patres ( = sena tores), vi. 91; 

V. Dis, Falacer 
paterae, v. 122 
patiendi, v. faciendi 
patricus (casus), viii. 66, 67 ; ix. 54, 

76, 85 ; cf. viii. 16 
patrius casus, F. 17 
Patulcium, vii. 26 
pauper, v. 92 ; pauper (sed non 

paupera) pauperrumus pauper- 

rima, viii. 77 ; pauper pauperior, 

F. 31 a 
pavet, vi. 48 
pavo, V. 75 
pavor, vi. 48 
pecten, v. 129 
pectere, vi. 96 
pectunculi, v. 77 
peciilatns, v. 95 
peculiariae oves, v. 95 
peculium, v. 95 
pecunia, v. 92, 95, 175, 177, 180, 

181 ; vi. 65, 70 ; pecunia debita, 

vii. 105 ; pecuniae signatae voca- 

bula, V. 169 ; v. nuncupatae 
pecimio.'^us, v. 92 ; viii. 15, 18 
pecus (pecoris), v. 80, 95, 110 ; vii. 

14 ; ix. 74 ; pecudem, v. 95 ; 

pecudis caro, v. 109 ; pecus ovil- 

lum, V. 99 ; v. ago 
pedem posuisse, v. 96 
pedica, V. 96 
pedisequus, v. 96 
peius, V, malum 
pelagus sermonis, ix. 33 
Peles, X. 69 
Pelium, vii. 33 
pellesuina, viii. 55 
pellexit, vi. 94 

pelliaria taberna non dicitur, viii. 55 
pellicula, vii. 84 
peloris, V. 77 
pelvis, V. 119 
penaria, v. 162 
Penates, v. deus 


pensio prima, secunda, etc., v. 183 
Percelnus Percelna, viii. 81 
perciU)uit, is. 49 
percutio percussi percutiam, is. 

perduelli-s, v. 3 ; ^ii. 49 
peregrinus, v. 3 ; peregrinus ager, 

V. 33 ; perpgrina vocabiila, v. 77, 

100, 103, 167 
Ijerfectum, ix. 100, 101 ; x. 48 ; 

perfect! (verba), ix. 96, 101, x. 

33, 48; perfecta, ix. 97, 99, x. 

48 ; i)erfectae res, ix. 32, 96 ; v. 

analogia, similitiido 
Pergama, vi. 15 ; Pergamum, viii. 

Pergamenus (non Pergamus -a), 

viii. 56 
pergendo ( = progrediendo), v. 33 
periacuit, ix. 49 
peripetasmata, v. 168 
peristromata, v. 168 
pema, v. 110 
perorat, vi. 76 
Perpenna, viii. 41, SI (non Per- 

pennus), ix. 41 ; x. 27 ; Marcus 

Perpenna, viii. 81 
Persarum nomina, viii. 64 
persedit, ix. 49 
perseverantia, v. 2 
persibus, ^ni. 107 
I^ersonae, verbi, viii. 20 (qui 

loqueretur, ad quern, de quo) ; ix. 

32, 95, 100-102, 108, 109; x. 31, 

32 ; V. copulae, secunda 
perstitit, ix. 49 
pertinacia, v. 2 
pervade, v. polum 
pes, V. 95 ; pes lecti ac betae, vi. 55 ; 

pes magnus, v. 95 ; v. pedem 
pessimum, v. malus 
phalera -am, x. 74 
phanclas, v. zanclas 
Phanion, F. 38 
Philippi caput, ix. 79 
Philolacho, ix. 54 
Philomedes -dfs, viii. 68 ; ix. 91 
philosophia, v. 8 
Phoenice, v. 31 
Phoenicum, v. Poenicum 
Phryx Phryge Phryges, ix. 44 
physici, v. 69 ; x. 55 
piacularis hostia, vi. 30 
piaculum, vi. 29, 53 

pila terrae, vii. 17 ; pila aequa, vii. 

pilani, v. 89 
pili in corpore, vi. 45 
pilum, v. 116, 138 
pingo pingis, x. 31 ; pingo plnxi, 

F. 5. 6 
pinnae, v. 142 
pinus, V. 102 

pipatus pullorum, vii. 103 
Pipleides, vii. 20 
pipulo, vii. 10a 
Piscarium Fonim, v. 146 
pisces, viii. 61 ; ix. 28, 113 ; piscium 

nomina, vii. 47 ; piscium voca- 

bula, V. 77 
pisciceps non dicitiu-, viii. 61 
piscina (non dicuntur piscinula pis- 

cinilla), ix. 74 
pistor pistori, x. 69 
pistrinum pistrina, v. 138 ; pis- 

trinum pistrilla, F. 10 
pistrix, v. 138 
placenta, v. 107 
platanus platani, ix. 80 
plaustrum, v. 140 
Plautius Plauti, viii. 36 
Plautus Plauti, viii. 36 
plebs, V. tribuni 
phut, ix. 104 
plumbea, ix. loio 
plumbum (non plumba), ix. 66 
plura, ix. 32 ; x. 31 
plusima, vii. 27 
pocillum, ix. 66 
poculum, vi. 84 ; viii. 31 ; pocula, 

V. 122 
poema non poematum, F. 21 ; poe- 

mata, vii. 2 ; poematorum, F. 21 ; 

poematis, vii. 2, 36, viii. 14, F. 21 ; 

poematibus, vii. 34 
poena, v. 177 
Poeni, V. 113, 182 , 
Poenicum, v. 113 ; Poenicum voca- 

bula, viii. 65 
poeta poetae, v. 22, 88 ; vi. 52, 58, 

67, 77, 83 ; vii. 36, 110 ; ix. 5, 17, 

65, 78, 115 ; X. 35, 42, 70, 73, 74 ; 

vocabula apud poetas, v. 1 ; 

vocabula a poetis comprehensa, 

V. 10 ; vocabula ^jetarum, vii. 1 ; 

poetanim verba, v. 7, 9 ; verba a 

poetis posita, viL 5 ; verba apud 

poetas, vii. 107 ; cf. poetica, vetus 



Poetelius lucus, v. 50 ; C. Poetelius 

Libo Visolus dictator, vii. 105 
poetica verba, v. 9 ; vii. 3 ; poetica 

analogia, x. 74 ; de pocticis ver- 

bornin originibus, vi. 97 ; lege 

poetica, vii. IS 
poetice, vii. 2 
poUuctiim, vi. .54 
Pollux, v. 58, 73 ; Polhices, v. 73 
polus, vii. 14 ; ix. 24 ; pervade 

polum, vii. 14 
Polybadisce, vi. 73 
polypus, V. 78 
pom ( = potissimuni), vii. 26 
poma, ix. 93, c/. v. 108 
pomerium, v. 143 
Pomona, vii. 45 
Pomonalis flamen, vii. 45 
Pompilius (Xuiiia), v. 157 ; vii. 4.5 ; 

Pompili regntim, vii. 3 ; Pompilio 

rege, v. 165 
pondera, v. mensura 
pons, V. 4, S3 ; ponte, F. 18 ; Pons 

Sublicius, V. 83, vii. 44 
pontifex, v. 180 ; vi. 61 ; pontiflces, 

vi. 26, 27, 54 ; pontufices, v. 83, 

vi. 61 
Poplifugia, vi. 18 
populus, v. 1, 35 ; viii. 6 ; ix. 5, 6, 

18, 114; X. 16, 74; v. inlicere, 

Latinus, magister, rex, Romanus 
porea, v. 39 
porcus, V. 97 
porrecta, v. exta 
porta, V. 142 ; v. lanualis, Laver- 

nalis, Mucionis, Xaevia, Pandana, 

Rauduscula, Romanula, Saturnia, 

Portiinalia, vi. 19 
Portunium, v. 146 
Portumis (et eius aedes), vi. 19 
portus, V. Tiberinus 
po8, V. 4 ; potes, v. 58 ; v. pons 
posca, V. 122 
positi\iis, F. 31 b 
posteriora (vocabula et verba), viii. 

postici muri, v. 42 
postilioneni postulare, v. 148 
postmoerium, v. 143 
Postumus, ix. bo' ; Postuma, ix. 61 
potatio, V. 122 ; vi. 84 
potens, V. 4 
potio, V. 122; vi. 84 


poto, vi. 84 ; poto potus sum, F. 5. 7 

Potoni filia, vii. 28 

praebia, vii. 107 

praeco, v. 15, 160; vi. 86, 87, 89, 

91, 95; vii. 42 
praeda, v. 178 ; viii. 19 
praedium, viii. 48 ; praedium -ii -io, 

viii. 63 ; praedia, v. 40, vi. 74, 

viii. 48 
praefica, vii. 70 
praelueidum, vii. lOS 
praemium, v. 178 
Praeneste, v. 32 ; vi. 4 
Praenestinus (ager), v. 32 
praenomina, ix. 60 
praes, vi. 74 ; praedes, v. 40 
praesens, viii. 20, 58 ; ix. 102, 104 
praesidium, v. 90 
praestigiator, v. 94 
praeteritum, viii. 20, 58 ; ix. 104 
praetor, v. 80, S7 ; vi. 5, 30, 89, 91 

c/. 93 ; viii. 72 (-toris -torem) ; x 

70 (-torem) ; praetores, vi. 29, 53, 
87, 91 ; praetor -tori, x. 2S ; prae- 
tor in Comitio supremam pro- 
nuntiat, vi. 5 ; praetor urbauus 
vi. 54 ; cf. pretor 

praetorium ius, vi. 71 

praeverbia, vi. 38, 82 

prandeo pi-ansus sum, F. 5. 7 

prata, V. 40 

pretium, v. 177 

pretor (rusticus), vii. 96 

Priamidae, viii. 19 

Priamus Priamo, viii. 3, 34 

prima pars casualis, v. casuale 

primigenia verba, vL 36, 37 

primo luci, vi. 92 

primo mane, v. mane 

principale genus, F. 9 

principes, v. 89 ; v. deus 

principium, x. 56, 60, 67 ; principia, 
vi. 38 ; X. 56 ; principium analo- 
giae, X. 61 ; principia verborum, 
vi. 37, 39, viii. 5, ix. 99 ; prin- 
cipia (declinatiomim), x. 11 ; 
principia mundi, x. 55 ; v. caelum ; 
cf. initia 

priora (vocabula et verba), viii. 12 

priscum vocabulum, vii. 26 ; prisca 
consuetudo, x. 70 ; Prisci Latini, 
vii. 28 ; priscae declinationes, x. 

71 ; prisca nomina, ix. 22 ; prisca, 
vii. 2 


pro (=ant«X vL 58 

probiis probi, F. 5. 6 ; probus 

probe, F. 5. 8 
procare, viL 80 

procedere, vii. SI ; processit, vi. 38 
proceres, F. 30 a, F. 30 b 
prodire, viL 81 
prodixit diem, vi. 61 
IM-oductio syllabarum {eel lltten- 

rumX V. 6 ; ix. 104 
profenatnm, vL 54 
prolaiumi, vi. 54 
profata, F. 28. 2 
professi, vi. 55 
Progne, v. 76 
proiecta, r. porrecta 
proUbitur, vi. 47 
prolocutiis, vi. 56 
jHWloquium proloquia, F. 28. 2, 6, 

7, 8 
prolubium, F. 4 
proludit, vi. 58 
Prometheus, v. 31 
promisee, F. 25 
pronomen, viii. 45 ; ix. 94 
pronuntiare, vi. 42, 58 
Propontis, vii. 81 
proportione vel pro portione, v. 

170, 181 ; viiL 50, 68, 78, 80, 83 ; 

ix. 27, 29, 30. 33, 48, 61, 62, 83, 

103, 110 ; X. 2, 9, 36, 37, 41, 42, 

47, 51, 65, 66, 68 ; proportionem, 

viii. 57 ; c/. ratio 
propc«itio, vi. 63, 76 ; v. {mtari 
proprio nomine, vi. 55, 78 
propter deitram sinistra, propter 

sinistram dextra, x. 59 
prosapia, -^-ii. 71 
proscaenium, \i. 58 
prosectum, v. 110 
proserpere, v. 68 
Proserpina, v. 68 
prosicium, v. 110 
prosns et rusns, x. 52 
protinam, viL 107 
Protc^nes, ix. 12 
proversus, viL 81 
providere, vi. 96 
provincia nostra, v. 16 
provocabula, viii. 45 
proximus a Flora clivus, v. 158 
prudens, viii. 15, 17 
psalterimn, viiL 61 
publici servi, v. libertiiii 

Publicius Clivos, v."-_158; Publicii 

aediles, v. 158 
pubUcus, V. honor 
Publius, V. Scipio 
pner, vii. 28 ; viiL 41 ; x. 4 ; puer 

puella, viii. 25, ix. 29 ; paeri, vL 

56, ix. 10, 11, 15, 16 
pnera, F. 37 

pugil, V. 94 ; pugiles, viiL 15 
pngnetur pugnator, x. 32 ; r. vol- 

polli, ix. 93 ; r. pipatus 
Pullius Clivtis, V. 158; Pullius 

viocnrus, v. 158 
pulmentarium, v. 108 
pulmentum, v. 108 
puis, V. 105, 107, 108, 127 
pulvinar, v. 167 
pulvini, ix. 48 
pongo pupugi pimgam, ix. 99; x. 

48 ; pongo pupugi, F. 5. 6 ; pnn- 

gebam pongo pungam, popoge- 

ram papogi pupugero, is. 99 
Punicom bellum, v. 159 ; Panicum 

malum, viL 91 
poppis puppes, viiL 66 
porgamentuin, v. februm 
porgare (Euniliam), v. 23 
purpura, V. 113 
pusus pusa, vii. 28 
putari, propositio potandi, vi. 63 
putator, vi. 63 

Puteoli, v. 25 ; PuteoUs, ix. 69 
putere, vL 96 

poteus, V. 25 ; vL 84 ; v. corona 
poticuli, V. 25 
pntidus, V. 25 
putiloci, V. 25 
putor, V. 25 
patmn, vL 63 
Pyrrhi bellum, viL 39 
Pythagoras (artifex), v. 31 
^iJUMH» tumulus, viL 17 

qoadraginta, x. 43 

quadrans, r. 44, 171, 172, 174 

quadrigae, vilL 56 ; x. 24, 67 ; quad- 
riga, X. 66 ; V. agitantur, initia 

qnadrbigenti, x. 43 

quadrini, viiL 55 

qoadripertitio, v. 11 ; vii. 5 ; e/. v. 
6, 12, viii. 50, ix. 31, x. 49 

quadruplex fons, x. 22 ; natura, x. 
41 ; analogia, x. 47, 48 



quadrupes, v. 34, 79 ; quadripedem 

-des, vii. 39 
quaerere, vi. 79 
quaesitores, v. 81 
quaestio, vi. 79 
quaestor, vi. 79, 90 ; viii. 72 (-tori.s 

-torem), x. 70 (-torem) ; quaes- 

tores, V. 81, vi. 90 ; v. Septu- 

mius, Sergius 
quando rex comitiavit fas, dies, vi. 

quando'stercum delatum fas, dies, 

vi. 32 
Quarta, ix. 60 

quarta chorda citharae, x. 40 
quarticeps, v. 50, 62 
quartus dies morbi, x. 46 
quattuor, ix. 64, 82 ; x. 43, 45, 49, 66 
querquedula, v. 79 
Querquetulanum, v. Lares 
qui, V. quis 
quinarii, v. 173 
Quinctius, vi. 2 ; v. Quintius 
quindecimviri, vii. 88 
Quinquatrus, vi. 14 ; minusculae, 

vi. 17 
quintanae (Nonae), vi. 27 
quinticeps, v. 50, 52, 54 
Quintilis, vi. 34 
Quintius Trogus, T., vi. 90, 92 
Quintus, ix. 60 ; Quintus -to, x. 51 ; 

V. Mucius 
quintus -ti -to -turn -te, viii. 63 
Quirinalia, vi. 13 
Quirinalis collis, v. 51, 52 ; flamen, 

vii. 45 
Quirinus, v. 73, 74 ; vi. 13 ; Quirini 

aedes, v. 52 ; Quirini fanum, v. 51 
quiritare, vi. 68 
Quirites, v. 51, 73; vi. 68, 86; 

omnes Quirites, vi. 88 
quirquir, vii. 8 
quis quae, viii. 45 ; x. 18, 30 ; quis 

quoius quae quaius, quis quoi 

qua quae, quern quis quos ques, 

viii. 50 ; qui quis quibus, viii. 72 ; 

qui homines, oportuit ques, viii. 

50 ; deae bonae quae, dea bona 

qua, viii. 50 
quod bonum fortunatum felix salu- 

tareque siet, vi. 86 

R exclusum, v. 133 ; R extrito, vii. 
27 ; R et D, vi. 4 ; c/. 8 


radix, v. 103; radices (nominum et 

verborum), v. 74, 93, 123, vi. 37, 

vii. 4, 28, 35, viii. 53 ; c/. v. 13 
Ramnenses, v. 55 ; Ramnes, v. 55, 

81, 89, 91 
rana, v. 78 ; rana ranuncuhis, F. 10 
rapa, v. 108 
rape rapito, x. 31 
rams raro rarenter, sed non rare, 

F. 5. 8 
rastelli, rastri, v. 136 
ratariae naviculae, vii. 23 
ratio, vi. 39, 63 ; viii. 57, 67, 72, 79, ■ 

83 ; ix. 2, 6, 8, 9, 13, 15, 16, etc. ; 

X. 1-3, 15, 36, 37, 41, 43, 82, etc. ; 

ratio analogiae, x. 54 ; ratio 

casuum, x. 14 ; ratio derecta, 

transversa, x. 43 
ratis, vii. 23 
ratiti quadrantis, v. 44 
raudus, aes, v. 163 
Rauduscula (Porta), v. 163 
rauduseuhim, v. 163 
Reatinus ab Reate, viii. 83 ; ager 

Reatinus, v. 53 ; Reatinum, vi. 5 
recentes (declinationes), x. 71 
recessit, vi. 38 
reciproca, vii. 80 
reciprocare, vii. SO 
recordari, vi. 46 
rectus casus, v. 4 ; vii. 33 ; viii. 1, 

4, 6, 7, 16, 36, 42, 46, 49, 51, 53, 

68, 69, 74 ; ix. 43, 50, 54, 70, 71, 

75, 76, 85, 90, 102, 103 ; x. 8, 22, 

44, 50-52, 58-60; v. casus, nomi- 

recum, vii. 26 
redux, ix. 78 
regia, vi. 12, 21 
Regina, v. luno 
regio regiones (Romae), v. 45-54 ; v. 

caelum, CoUina, Esquilina, Pala- 

tina, Suburana 
regula, F. 20 ; regula numerorum, 

ix. 86 
reliquum, v. 175 
reloqui, vi. 57 
reminisci, vi. 44 

Remus, v. 54 ; viii. 45 ; v. Romulus 
reno (Gall.), v. 167 
repotia, vi. 84 
res, V. animalis, creperae, discrimen, 

fatales, genus, homo, initia 
respicio, vi. 82 


respondendi, x. 31, 32 ; (species), x. 
31, 32 

rcspondet, vi. 69 ; respondere, vi. 
72 ; respondere ad spontem, vi. 
"2 ; v. species 

restibilis ager, v. 39 

restipulari, v. 182 

restis restes, viii. 66 

rete, v. 130 

reticulum, v. 130 

reus, vi. 90 ; reus reei, viii. 70 

rex regi, vi. 12, 13, 28, 31 ; x. 47 ; 
ad regem conveniebat populus, 
vi. 28 ; ferias rex edicit populo, 
vi. 28 ; V. Attalus, Aventinus, 
Demetrius, Hostilius, initia, 
Latinus, Pompilius, quando, re- 
cum, Romulus, Tatius, Tiberinus, 

Rhea, v. 144 

Rhodius ab Rhodo, viiL 81 

rica, V. 130 

ricinium, v. 132, 133 

Ripaei montes, vii. 71 

rite, vii. 88 

ritu, vii. 88 ; v. Alcyonis, Etrusco, 
Graecus, Romanus 

Robigalia, xi. 16 

Robigo, vi. 16 

rogandi (species), x. 31, 32 

Roma, V. 33, 41, 45, 51, 56, 74, 101, 
143, 144, 157, 164 ; vi. 15-17, 32 ; 
vii. 10 ; viii. 18, 56, 83 ; ix. 34 ; x. 
15, 16, 20 ; Roma non Romula, 
viii. 80, ix. 50 ; Romae -am -a, x. 15 

Romanula Porta, v. 164 ; ^i. 24 

Romanus, viii. 18, 83 ; x. 16 ; 
Romanus ager, v. 33, 55, 123 ; 
Romanus populus, vL 86 ; Romano 
ritu, V. 130, vii. 88 ; Romani, vi. 
25, vii. 3, viii. 56 (non Ro- 
menses), 83 ; Romanorum liberti, 
viii. 83 ; Romana stirps, v. 144 

Romilia tribus, v. 56 

Romulus, V. 9, 33, 46, 54, 55, 144 
149; viii. 18, 45, 80; ix. 34, 50 
X. 15 ; Romulo -i -um, ix. 34 
Romulus et Remus, v. 54 ; aedes 
Romuli, V. 54 

Romus, V. Romulus, v. 33 

rorarii, vii. 58 

rosa, v. 103 

Rostra, v. 155 ; vi. 91 

rosus, V. rusus 

nidentum sibilus, v. 7 

rudet, vii. 103 

nifae (mulieres), vii. 83 

ruminalis ficus, v. 54 

runcina, vi. 96 

runcinare, vi. 96 

ruo ruis, ix. 109 

mm, v. 40 ; nire, (Joe.) F. 19, (cM.) 

F. 26 
rustici, V. 177 ; \i. 68 ; vii. 73, 84, 

1*6 ; rustica instnimenta, v. 134 ; 

V. pnjtor, Virailia 
rusus, V. prosus 
nita, V. 103 
ruta caesa, ix. 104 
rutilare, vii. 83 
nitili rutilae, vii. 83 
rutrum, v. 134 
rutimda stagna, v. 26 

S : R, \ii. 26 ; 8 demptum, ix. 44 ; 
8 detritum, v. 136 ; 8 extritum, 
vii. 97 ; r. C, G, L 

Sabine, v. 159 

Sabinus (ager), v. 123 ; Sabina 
lingua, V. 66, c/. 74 ; origo 8abina, 
vii. 28 ; Sabinum belliun, v. 149 ; 
Sabinum vocabulum, v. 107 ; 
Sabini cives, v. 159 ; Sabini, v. 
32, 41, 68, 73, 74, 97, 107. vi. 5, 
13, 28, vii. 29, 46, 77; Sabinae 
virgines, vi. 20 ; fana ^bina, vi. 
57 ; V. Ciirtius, dies 

sacellum, v. 152 ; r. Argei, lupiter. 
Lares, Murtea, Strenia, Vela- 
brum, Volupia ; aliquot sacra et 
sacella, vii. 84 

sacer, vii. 10 ; v. dies, sacra, vas 

sacerdos, sacerdotes, v. 83 ; vi. 16, 
20, 21, 23 (nostri), 24 ; vii. 44 ; v. 

sacerdotiilae, v. 130 

sacra nostra, vi. 13 ; v. Argei, 
Bacchus, camem, Xonalia, sacel- 
lum, tuhae, tubicines 

Sacra Via, v. 47, 152 ; r. caput 

sacrae aedes, vii. 10 

sacramentum, v. 180 

sacraria, r. Argei, Ops Consiva 

sacrificia, v. 98, 124 ; v. Argei 

sacrifieo sacrificor, sacrificabo, sa- 
crificaturus aut sacrificatus sum, 
ix. 105 ; in sacrificando deis v. 



saepius, v. semel 

sagum (Gall.), v. 167 

sal, V. niola 

Salaeia Neptuni, v. 72 

Salii, V. 85 ; vi. 49 

sallnae, viii. 48 

sallere, v. 110 

salsiim salsius salsissimum, viii. 75 

.saltus, V. 3(5 

Salus, V. 74 ; aedes Salutis, v. 52 

Balutaris coUis, v. 62 ; salutare, v. 

quofl bonum 
salutator, viii. 57 

saluto salutabiini salutabo, viii. 20 
Samnites, v. 142 ; vii. 29 
Samnium, v. 29 
Samothraces, v. 58 ; dii, v. 58 ; 

Samothracum initia, v. 58 
Samotliracia, v. 58 ; Samothrece, 

vii. 34 
.sanctum sancta, vii. 10, 11 
Sancu.s, v. 6(5 
saperda, vii. 47 
sapien.s .sapientior sapientis.simus 

•ma, viii. 78 
sapio sapivi et sapii, F. 35 
sarcuhim, v. 134 
sardare, vii. 108 
sartum, vi. 64 

satio, vi. 26 ; sationes, ix. 27 
Saturnalia, v. 64 ; vi. 22 
Saturnia (antiqtuim oppidum), v. 

42 ; Saturnia Porta, y. 42 ; Satur- 
nia terra, v. 42, 45 
Saturnii rauri, v. 42 ; Saturnii ver- 
sus, vii. 36 
Saturnius mons, v. 42 
Saturnus, v. 57, 64, 74 ; vi. 22 ; 

Saturni aedes, v. 42, 183 ; Saturni 

fanum, v. 42 ; v. Lua 
satus, V. 37 
saxum, V. Tarpeius 
sciabellum, v. 168 
.scaena scena, vii. 96 ; x. 27 ; partes 

scaenae, ix. 34 ; v. coroUae 
scaenici, vi. 76 ; scaenioi poetae, ix. 

scaeptrum, v. sceptrum 
scaeva, vii. 97 ; scaeva avi, vii. 97 ; 

bonae scaevae causa, vii. 97 
Scaevola, vif. 97 
scalae, ix. 63, 68, 69 (non scala), x. 

54 ; scalae -is -as, x. 54 ; scala 

-am, X. 73 


s(3alpere, vi. 96 

.scamnum, v. 168 

scauripeda, vii. 65 

Sceleratus Vicus, v. 159 

scena, v. s(3aena 

.scenici, v. s(jaenici 

.sceptrum, vii. 96 

.schoenicolae, vii. 64 

scientia, v. 8 ; scientiam orationis, 

ix. 112 
Scipio, P., vii. 31 ; ix. 71 
Scipionarii gladiatores a Scipione 

(potius quam Scipionini), ix. 72 
.scirpeis, vii. 44 
scobina, vii. 68 
scopae, viii. 7, 8 ; x. 24 
scortari, vii. 84 
scorteum scortea, Ail. 84 
scortum, vii. 84 
.scratiae, vii. 65 
scribae, vi. 87 
scribo, vi. 37 ; viii. 12, 25, 44(.scribo 

scribens) ; ix. 102 ; x. 33 ; scribone 

scribisne, x. 31 
scriptito, X. 33 

scriptor, viii. 57 ; scriptores, ix. Ill 
scrupea, vii. 6, 65 
scrupipedae, vii. 65 
scutum, v. 115 ; viii. 45 
se ( = dimidium), v. 171 
secessio, v. Cnistumerina 
seclum, vi. 11 ; seculum, v. 5 
seculae, v. 137 
Secunda, ix. 60 
secunda persona, ix. 108 
sedeo, vi. 37 ; sedetur, vi. 1 
sedes, v. 128 
sedile, v. 128 ; (non sediculum), 

viii. 54 
seditantes (non dicitur), viii. 60 
sedulitas Muci et Brnti, v. 5 
seges, V. 37 ; vi. 16 ; ix. 28 
segestria, v. 106 
selibra, v. 171 
sellae, v. 128 

semel et saepius, vi. 75 ; x. 33 
semen, v. 37 

sementis, vi. 26 ; sementes, v. 37 
sementivae feriae, vi. 26 
seminaria, v. 37 
semis, v. 171, 173, 174 ; x. 38 
semis tertius, etc., v. 173 
.semita, v. 35 
.semo<lius, v. 171 


semuncia, v. 171 

senaculum, v. 15«) 

senattis, F. 5. 9 ; senatus senatuis 

senatui, F. 17 
senecta, v. 5 

senescendi homines, vi. 11 
senex, \-iii. 25, 41 ; x. 4 ; F. 31 a, 

F. 31 b ; senes niniium noTtim 

verbxim vitabant, vi. 59 
senior, x. 4, F. 31 a, F. 31 b 
sentior nemo dicit, F. 5. 9 
septem chordae citliarae, x. 46 
septem monies, vi. 24 
septem stellae triones, vii. 74 ; c/. 

Septem bres Kalendae, vi. 20 
septemtrio, vii. 7 ; v. circulus 
septimanae (Xonae), vl. 27 
Septimatnis, \i. 14 
Septimontiuni, v. 41 ; vL 14 
Septumius quaestor, v. 1 ; viL 109 
septumus dies morbi, x. 46 
septunx, V. 171 
sepulcrum, v. Acca, gleba, Tiber- 

inus ; ad sepulcrum ferunt fron- 

dem et flores, vii. 24 
sera, vii. 108 
Serapis, v. 57 
serare, vii. 108 

Sergius, M'., M'. f. quaestor, vi. 90 
series, ix. 97, 100 ; series casuum, 

ix. 77 ; -series perfecti, ix. 100 ; 

series vocabuli, x. 82 
sermo, ^i. 63 ; viii. 25, 37 ; ix. 1, 19, 

107 ; .sermones Jjatini, viii. 3, 30 ; 

V. natura, pelagus 
sero sens, x. 31 ; seritume sere- 

turne, x. 32 
serpens, v. 68 
serperastra, ix. 11 
serpere, v. 68 
serpyllum, v. 103 
serta, vi. 64 

ser^-ile nomen, viii. 10 ; v. deiis 
Ser\nus, v. Tullius 
servus, viii. 10 ; servu-s serve, x. 51 ; 

servonmi nomina, viii. 21, 83, 

ix. 22, c/. x. 84 ; liberorum servi 

nomina, ix. 22, 55, 59 ; v. fitna, 

novicius, publici, societms 
sesquisenex, vii. 28 
sessio, viii. 54 
sestertius, v. 173 
.sex, X. 49 

Sexatrus, vi. 14 

sextans, v. 171, 172 • 

sexticeps, v. 50, 52, 54 

sextula, V. 171 

Sextos, ix. 60 ; v. Aelius 

sextus casus, qui est proprius 
Latinus, x. 62 ; c/. viii. 16 

sexus, viii. 46 

sibilus, V. mdentum 

Sicilia, vii. 86 

Siculi, V. 101, 120, 173, 175, 179 

sidera, vii. 14 

signiticatio, ix. 40 ; cf. vii. 1 

signum candens, vii. 14 ; signa, vii. 
14, 50, 73 (in caelo), 74, ix. 24, 
78, X. 46 (morbi), 64 ; v. lanus 

silentium noctis, vi. 7 

siliquastrum, v. 128 

silurus, vii. 47 

simbella, v. 174 ; x. 38 

simile similia, viii. 34, etc. ; ix. 92, 
etc. ; X. 1, etc. ; simile dissimile 
neutrum, x. 5 

simillimi, v. gemini 

similitudo, viii. 25, 28, 29, 31, 37, 
39, etc. ; ix. 1, 26, 46, 53, etc. ; 
X. 1, 72, etc. ; similitudo perfecta, 
X. 12 ; .similitudo decltnationis, 
X. 76, 77 ; declinationum, viii. 24 ; 
verbi, x. 76 ; vocis rel sonitus, 
vi. 45, 52, 67, 75, 84, etc. ; simili- 
tudo confiisa in verbis temporali- 
bus,ix. 108 ; similitudo verbomm, 
ix. 1 ; similitudiniuu forma, viii. 
24 ; genera, x. 9, 13, 69 ; origo, x. 
11, 13 ; ratio, ix. 8, x. 11 : species, 
X. 13 ; V. adventicium, animan- 
tium voces, nothum, vemaeulum 

similia, ix. 92, etc. 

similixulae, v. 107 

simplicia (verte), vi. 37 ; viii. 61 ; 
ix. 97 ; simplices analogiae, x. 68 ; 
res, X. 24 

simpuium, v. 124 

sine sponte sua, vi. 72 

singularis -re -res -ria, vii. 33 ; viii. 
60, 66; ix. 50, 60, 63-65, 6S, 69, 
80-82, 86, 87; x. 28, 33, 36, 54, 
56, 57-60, 62, 65, 83; singularis 
natura, i. 83 ; res, x. 66 ; voca- 
buli series, x. 82 ; singulares 
figurae, x. 58 ; casus, x. 59, 60 ; 
sing\ilaria solum, viii. 48, ix. 63 ; 
singulare verbum, ix. 53 ; singu- 



lare vocabiilum, ix. 57, 69 ; v. 

singiili (homines), ix. 5, 6, 18, 114, 

115; X. 74; singula, ix. 32 
sinistra, v. anspicinni, propter 
sinum, v. 123 ; ix. 21 
sirpando (=alliganclo), v. 137 ; sir- 
pa tur, V. 139 
sirpata dolia, v. 137 
sirpea, v. 139 
sirpices, v. 136 
sirpiculae, v. 137 
siser, viii. 48 
sisto, F. 36 
sisymbrium, v. 103 
siti, F. 18 
socer soceri, ix. 91 ; socer socenim, 

X. 28 ; socer socnis soceros so- 

crus, X. 82 
societas verbonim, v. 13 ; vi. 40 ; 

societatum servi, viii. 83 
sodalis et sodalitas, x. 39 ; Sodales, 

V. Titii 
Sol, V. 68( = Apollo), 74 ; ix. 24, 25 ; 

de sole, v. 59 ; solis motus, vi. 4, 

8 ; V. novus, occasus 
sola terrae, v. 22 
solarium, vi. 4 
solea, ix. 113 

soleo solitus sum solui, ix. 107 
solium, v. 128 
solstitium, vi. 8 ; ix. 24, 25 ; c/. cir- 

solu solum, vi. 2 
soluta, V. oratio 
solvunt ( = luunt), v. 137; v. luo, 

sonant (arma), vi. 67 
sonitus, vi. 84 ; v. similitudo 
sonus vocis, vi. 84 
sorbeo, vi. 84 
sors, v. 183 ; vi. 65 ; sortes, vi. 65, 

vii. 48 
sortilegi, vi. 65 
species, vi. 36 ; viii. 57 ; x. 13, 18, 

79 ; species aninialium, x. 4 ; 

nominatus, x. 21 ; usuis, x. 73 ; 

declinatuum (imperandi, optandi, 

personarum, respondendi, ro- 

gandi, temporalis), x. 31-33, e/. 

ix. 32 ; V. dieclinatus 
specillum, vi. 82 
specio, vi. 82 ; x, 18, 21, 79 ; specere, 

V. 129, vi. 82, V. avis 


spectare, vi. 82 

spectio, vi. 82 

specula, vi. 82 

speculator, vi. 82 

speculor, vi. 82 

sjjeculum, v. 129 ; vi. 82 

sperat, vi. 73 ; sperata, vi. 73 

spes, vi. 73 ; c/. v. 37 

spica, vi. 45 ; spicae, v. 37 

spiceret, vii. 12 

spondere, vi. 69-72 

sponsa, vi. 69, 70 

sponsalis, vi. 70 

sponsio, vi. 70 

sponsor, vi. 69, 74 

sponsu, vi. 69, 70, 73 ; v. ago ; 

sponsu alligatus, vi. 71 
sponsus, vi. 70 ; vii. 107 
sponte, vi. 69, 71-73 ; v. respondere, 

sine sponte 
spumae, v. 63 
Spurinna, x. 27 
stadium, v. 11 
stagnum, v. 26 
stamen, v. 113 
status, V. 11 
statuti dies, vi. 25 
stercum stercus, vi. 32 
sternere, vi. 96 
stillicidium, v. 27 
stipare, v. 182 
stipatores, vii. 52 
stipendium, v. 182 ; v. milites 
stips, V. 182 
stipulari, v. 182 
stirps, V. Romanus ; stirpes non 

stirpeis, F. 20 
stiva, V. 135 
sto, vi. 37 
stola muliebris, viii. 28 ; x. 27 ; cf. 

ix. 48 
stragulum, v. 167 
strangiilare, vi. 96 
Streniae sacellum, v. 47 
strenuitas, viii. 15 
strenuus, viii. 17 ; strenui, viii. 15 
strettillare, vii. 65 
stribula, vii. 67 
strigile, F. 18 
stringere, vi. 96 
strittabillae, vii. 65 
strittare, vii. 65 
strues (non strus), struis -em -i, 

viii. 74 ; ix. 79 


stultus stultior stultissimiis, ix. 72 

sub divo, V. divum 

sublecti, vi. 66 

subliciiis, V. pons 

sub Xovis, V. no\'us 

subsellium, v. 12S 

subsidium, v. 89 

subsipere, v. 128 

sub tect», V. 66 

subtemen, v. 113 

subucula, V. 131 ; ix, 46 

subulo, vii. 35 

Subura, v. 48 

Suburana regio, v. 45, 46 ; tribus, 

v. 56 
succanit, vL 75 
successit, vi. 38 
succidia, v. 110 
Succusa, V. 48 
Succusanus pagus, v. 48 
sucus, V. 102, 109 ; ix. 93 
sudis, V. 77 
sudor, V. 24 
sueris, v. 110 
sufflbulum, vi. 21 
suile, viii. 54 
suilla, V. 109 
sulcus, V. 39 
sum fui ero, ix. 100 ; esum es est 

eram eras erat ero eris erit, ix. 

100 ; fiieram fui fuero, ix. 100 ; 

siet, vi. 86, vii. 66, ix. 77, c/. 

adsiet ; v. cum muliere 
Summanus, v. 74 
summum (contentionis), viii. 78 
suo suis, X. 7 ; suit suit, x. 25 
supellex, viii. 30, 32 ; ix. 20, 21, 46, 

supera loca, v. caelum 
supercilia, v. 69 
suppanis, v. 131 
suprema, vi. 5 ; supremum, vi. 5, 

vii. 51 
surdus, -a, ix. 58; surdum thea- 

trum, ix. 58 
surenae, v. 77 
surgere, r. mane 

surus -o -e, \-iiL 68 ; surus -i, x. 73 
sus, v. 96 ; suis, x. 7 ; sue, viii. 54 ; 

sues sed non suium, viii. 70 
suspicio, vi. 82 
susum versus, ix. 65 ; susus versus, 

V. 158 
sutor, v. 93 ; sutor sutori, x. 69 

sutorium, v. atrium 

sutrina (ars), v. 93 ; (taberna), viii. 

syllaba, viii. 72 ; ix. 51, 52, 71 ; x. 

7, 19, 57, 81 (extrita); syllaba ex- 

trema, ix. 44, 109, x. 32, 57; v. 

adiectio, commutatio, correptio, 

detrectio, productio 
syncerastum, vii. 61 
Syracusis, v. 151 
SjTi, ix. 34 
Syria, v. 16 
Syriacum nomen, v. 100 

tabema, viii. 55 

tabemola, v. 47, 50 

tabulae, v. censorium 

Tarenti, v. 31 

Tarpeius mons, v. 41 ; Tarpeia 
(\Trgo), v. 41 ; Tarpeium saxum, 
V. 41 

Tarquinius Sxiperbus, v. 159 

Tartarinus, viL 37 

Tartarus, vii. 37 

Tatius rex, v. 46, 51, 55, 74, 149, 
152 ; \-i. 68 ; arae Tati regis vote 
dedicatae, v. 74 

Taurii ludi, v. 154 

taunis, v. 96 

tectum, V. deierare 

tegete, F. 18 

t^ius, V. 110 

Tellus, V. 62, 67 

temo, ^'ii. 73-75 

tempestas, vii. 51 (suprema), 72 

tempestiva, vL 3 

tempestutem, vii. 51 

templum, vii. 6-10, 12, 13; templi 
partes, vii. 7 ; v. Acherusia, Ceres, 
Diana, effari, XoctUuca, Volcania 

templiun tescumque, templa tes- 
caque, vii. 8 

temporalis (species), x. 31 ; «. ver- 

tempus, V. 11, 12; vi. 3; vii. 80; 
viiL 12 ; ix. 73, 108 ; tempora, v. 
184, vL 1, 3, 36, 40, 51, 52, 65, 97, 
^ii. 5, 72, 110, viii. 11, 20, 44, 
58, ix. 31, 32, 34, 73, 89, 95, 96, 
98, 101, 104, X. 7, 17, 31, 32, 34, 
41, 47, 48 ; temporum vocabula, 
V. 10, vi. 1, 35 ; t;. futurum, 
praesens, praeteritum 

tener tenerior, tenerrimus, viii. 77 



tera, v. 21, 22 ; v. terra 

Terentius Terentii (pJ.). ix. 38, 60; 

Terentius Terentium, ix. 38 ; 

Terentius Terentia, viii. 7, 14, ix. 

55, 59 ; Terentium genus, ix. 59 ; 

Terentii casus, ix. 54 ; Terentiei 

Terentiae Terentieis, viii. 36 
tergiis, V. tegus 
terinien, v. 21 
teritorium, v. 21 
termen, v. terimen 
Terminalia, vi. 13 
Terminus, v. 74 ; termini, v. 21 
terra, v. 16, 17, 21-25, 31, 34, 36, 39, 

61) ; vil. 17 ; ix. 38 ; terra, x. 62 ; 

Terra, v. 57-60, 64 ( = Ops), 65 

( = Iuno), 67, 69 ; terra mater, v. 

64 ; terrae loca infera, v. 16 ; 

terra mundi media, vii. 17 ; v. 

Calydonius, pila, Saturnia, 

Thraeca ; c/. tera 
terrestris, v. animalia 
terreus murus, v. 48 
temmcius, v. 174 
Tertia, ix. 60 
terticeps, v. 50, 62 
tesca, vii. 8, 10-12 
testuaciuni, v. 106 
testudo, V. 79, 117, 161 
tetrachorda, x. 46 
Teucer, vii. 3 
texta fasciola, v. 130 
theatra, vi. 83 ; v. surdus 
Thebris( = Tiberis), v. 30 
Thelis(=Thetis), vii. 87 
Tlieona, viii. 41 ; ix. 42 
thesaurus, vii. 17 
Thespiades, vii. 20 
Thraces, vii. 43 
Tliraeca terra, v. 14 
thrion, v. 107 
thynnus, v. 77 ; vii. 47 
Tiberinus (deus), v. 29, 71 ; Tibe- 

rinus rexLatinorum, v. 30 ; Tibe- 

rini sepulcrum, v. 30 ; Tiberinus 

portus, vi. 19 
Tiberis, v. 28-30, 43, 54, 71, 83, 146 ; 

vi. 17 ; vii. 44 ; v. Tliebris, cis 

Tiberim, uls Tiberim 
tibiae, viii. 61 
tibicines, vi.-17, 75 ; vii. 35 (Tusci) ; 

viii. 61 
Tibur, viii. 53 ; ix. 34 
Tiburs, viii. 53 ; Tiburtes, ix. 34 


tigris, V. 100 

Tigris (flumen), v. 100 

^mor, vi. 45 

tinguere, vi. 96 

Titanis, vii. 16 

Titan, v. Coeus 

Titienses, v. 55, 89, 91 

Titii sodales, v. 85 

Titium tribus, v. 81 

toga, V. 114; viii. 28; ix. 48; toga 

praetexta, vi. 18 
toral, V. 167 
torpedo (piscis), v. 77 
torus tonilus, v. 167 
trabes trabs, vii. 33 ; x. 56, 57 
tragoediae, vi. 55 ; x. 70 ; i'. Tuscus 
tragoedus, ix. 55 ; v. ago 
tragula, v. 115, 139 
traiectio litterarum, v. 6 
tralaticio nomine, vi. 55 ; c/. trans- 

tralatum, vi. 77 ; vii. 23, 103 ; x. 71 
trama, v. 113 
trames, vii. 61 
transitus de casu in casum, viii. 39 ; 

X. 28,' 51-53, 77, cf. x. 29; trans- 
itus declinationis, x. 77 
translaticium nomen, v. 32 ; trans- 

laticium verbum, vi. 64 ; trans- 

laticia verba, vi. 78 ; c/. tralaticio 
transversus, vii. 81 ; v. ordo 
trapetes, v. 138 
tremo, vi. 45 ; tremuisti timuisti, 

vi. 45 
tres tria, ix. 64 ; x. 49, 67, 83 
tressis, v. 169; ix. 81, 83, 84; hi 

tresses, hoc tressis, ix. 81 
triarii, v. 89 
tribulum, v. 21 
tribuni aerarii, v. 181 ; militum, v. 

81, 91 ; plebei, v. 81, vi. 87 ; 

plebis, vi. 91 
tribus, v. 35, 55, 56, 81, 91 ; i'. Col- 

lina, curatores, Esquilina, Pala- 

tina, Romilia, Suburana, Titium 
tributum, v. 181 
tricessis, v. 170 
tricliniaris gradus, viii. 32 ; tri- 

cliniares mappae, ix. 47 
triclinium, ix. 9, 47 ; v. aestixiim, 

triens, v. 171 
trigae, viii. 55 
trigona, vii. 75 


trini, viiL 55 ; trinae trina, is. 64 ; 

trinae, x. 67 ; ». copulae 
; iones, vii. 74, 75 
iripertita, v. 10 ; tripartite, v. 35 ; 

V. oratio 
triplicia, viii. 46 
triporteuta, viL 59 
tritavus, vii. 3 
triticum, v. 106 ; ix. 27 
trittiles, vii. 104 
tritura, v. 21 
triumpliare, \i. 68 
triumviri capitales, v. 81 ; tudicium 

triumvirum (non -viromniX ix. 85 
Trivia, viL 16 
trivium, vii. 16 
trivolum, p. tribulum 
Trogus, f. Quintius 
Troia, vii. 38 
Troianus equus, vii. 38 
trua, V. 118 
truleum, v. 118 
trulla, V. 118 

trutina (per tnitinam sohi), v. 183 
tryblia, v. 120 
tubae tubi, r. 117 ; tubae sacroruin, 

vi. 14 
tubicines, v. 91 ; vi. 75 ; tiibicincs 

.sacrorum, v. 117 
Tubulustrium, vL 14 
tueri, tueri villain, vii. 12 
Tullia Tarqnini Superbi uxor, v. 

Tullianum, v. 151 
TuUius rex, v. 49, 151 ; Serrins 

Tullius rex, vi. 17 
Tullius et Antouius consules, viii. 

tumulus, V. Pythonos 
tundo tundam tutudi, ix. 99 ; tun- 

debam tundo tundam, tutuderam 

tutudi tutudero, tutudi tundo 

tundam, x. 48 ; timdo tutudi, 

F. 5. 6 
tunica, v. 114; viii. 28; ix. 79; 

tunica ferrea ex anulis, v. 116 ; 

tunica virilis et muliebris, ix. 48, 

X. 27 
turdarivim, \i. 2 
turdelix, vi. 2 
turdus, v. 77 ; vi. 2 ; ix. 28, 55 (non 

turma, v. 91 
turres, v. 142 ; turre, F. 18 

Tuscanicum, v. 161 

Tusce, F. 5. 8 

TuscuJanus ager, vii. 18 ; Tuscn- 
lani, ^-L 14 ; Tusculanae portae, 
vi. 16 

Tuscus dux, V. 46 ; Tusci, v. 32, 
161, vi. 28, 35, ix. 69; Tuscus 
Tusce, F. 5. 8 ; tragoediae Tiiscae, 
V. 55 ; vocabula Tusca, v. 55 ; 
Vicus Tuscus, V. 46 

tussi, F. 18 

Tutiliiiae loca, ▼, 163 

tutulati, ^ii. 44 

tutulus, vii. 44 

U producere, ix. 104 ; U longum, 
breve, ix. 104 ; U exitus, x. 62 ; 
US : EI, ix. 80 ; r. E 

udor, V. 24 

udus uvidus, v. 24 

Ufenas (non Ufenius), viii. 84 

uliginosus (ager), v. 24 

ullaber, r. olla vera 

uls Tiberim, v. 83 

ulula, V. 75 

ululantis (luporum vox), viL 104 

umbilicus, viL 17 

umbones, v. 115 

umbra (piscis), v. 77 

Umeri, vii. 50 

imcia, V. 171, 172, 174 

ungo ungor, x. 33 

unguentaria tabema, viii. 55 

unguentum -ta, ix. 66, 67 

unguis ungula, F. 10 ; ungues, v. 77 

universa, x. 84 

unoculi, vii. 71 

unus -ius -i -um -e -o, viii. 63 ; unus 
-a -um, ix. 64, X. 24 ; uni -ae -a, 
ix. 64 ; una -ae, x. 24, 67 ; imiun, 
ix. 87, X. 30, 41, 43, 45, 49; uni 
(pJ.), \iiL 55 ; unae et binae, viiL 7 

upupa, v. 75 

uraeon, v. 76 

urbanus, viii. 18; urbanus exer- 
citus, vL 93 ; urbani, vi. 68 ; r. 
auspicium, praetor 

Urbinas, viii. 84 

Urbinius, \-iii. 84 

urbs, V. 28, 41, 43, 97, 151, 158 ; vL 
17, 18, 24, 28, 68, 93 ; vii. 44 ; ix. 
68 ; urbes non urbeis, F. 20 ; 
antiqua urbs, v. 48, vL 24 ; urbis 
loca, v. 45 ; urbis partes, v. 56 ; 



urbes, v. 143 ; urbes condere, v. 
143 ; in Urbe Lucili, v. 138 

urinare, v. 126 

urinator, v. 126 

urnae, v. 126 

urnarium (genus mensae), v. 126 

uro uror, x. 33 

ursi, V. 100 ; vii. 40 

urvuni, V. 127, 135 

usura, V. 1S3 

usus (communis), viii. 28, 30, 31 ; 
ix. 7, 20, 37, 38, 56-60, 62, 63, 67- 
71, 74; X. 72, 73, 83, 84; usus 
loquendi, ix. 6, x. 74 ; usus vetus, 
X. 78 ; V. copulae, species 

uter utrei, ix. 65 

utilitas, viii. 26-29, 31 ; ix. 48 

uvae, V. 104 

uvidus, V. 24, 109 

uvor, V. 104 

V, V. 117 

vagit (haedi vox), vii. 104 

valentes glebarii, vii. 74 

vallum ( = murus), v. 117; ( = van- 
nus), V. 138 

valvata, viii. 29 

varietas, ix. 46 ; (casuuni), x. 62 

vas vadis, vi. 74, F. 15 

vas vasis, F. 15 ; vas aquarium, v. 
119; vas argenteum, ix. 66; vas 
vinarium, v. 123 ; vasa, viii. 31, 
ix. 21 ; vasa aenea, v. 125 ; vasa 
in mensa escaria, v. 120 ; vasa 
sacra, v. 121 

va.saria mensa, v. 125 

vates, vii. 36 

vatia, ix. 10 

vaticinari, vi. 52 

Vatinius Vatiniorum, viii. 71 

vectes non vecteis, F. 20 

Vediovis, v. 74 

vehiculum, v. 140 

Veientes, v. 30 

Velabrum, v. 43, 44 ; vi. 24 ; minus 
et maius, v. 156 ; Velabrum sacel- 
lum, V. 43 

velaturam facere, v. 44 

Velia, Veliae, Veliense, v. 54 

Velinia, v. 71 

Velini lacuS, v. 71 

vellere lanam, v. 54 

velli( = villi), v. 130 

vellus, v. 130 ; vellera, v. 54 


venabulum, viii. 53 

venator, v. 94 ; viii. 53 

Veneria, v. corolla 

Venilia, v. 72 

venor venans venaturus venatiis, 

viii. 59 
venter, v. Faliscus ; ventres non 

ventreis, F. 20 
ventilabrum, v. 138 
Venus caeligena, v. 62 ; Libentina, 

Libitina, vi. 47 ; victrix, v. 62 ; 

Veneris vis, v. 61 , 63 ; dies lovis 

non Veneris, vi. 16 ; e spumis 

Venus, V. 63 ; Aprilis a Venere, 

vi. 33 ; Veneri dedicata aedes, vi. 

20 ; lucus Veneris Lubentinae, 

F. 4 ; V, Murteae 
ver, V. 61 ; vi. 9 
verberatus sum verberor verbera- 

bor, X. 48 
verbex, v. 98 
verbum, x. 77, etc. ; verba, viii. 11, 

12, 53, 57, etc., ix. 56, 89, etc., 
F. 34 ; verbum temporale, viii. 

13, 20, 53, ix. 95, 108, 109 ; verba 
quae tempore adsigniflcant, vi. 
40 ; verba aliena, v. 10 ; antiqua, 
v. 9 ; concepta, vii. 8 ; declinata, 
vi. 37, ix. 115 ; verba facere, vi. 
78 ; verba Acta, v. 9 ; inclinanda, 
X. 13 ; interpolata, v. 3 ; Latina, 
V. 120, vi. 96, vii. 3; verba 
nostra, v. 10, x. 71 ; verba ob- 
livia, V. 10 ; primigenia, vi. 36, 
37 ; verborum novorum et ve- 
terum discordia, v. 6 ; verborum 
cognatio, v. 13, vi. 1 ; coUatio, 
viii. 78 ; copia, viii. 2 ; formulae, 
X. 33 ; materia, x. 11 ; societas, 
V. 13 ; V. discrimen, duplex, 
figura, forma, genus, Graecus, 
impositio, infecta, multitude, 
natura, numerus, obscuritas, 
origines, perfectum, personae, 
poeta, poetica, principium, radix, 
similitudo, simplicia, transla- 
ticium, vernacula 

Vergiliae, vi. 6 ; vii. 50 

vernacula verba vel vocabula, v. 3, 

77, 104 ; vi. 40 ; similitudinis 

genus vernaculum, x. 69 
versu, X. 62 ; versus obliqui, x. 43 ; 

V. ^turnii, vieri 
veru, v. 127 ; cf. v. 98 


vesper, vi. 6 ; vii. 50 ; vesperi, ix. 

73 ; vespere, ix. 73 ; v. novus 
Vesperugo, vi. 6, 7 ; vii. 50 
Vesta, V. 74 ; vi. 17 ; Vestae aedes, 

vi. 32 
Vestales virgines, vi. 17, 21 ; virgo 

Vestalis Tarpeia, v. 41 
Vestalia, vi. 17 
vestibulum, vii. 81 
vestigator, v. 94 

vestimentiim -ta, ix. 20, 48 ; x. 72 
vestis, V. 130 ; veste, F. 18 
vestispica, \\\. 12 
vestitus, V. 105 ; viii. 28, 30 ; c/. 

viii. 31, ix. 45 
Veturi, ». Mamuri 
Vetiirii Cicurini, vii. 91 
vetus vetiistius veterrimum, vi. 59 ; 

vetus consuetiido, v. 2, ix. 13, 

20, 21, X. 73 ; Forum Vetus, vii. 

29 ; veteres leges abrc^tae, ix. 

20 ; veteres, v. 14, 52 (poetaeX 98 

(nostri), vii. 32 ; vet«ra, x. 73 ; 

Vetera vocabula, ix. 20 ; v. Aescu- 

lapii, Capitolium, Curia, verbum 

•tustas, V. 3, 5 ; vi. 2 
1 exillum, vi. 93 
via, V. 8, 22, 35 ; vii. 15 ; v. no\T», 

viales, v. Lares 
Vibenna, v. Caeles 
vibices, vii. 63 
vicessis, v. 170 

Victoria, v. 62 ; caeligena, v. 62 
victoriatus, ix. 85 ; x. 41 
victrix Venus, v. 62 
victus, V. 105 
vicus, V. 8, 160 ; vici, v. 145 ; r. 

Africus, Cyprius, Insteianus, 

Sceleratus, Tuscus 
video, vi. 80 ; tu domi vldebis, viu 

12 ; vide, vii. 12 
vieri (=vinciri), v. 62; versibus 

viendis, vii. 36 
vigilant, vi. 80 
vigiliuni, \\. SO 
viginti, X. 41, 43, 45 
villae, v. 35 
villi, V. velli 
V^iminalis Collis, v. 51 
Viminius lupiter, v. 51 
Vinalia, v. 13 ; \\. 16 ; nistica, 

vi. 20 
vinaria mensa, v. 121 ; tabema, 


viiL 55 ; rasa, v. 123 ; vinarium 

tmleum, v. 118 
vinciri, v. 62 
vinclum, v. 62 
vinctio, V. 61 
vincttira, v. 62 
vindemia, v. 37 ; vi. 16 
vindemiator, v. 94 
vineae, v. 37, 117 
vineta, v. 37 
vinum, v. 13, 37 ; vi. 16 ; vinum 

vina, ix. 66, 67 ; v. Chio, flamen, 

viocurus, v. 7, 158 
\iola\it virginem, vi. 80 
violentia, v. 70 
vir, viii. 80 ; ix. 85 ; x. 4 ; vireis, 

viii. 36 ; r. centiunvirum, decem- 

Tirum, quindecimviri, triumviri 
virago, vii. 37 
virgo virgines, v. Sabimis, Tarpeius, 

Vestales, violavit 
virgultum, v. 102 
viride, V. 102 
virile virilia, viii. 46, 51 ; ix. 41, 48, 

81, 110; X. 8, 21, 30; nomina 

virilia, viii. 36, x. 65 ; nomen 

Tirile, viii. 81, ix. 40, i. 65 ; 

V. tunica ; c/. genus 
virtus, T. 73 
vis, v. 37, 61, 63, 70, 102; vi. 80; 

viii. 7 ; haec vis, huius vis, bae 

vis, F. 16 ; V. Venus, vita 
visenda, vi. 82 
visere, v. inlicium 
Visolus, V. Poetelius 
visus, vi. 80 
vita a vi, v. 63 ; vita et mors, v 

11 ; r. decemunt 
vitio manumissus, creatus magis- 

tratus, vi. 30 
vitis, V. 37, 102 
Vitula, vii. 107 
vitulantes, vii. 107 
vitulus, V. 96 ; vituli, ix. 28 ; vituli 

vox, vii. 104 
vivices, v. vibices 
vivo non vivor, x. 78 ; vivatur vive- 

retur, x. 32 
vix, viii. 9 ; x. 14, 79, 80 
vocabulum vocabula, vi. 56 ; viii. 

11, 12, 40, 45, 52, 53, 56-59, 61, 64, 

71, 75, 78, 79, 80 ; ix. 1, 9, 21, 34, 

41, 5<)-o2, 54, 55, 57, 58, 62, 63, 



66-68, 71, 74, 77, 78, 85, 88, 90 ; x 
6, 20, 23, 24, 3u, 47, 51, 54, 81-83 
vocabulum Latiniim, v. 29, 68 
priscum, vii. 26 ; vocabula a For- 
tuna, V. 91 ; Aegyptiorum, viii 
65 ; aquatilium animalium, v. 77 
artificum, v. 93 ; barbara, viii 
64 ; dierum, vi. 12 (civilia), 33 
vocabula ex Graeco sumpta 
F. 14 a, F. 14 b ; vocabula fera 
mm, v. 100; Gallica, v. 167 
Gallorum, viii. 65 ; vocabiila im 
ponenda, vi. 3 ; lectulonim, v 
166 ; litterarum Latinarum, ix 
51 ; locorum, v. 10 ; magnitu 
dinis, viii. 79 ; mensium, vi. 33 
miliaria, ix. 85 ; multitudinis, ix 
64-66, 68, 69 ; vocabula nostra, 
viii. 65 ; pecimiae, v. 169 ; pis 
cium, V. 77 ; Poenicum, viii. 65 
temporum, v. 10, vi. 1, 35 ; voca 
bula Tusca, v. 55 ; Vetera, ix. 22 
V. casus, figura, Graecus, homo, 
impositio, peregrinus, poeta; 
Sabinus, series, singularis, ver 

vocalis, V. oratio 

vocandi casus, viii. 42, 68 ; ix. 43, 
91 ; X. 31 ; c/. viii. 16 

vocare, v. eomitiatum, inlicium 

Volaminia, v. Volumnia 

Volcanalia, vi. 20 

Volcanalis flamen, v. 84 

Volcania templa, vii. 11 
Volcanus, v. 70, 74 ; vi. 20 
volgus, v. 58 
volo (vis et volas), vi. 47 ; ix, 103 ; 

X. 81 
volpes, v. 101 

volsillis pugnare, non gladio, ix. 33 
Volturnalia, vi. 21 
Volturnalis flamen, vii. 45 
Volturnum (oppidum), v. 29 
Volturnus (amnis), v. 29 ; vi. 21 ; 

vii. 45 
volucres, v. 75 ; ix. 28 ; volucrum 

vox, vii. 104 
Volumnia, v. Lucia 
voluntarius -a -um, v. declinatio, 

declinatus, genus 
voluntas hominum, ix. 34 ; x. 15, 

51 ; cf. voluntarius 
Volupiae sacellum, v. 164 
voluptas, viii. 31 
vomer, v. 135 
Vortumnus, v. 46, 74 
vox voces, \iii. 40, etc. ; ix. 38, 40, 

42, 52, 55, 70, 88 ; x. 7, 19, 29, 30, 

36, 63, 66, 68, 69, 72, 77, 82 ; v. 

animantium, declinatus, tigura, 

lupus, similitudo, sonus 

X, cf. 08, OS 

Xerxes, vii. 21 

zanclas, v. 137 



References are to Book (Roman numeral) and Section (Arabic number), 
and to Fragment (F.) and serial number (Arabic), with subdivisions. 

aya06v, v. ^; 

aypov, V. 34 

aywf, vi. 12 

act Of, vi. 11 

aleta^ai, \i. 9 

«uwKo, vi. 11 

oAfiUoKov, vii. 82 

oAjcvwi', V. 79 ; vii. 88 

afia^av, viL 74 

ififiuyt^, V. 115 

ififXytiv, vi. 96 

ofi^'^to, V. 78 

a(>a'yapyapi^«r0<i(, ri. 96 

avaXoyia, X. 37, 39 ; avoAoyuu*, 

X. 39 ; avaXoyiai, Viii. 23 
ai« Aoyof, viii. 32, 5o ; x. 2, 37 
afaXoyov X. 37, 38, 39 
avSpi li.a\fTai, vii. 82 
iyrofucTiKov, ix. 24 
afniceifieva, F. 28. 13 
atmitoy, v. fioirov 
aKTtX^wf HvOayopa, vii. 17 
iyvfiaXuiv, vii. 23 ; r. wtpi ay^ 
aiim^a, F. 28. 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 12 
' AfUarapxoVi vL 2 
appafUav, V. 175 
aoTopayof, V. 104 

PapfiapiKa, r. iw^itfui 
/toi>s, V. 96 
potltTtiv, %ii. 74 

yavtramK, F. 14 a ; F. 14 b 
ytpyfpa, v. 76 
y«pov<rta, v. 156 
ynitrcu, vi. 84 
•yiyv«T<u, vi. 96 

Sofia^eiv, vi. 96 

SeiKvviit, vi. 61 

teviirray, v. 123 

2e^^<rai, vi. 96 

Ato, vL 4 

Stf^fxrffifyov a^Utfia, F. 28. 13 

AtoiTKopoi', V. 66 

Atwco, vi. 2 

2o^(A, V. 175 

Sorttov, V. 175 

Sa<rtr, v. 175 

Svivrot, v. 0<oi 

Stirivr), V. 175 

«a«, vi. 84 

<V0oA^, vii. 108 

cXoux, V. 108 

(»7)1' Koi pf'ov, vi. 10 

(yrtpoy, V. tv^ok 

'Epfi^, F. 14 b 

fpptiy, vii. 96 

iairipa, vL, 6 

ia-irf/Hov, vii. 50 

iinrtpov, vL 6 

«Tv/ioXoyuu', V. 2 

<Tv/ioAoytic^, vii. 109 ; tjTjio- 

AoYuci}!', v. 1 
cTvfioAoyoK, V. 29 
irviLov, x'u 83 : viL 82 ; etviia, 

vi. 40, 51, viL 2, 45, 82 

%., vi. 9 

9«Ot jvWITDt, V. 58 

©f'Ti9, vii. 87 
BpiaiL^, \i. 68 

i«c, \-i. 96 
iToAof , V. 96 
It», vi. 96 



KaC, vi. 10 ; V. eiTji» 
Kavovv, V. 120 
Kanpoi, V. 101 


KepKrjSrii, v. 79 
KXinreiv, vii. tH 
Koti'Ttoi', vi. 2 
Ko^iavSpov, V. 103 
KoyAi'as, F. 14 a, F. 14 b 
Kpavov, V. 105 
Kv\lKeLO}f V. 121 

KiufxuSt'a, vii. 89 
Ka>^ov, vii. 89 

AaTpov, vii. 52 

Aetpi'w, v. 103 

\eKTpov, V. 166 

AtTTopi»', v. 101 

AevKirfvov, vi. 2 

A^flrj, vii. 42 

Ai;i(/na<rflat, vi. 96 

Adyoi/, X. 2, 37, 39 ; v. ava A- ; c/. 

logoe, X. 43 
Au'xi'Oi', V. 119 

fioLKeWov, /xaKeAAa, V. 146 
/liaiceAAwTas, V. 146 
lia\dcrcrfLV, vi. 96 
ixa^dx") ixa\d)(ri, V. 103 
/uaAoi/, V. 102 
liaTTvr), V. 112 
judxerat, r. av&pi 
fLeXCvT), V. 106 
/leVa, V. 118 
fii^fes, vi. 10 ■ 
fijji/T), vi. 10 


Hopiav, V. op\iv 
piv, vii. 101 
ftupatva, V. 77 

vioLV, V. evriv 

vefjLT], V. 36 

v6p.ip.a Pap^apiKOL, vii. 70 

i/vp.ij>okrJTrTovi, viii, 87 

Kiif, vi. 6 

ois, V. 96 
bp.<j>a\6u, vii. 17 
bp.uii>vp.ta, ix. 80 

OTrio-edSo/iioi', V. 160 
opxiv nopicLv, v. 108 

napaSie^evypevov, F. 28. 14 

irapoip^iav, vii. 31 

TreVceii', vi. 96 

Trept tti'tojixaAtaSj ix, 1 

Trepl TToAoi', vii. 4 

Trepl (rr]p.aLvop,iviav, v. 2 

nepiiTTv\ov, viii. 29 

TTJjyai'Oi', V. 103 

TToAos, vii. 14 ; V. nepC 

IloAuSevKT)?, v. 73 

TTOpicr), v. 97 

TTopicos, v. 97 

7rdro9 7r6ra>, v. 122 ; Troror, vi. 84 

npoParov, V. 96 

Trpofiop.oi', v, 160 

irpo'iSelv, vi. 96 

llvOayopa, I'. ai'Tixflcoi' 

TTv0e<TOa.i, vi. 96 

TrvTafiov, V. 25 

Triireoi', v. 25 

pdifiavov, V. 103 
pvKavyj, vi. 96 

(Trjixaivoixevuiv, V, jrepl <rr)- 
trifTvp^piiay V, 103 
o-fcatai', vii. 97 
(TicaAeueu', vi. 96 
(TTfyatnpov, v. 166 
(TTeyi'df, V. 26 
«TTAeyyt'^etc, vi. 96 
(rrAeyyi's, vi. 96 
o-Toi^ij, v. 182 
arpayyaXau, vi. 96 
o'Tpwi'i'uei»', vi. 96 
a'vp.Tr€Tr\eyfidiroi', F. 28. 10 
<Tvvrip.p.euov a^Ciaixa, F. 28. 9 
trvvutfvp.Cas, ix. 90 

Taupos, v. 96 
Te'yyetv, vi. 96 
Te'pjuoca, V. 21 
Tpu/3Aioi', V. 120 
Tpv-qK-qv, V. lis 
7v^\ov ejrepoi/, ^^ 111 

5s, V. 96 

xapTT)?, F. 14 a, F. 14 b 
Xoprof, V. SS 

<j>fpeTe, vi. 96 
^eperpov, V. 160 
(j>peap, V. 25, 81 
ii>(ot dyafldi/, vi. 4 

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